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OPENING AT GETTYSBURG - REYNOLDS KILLED.
the right, as if his intended point of | aid, and the enemy was beaten off. concentration were Gettysburg also. A similar dash was simultaneously But, in fact, foreseeing that Lee must made on the train of another column give battle, he had issued a timely of our cavalry at Littlestown, but address to his officers," and was mov- easily repulsed. Meantime, Gen. ing circumspectly east of north, look- Buford, with another division, had ing for advantageous ground whereon moved directly upon Gettysburg; to fight, and had about fixed on the where he encountered the van of line of Pipe creek, some 15 miles the Rebel army, under Gen. Heth, south-east of Gettysburg, when an un- of Hill's corps, and drove it back on expected encounter precipitated the the division, by whom our troopers grand collision.
were repelled in their turn. And now Gettysburg, the capital of Adains the advance division of Gen. Reycounty, is a rural village of 3,000 in- nolds's (1st) corps, under command habitants, the focus of a well-culti- of Gen. J. S. Wadsworth, approachvated upland region. Though long ing from Emmitsburg, quickened its settled and blessed with excellent pace at the familiar sound of volleys, country roads, all centering on the and, rushing through the village, borough, much of it is too rugged for drove back the Rebel van, seizing cultivation; hence, it is covered with and occupying the ridge that overwood. The village is in a valley, or looks the place from the north-west. rather on the northern slope of a hill; Gen. John F. Reynolds, formerly with a college and other edifices on of the Pennsylvania Reserves, was the opposite hill, which rises directly in command of the two corps (1st from the little run at its foot. and 11th) now rapidly coming up,
Part of our cavalry advance, un together numbering about 22,000 der Gen. Kilpatrick, pushed out men. As Gen. Wadsworth was formfrom Frederick,moving north-west ing his advance division, 4,000 strong, through Liberty and Taneytown to in order of battle, Gen. Reynolds Hanover, Pa., where they were con- went forward to reconnoiter, and, seesiderably astonished” by an attack ing that the enemy were in force in from Stuart's cavalry—not imagin- a grove just ahead, he dismounted ing that there was any enemy within and was observing them through a a march of them. A sharp fight en- fence, when he was struck in the neck sued, wherein Gen. G.F.Farnsworth's by a sharp-shooter's bullet, and, fallbrigade was at first roughly handled, ing on his face, was dead in a few losing 100 men; but Gen. Custer's, minutes. Born in Lancaster, in 1820; which had passed, returned to its entering the army in 1846; he had 97 " HEADQUARTERS ARMY OF THE POTOMAC, I at our success would give to every soldier of this
“ June 30, 1863. 5 army. Homes, firesides, and domestic altars, are " The commanding general requests that, pré- involved. The army has fought well heretoforo; vious to the engagement soon expected with tho it is pelieved that it will fight more desperately enemy, corps and all other commanding officers and bravcly than ever, if it is addressed in fitting will address their troops, explaining to them terms. Corps and other commanders are author. briefly the immense issues involved in the strug ized to order the instant death of any soldier gle. The enemy are on our soil; the wholo who fails in his duty this hour. country now looks anxiously to this army to de “ By command of Maj.-Gen. MEADE: liver it from the presence of the foe; our failure
"S. WILLIAMS, Assistant Adj.-Gen.” to do so will leave us no such welcome as the swelling of millions of hearts with pride and joy | 28 June 28.
June 30. July 1.
served his country in Mexico, in Cali- he was joined by the residue of his fornia, and in nearly every important corps ; the 11th coming up almost action yet fought in Virginia; re-simultaneously and taking post on turning to fall in defense of the soil his right; Howard ranking Double of his native State, and almost in day and assuming command, assignsight of his home.
. ing the 11th corps to Schurz. Here Gen. Abner Doubleday came up the struggle was renewed with spirit; half an hour afterward, and assumed our men having the better position, command; but the residue of the and the best of the fight; until, corps, with the whole of the 11th, about 1 P. M., Ewell's corps, marchdid not arrive till nearly two hours ing from York under orders to conlater; meantime, the Rebels, under centrate on Gettysburg, came rapidly Hill, were too strong, and pushed into the battle-Rhodes's division back Wadsworth's division, eagerly assailing the 11th corps in front, pursuing it. As Wadsworth fell back while Early's struck hard on its with his left, and Archer pressed for- right flank. Of course, being greatly ward on his heels, the right of our outnumbered, the 11th was soon routdivision swung around on the rear of ed, falling back in disorder on Getthe pursuers, enveloping the Rebel tysburg, and compelling the 1st, advance, and making prisoners of which had hitherto fully held its Archer and 800 of his men.
own, to do likewise—the two divi. Doubleday fell back to Seminary sions, under a heavy Rebel fire, comridge, just west of the village, where mingling and obstructing each other
HANCOCK AND SICKLES REACI GETTYSBURG. 379 in the streets of the village, and thus teries to hold Emmitsburg, he put losing heavily in prisoners. Their the rest of his corps in rapid motion wounded, who had thus far been taken for Gettysburg; arriving just after to Gettysburg, were of course aban- Howard had taken post on Cemetery doned to the enemy, as the débris of hill, and coming into position on his the two corps, scarcely half the num- left. As he came up the Emmits ber that had marched so proudly burg road, he might have been asthrough those streets a few hours be- sailed by Hill's forces, holding the fore, fell hastily back and were ral- ridges on his left; but the enemy lied on Cemetery hill, just south of were satisfied with their day's work, the village: Buford, with his troopers, and did not molest him. covering the retreat, and trying to Gen. Meade was at Taneytown, show a bold front to the Rebels; who when, at 1 P. M., news came that there —though there were still several was fighting at Gettysburg, and that hours of good daylight—did not see Gen. Reynolds had been killed. He fit to press their advantage: presum- at once ordered Hancock to turn ing that our whole army was moving over his (2d) corps to Gibbon, hasten hitherward, and fearing that they himself to Gettysburg, and take commight miscalculate and suffer as Rey- mand there; which was done: Hannolds had just done.
cock reaching Cemetery hill at 3} And they were right. For Gen. P. M., when the rear of our broken Sickles, with his (3d) corps, which 1st and 11th corps was retreating in had advanced, the day before, from disorder through the village, hotly Taneytown to Emmitsburg, and had pursued by the triumphant foe. there received from Meade a circular Howard having already formed a dito his corps commanders, directing a vision on Cemetery hill, Hancock orconcentration on the line of Pipe dered Wadsworth to post his, or what creek—the left of the army at Mid was left of it (1,600 out of the 4,000 he dleburg, the right at Manchester- had led to battle in the morning) on had been preparing to move, as di- Culp's hill, at our right; while Gen. rected, to Middleburg, when, at 2 Geary, with the advance division of P. M.," he received a dispatch from Slocum's (12th) corps, then coming Howard at Gettysburg, stating that up, was directed to take position on the 1st and 11th corps were there en- high ground toward Round Top, on gaged with a superior force, and that our left. Meade had hurriedly reReynolds had been killed; thereupon, quested Hancock to judge whether calling urgently for assistance. Gettysburg afforded us better ground
Sickles was perplexed. Meade was for a battle than that he had selected at Taneytown, ten miles away; and on Pipe creek; and Hancock now to wait to hear from him was to leave (4 P. M.) sent word that he would Howard to his fate. Sickles had hold on here until Meade could arbeen moving on Gettysburg till halt- rive and judge for himself. But ed by Meade's new circular; and he Meade had already impelled the 2d decided that he ought to persist now; corps, under Gibbon, toward Gettys80, leaving two brigades and two bat burg. Hancock wrote him that the
31 July 1.
urg, where it arrived, wederwood's Marylanders, " 10.000 men.
position here was good, but liable to ours. Of the entire Rebel army that be turned by way of Emmitsburg. had crossed the Potomac, scarcely a Slocum having arrived at 7, and rank- regiment was wanting when Pickett's ing Hancock, the latter turned over division, forming the rear-guard, came the command, as he had been in- up on the morning of the 2d. structed to do, and rode back to On our side, Sickles's (30) corps Meade, whom he reached at 9 P. M.; held the left, opposite Longstreet, when he was told by Meade that he supported by the 5th (Sykes's); with had decided to fight at Gettysburg, Hancock's (2d) in our center, touchand had given orders accordingly." ing its right; while what was left of Both started for Gettysburg immedi- Howard's (11th), rëenforced by 2,000 ately, arriving at 11 P. M.
Vermonters, under Stannard, and During that night, our army was Reynolds's (1st, now Doubleday's) all concentrated before Gettysburg, corps held the face of Cemetery hill, save Gen. Sedgwick's (6th) corps, looking toward Gettysburg and Earwhich was at Manchester, 30 miles ly's division, but menaced also by distant, when, at 7 P. M., it received Johnson's division on its right, and orders to move at once on Taney- by Hill's corps, facing its left. The town; which were so changed, after 12th corps (Slocum's) held our exit had marched 7 or 8 miles, as to treme right, facing Johnson's divirequire its immediate presence at sion of Ewell's corps, and had reGettysburg, where it arrived, weary cently been strengthened by Lockenough, at 2 P. M. next day." wood's Marylanders, 2,500 strong;
Meantime, Lee also had been bring. raising it to a little over 10,000 men. ing up his several corps and divis- Buford's cavalry, pretty roughly hanions, posting them along the ridges died on the 1st, was first sent to the north and west of Gettysburg and its rear to recruit, but confronted Sturivulet, facing ours at distances of art on our extreme right before the one to two miles. Longstreet's corps close of the 2d; Kilpatrick's division held his right, which was stretched being posted on our left. considerably across the Emmitsburg Meade had resolved to fight a deroad; the divisions of Hood, Mc- fensive battle; beside, as Sedgwick's Laws, and Pickett posted from right strong corps (15,400) had not yet to left. Hill's corps, including the come up, while the whole Rebel divisions of Anderson, Pender, and army might fairly be presumed presHeth, held the center; while Ewell's, ent, it was not his interest to force composed of Rhodes's, Early's, and the fighting. Yet he had given orJohnson's divisions, formed the Rebel ders to Slocum, commanding on our left, which bent well around the east right, for an attack on that wing side of our position, making the ene with the 12th, 5th, and 6th corps so my's front considerably longer than soon as the 6th should arrive; but SICKLES WORSTED BY LONGSTREET.
32 Gen. Butterfield, chief of staff, testifies that prudent general might very well forecast and Meade directed him to make out, next morning, | mark out his line of retreat, even while resolved a General Order of retreat from Gettysburg, pre- to hold on to the utmost. It does not appear scribing tho route of each corps. Meade vehe- that Meade told either of his corps command. mently denies that he ever intended to retreat. ers that he had any notion of retreating. These statements seem nowise incompatible. 'Al July 2.
batteries on one such withdrawal would he spoke, the
very eager to night Meade was not) drawn or
a thrown forward his .. that. ! Sickles's new Benel batteries post
Slocum, after reconnoitering, report-, the Rebel army. Meade remoned that the ground in his front was strated against this hazardous expounfavorable; whereupon, the attack sure, which Sickles considered withwas countermanded. • The enemy not in the scope of the discretion allowed being yet ready, the morning wore ont him, but said he would withdraw, if and the day wore on with the usual desired, from the ridge he then occuskirmishing and picket-firing at in-pied to that behind it, which Meade tervals along the front, with occa- indicated as the proper one. Meade sional shots from batteries on one replied that he apprehended that no side or the other; but nothing ap- such withdrawal would be permitted proaching a great battle.
by the enemy; and, as he spoke, the At 3 P. M.-Sedgwick's weary corps Rebel batteries opened, and their having just arrived-Sykes was or-charging columns came on. dered to move the 5th corps over Lee had ordered Longstreet to atfrom our right to our left, while tack Sickles with all his might, while Meade rode out to see it properly Ewell should assail Slocum on our posted on the left of the 3d ; the 6th right, and Hill, fronting the apex of resting in reserve behind them. He our position, should only menace, now found that Sickles (who was but stand ready to charge if our very eager to fight, and seems to troops facing him should be with
drawn or seriously weakened to rehad thrown forward his corps from enforce either our left or our right. half to three-fourths of a mile; so that, Sickles's new position was cominstead of resting his right on Han- manded by the Rebel batteries postcock and his left on Round Top, as ed on Seminary ridge in his front, he had been directed to do, his ad- scarcely half a mile distant; while vance was in fact across the Emmits- magnificent lines of battle, a mile burg road and in the woods beyond, and a half long, swept up to his front in the immediate presence of half and flanks, crushing him back" with
84" Agate”[Whitelaw Reid), of The Cincinnati and still he holds his position. They are within Gazette, gives the following incident of this san
six paces of the guns-he fires again. Onco
more, and he blows devoted soldiers from his guinary fray:
very muzzles. And, still mindful of that solemn "Let me give one phase of the fight-fit type order, he holds his place, they spring upon his of many more. Some Massachusetts batteries-- carriages, and shoot down his horses. And Capt. Bigelow's, Capt. Phillips's, two or three then, his Yankee artillerists still about him, ho more under Capt. McGilvry, of Maine-were seizes the guns by hand, and from the very front planted on the extreme left, advanced now well of that line drags two of them off. The caissons down to the Emmitsburg road, with infantry in are farther back-five out of the six are saved. their front—the first division, I think, of Sickles's “That single company, in that half-hour's fight, corps. A little after 5, a fierce Rebel charge lost 33 of its men, including every sergeant it drove back the infantry and menaced the batte- had. The captain himself was wounded. Yet it ries. Orders are sent to Bigelow on the extreme was the first time it was ever under fire! I give left, to hold his position at every hazard short it simply as a type. So they fought along that of sheer annihilation, till a couple more batteries fiery line! can be brought to his support. Reserving his "The Rebels now poured on Phillips's battery, fire a little, then with depressed guns opening and it, too, was forced to drag off the pieces by with double charges of grape and canister, he hand when the horses were shot down. From emites and shatters, but cannot break the ad- a new position, it cpened again ; and at last the vancing line. His grape and canister are ex. | two rëenforcing batteries came up on the gallop. hausted, and still, closing grandly up over their | An enfilading fire swept the Rebel line; Sickles's slain, on they come. He falls back on spherical gallantinfantry charged, the Rebelline swept back case, and pours this in at the shortest range. on a refluent tide-we regained the lost ground, On, still onward, comes the artillery-defying line, and every gun just lost in this splendid fight."