« 上一頁繼續 »
vania, Col. Shawl, and the 15th Con- | Curtin had called " out the entire necticut, Col. Ely, on another, did militia of that State—the call, though most of the fighting that was done loud and shrill, awaking but few and on our side; the former acting as a faint responses. Now the President rear-guard; but the business in hand called " specifically on the nearest was not a fight, but a race—and very States for militia, as follows: properly so. Four miles from Win- Maryland ....10,000 | New York....20,000 chester, a Rebel division barred the
| Pennsylvania. 50,000 | Ohio ........30,000
West Virginia.....10,000. way; and here the fugitives were of
The Governors rëechoed the call; course routed, and many of them captured. Most of those who escap
"but the response was still weak. The ed crossed the Potomac at Hancock,
uniformed and disciplined regiments
of New York City generally and and did not stop running till they brought up in Bedford county, Penn
promptly went on; and Gov. Seysylvania ; the residue headed for
mour was publicly thanked therefor Harper's Ferry, and soon distanced
by Secretary Stanton; but the numtheir pursuers. Milroy says " 5,000
ber of Pennsylvanians, Marylanders, of his men reported at the Ferry or at
and West Virginians, who set their Bloody Run, Pa., and he hoped that
faces resolutely toward the enemy in 1,000 more would do so; which hope
this crisis bore but a slim proportion was of course a delusion. Lee says
to that of their brethren who seemed General Rhodes captured 700 pris
just now to have urgent business oners and 5 guns at Martinsburg,
east of the Susquehanna or west of and proceeds to enumerate “more
the Ohio. In other words, the country than 4,000 prisoners, 29 guns, 277
was profoundly disheartened; while wagons, and 400 horses," as the fruits
the Army had already absorbed what
was bravest and most patriotic of its of “these operations”-probably including in those totals his Martins
militia. The number who actually burg spoils. Milroy's great mistake
responded to these urgent, repeated,
and most reasonable calls from the was holding on just one day too long --his communications with Schenck
several States was (liberally estimaand Halleck having already been
ted) as follows:
New York....15,000 Pennsylvania. 25,000 severed. Halleck had suggested to
New Jersey 3,000 Delaware .... 2,000 Schenck the propriety of withdraw.
Maryland........5,000. ing him so early as the 11th. Early Gen. Hooker had now begun" to is credited by Lee with the capture move his army northward-rëcrossof Winchester.
ing Howe's division and evacuating Ere this, the Government had ta- the valley of the Rappahannock: ken the alarm, as it well might. An Lee had just about a fair week's start order" from the War Department of him. Moving rapidly north-westhad constituted of Pennsylvania two ward, with his cavalry thrown well new Military Departments—that of out on his left flank, watching the the Susquehanna (eastern), under Gen. passes of the Blue Ridge, Hooker's Couch; that of the Monongahela, infantry passed through Dumfries," Gen. W. T. H. Brooks; and Gov. to Centerville, covering Washington,
30 June 30. 11 June 9. June 12. 13 June 15. 4 June 13. 15 June 14–15.
unications witeady been in
10 June 30.
11 June 9,
13 June 12.
13 June 15.
14 June 13.
LEE ENTERS PENNSYLVANIA.
and watching for fresh developments , borough authorities paid the amount of the enemy's plans.
demanded (only $900) in Confederate Meantime,our cavalry, under Pleas- scrip, which had suddenly become anton, was constantly confronted by abundant there; and it was pocketed that of Lee, under Stuart; and nearly without remark, but without obvious every day witnessed a fight or a skir- relish. mish, as our troopers crowded up to Gen. Ewell, with his corps, had the passes of the Blue Ridge, and at- crossed into Maryland at Williams tempted to scan what was going on port, on the heels of Milroy's fugibeyond them, or the enemy dashed tives, pushing on unmolested to Chamdown into the valleys this side, in-bersburg—our force at Harper's Ferry cited by a like laudable thirst for retiring across the river to Maryland knowledge. At length, a pretty gen- Heights, where it was not molested. eral cavalry fight occurred, nearly Early's division of Ewell's corps was westward of Washington, on the line impelled eastward from Chambersof the great highway from Alexan- burg to York; while Johnson's moved dria to Winchester, down which Stu- | northward to Carlisle; Imboden, with art had pushed so far as Upperville; his brigade, moving westward up the whence he was repelled by a charge Potomac, destroying railroad bridges, of Kilpatrick's brigade, and forced &c., so far as Cumberland. Lee back into Ashby's Gap, after a spir- seems to have meditated a dash on ited brush, with determined charges Washington; but, Hooker's army reon either side. Kilpatrick was once maining in its front, instead of rushing taken prisoner, but rescued by a over into Maryland, no opportunity countercharge directly. Buford and was presented; so the whole Rebel Gregg were active this day; as was army forded" the Potomac; A. P. W. H. F. Lee on the side of the Hill's corps at Shepherdstown, and Rebels, who lost 2 guns, and perhaps Lee, with Longstreet's, at Williams150 men in all, including Col. M. port; both, uniting at Hagerstown, Lewis, 9th Virginia, killed. Our loss advanced, unopposed, on the track of did not exceed 100.
Ewell, to Chambersburg." Ewell had Meantime, Gen. Jenkins and his taken quiet possession of Carlisle, brigade of Rebel cavalry had raided pushing forward his advance to across the Potomac and Maryland Kingston, within 13 miles of Harrisup to Chambersburg, Pa., which they burg. Meanwhile, such militia as entered, unopposed, at 11 P.m." They had been mustered in or sent from took horses, cattle, &c., destroyed the Eastern States to the aid of Pennrailroad, and swept off into Slavery sylvania were collected, under Gen. some 50 negroes — all they could | Couch, at Harrisburg; while Gen. catch—but did no wanton injury. Brooks, powerfully aided by the volJenkins paid liberally for drugs—in unteer efforts of the citizens, hastily Confederate scrip—and, some of his threw up a line of defenses intended horses having vanished, threatened to cover Pittsburg. to burn the town if they were not All doubt as to the enemy's purreturned or their value made up. The poses being now dispelled, Gen. 16 June 21. 17 June 15. 18 June 16. 19 June 24–25.
20 June 27.
Hooker crossed” the Potomac near , Maryland Heights should not be Edwards's Ferry, and advanced to abandoned, after the public stores Frederick; himself visiting by the and property are removed ?" and way Harper's Ferry. He found there been answered : " -or rather, on Maryland Heights— “Maryland Heights have always been reGen. French, with 11,000 men, whom garded as an important point to bo held by
us, and much expense and labor incurred in he, very naturally, desired to add to fortifying them.' I can not approve of their his army in the momentous battle abandonment, except in case of absolute nenow impending. For his army, after
cessity." being strengthened by 15,000 men
Surely, the translator of Jomini spared him from the defenses of Wash
can find no parallel for such strategy ington, and 2,100 by Gen. Schenck
in the whole military career of the from the Middle Department, was
great Napoleon. Hooker at once barely 100,000 strong; while Lee's, carefully counted by two Union men orefully aunted by toon Union mon "I have received your telegram in regard
to Harper's Ferry. I find 10,000 men here, independently, as it marched through in condition to take the field. Here, they Hagerstown, numbered 91,000 infan are of no earthly account. They can not
defend a ford of the river; and, so far as try, with 280 guns, and 6,000 caval
Harper's Ferry is concerned, there is nothry; while not less than 5,000 of its ing of it. As for the fortifications, the cavalry, under Stuart, crossed the work of the troops, they remain when the
troops are withdrawn. No enemy will ever Potomac below Edwards's Ferry, and
take possession of them for them. This is so advanced into Pennsylvania with- | my opinion. All the public property could out passing through Hagerstown.
have been secured to-night, and the troops
marched to where they could have been of Considering that the Rebels had some service. Now, they are but a bait for * mustered the best as well as the lar the Rebels, should they return. I beg that
this may be presented to the Secretary of gest army they ever sent into the
War, and his Excellency, the President. contest, and that its triumph on a “Josepo Hooker, Major-General." Northern field would almost cer- In regard to this grave matter of tainly incite a Northern uprising in difference, Hooker was clearly in the their favor, it was imperative that right: not clearly so in sending this they should now be met by the dispatch immediately afterward: heroic but luckless Army of the
“Sandy Hook, June 27, 1853. Potomac in such force as to place “Maj.-Gen. I. W. IIALLECK, General-inthe issue beyond contingency. It
“My original instructions require me to was a high crime to withhold even a cover Harper's Ferry and Washington. I brigade, when a brigade more or less
have now imposed upon me, in addition, an
enemy in my front of more than my nummight decide the fate of a continent.
bers. I beg to be understood, respectfully Hooker had already drawn from but firmly, that I am unable to comply with the garrison at Washington all that
this condition, with the means at my dispo
sal, and earnestly request that I may at Halleck would spare-leaving but once be relieved from the position I occupy. 11,000 effectives under Heintzelman; "JOSEPI Hooker, Major-General." which was none too much. But, Halleck had never regarded Hookhaving crossed the Potomac, he had er as the proper commander of this very properly inquired by telegraph army; had prevented his selection of Halleck, “ Is there any reason why as McClellan's immediate successor; 21 June 26.
** June 27, 104 A.M.
FLooker Meade je mig
HOOKER RELIEVED- MEADE IN COMMAND. 375 had reluctantly assented to his desig- , ed by IIalleck for visiting the capital nation after Burnside's collapse; had without leave, and in violation of the been strengthened in his conviction rule which forbade officers to do so. of Hooker's unfitness by the Chan- Thus ended his service with the cellorsville failure; and now, very Army of the Potomac. naturally, improved his opportunity. The next day brought Col. Hardie Gen. Meade, astounded by his proto Hooker's headquarters at Fred- motion, announced to the army his erick, with instructions relieving acceptance of the command in these Hooker and devolving the command sincere, fit, modest words: on Gen. Meade; who was therewith “HEADQUARTERS ARMY OF THE PotomaO, I advised that he might do as he
“June 28, 1863. 3 pleased with the Harper's Ferry
“By direction of the President of the
United States, I hereby assume command men ; while Couch and his militia,
of the Army of the Potomac. As a soldier, estimated at 20,000 men, were placed in obeying this order—an order totally ununder his orders.
expected and unsolicited—I have no prom
ises or pledges to make. The country Gen. Hooker at once took leave looks to this army to relieve it froin of the army, with whose fortunes he
the devastation and disgrace of a hostilo
invasion. Whatever fatigues and sacrihad been so long and so honorably
fices we may be called upon to undergo, identified, in the following charac let us have in view constantly the mag
nitude of the interests involved, and let teristic order:
each man determine to do his duty, leaving “IIEADQUARTERS ARMY OF THE POTOMAC, L to an all-controlling Providence the deci
“FREDERICK, Md., June 28, 1863. sion of the contest. It is with just diffidence “In conformity with the orders of the that I relieve in the command of this arıny War Department, dated June 27th, 1863, I an eminent and accomplished soldier, whoso relinquish the command of the Army of the name must ever appear conspicuous in the Potomac. It is transferred to Maj.-Gen. history of its achievements; but I rely apon George G. Meade, a brave and accomplished the hearty support of my companions in officer, who has nobly earned the confidence arms to assist me in the discharge of the and esteem of the army on many a well- | duties of the important trust which has fought field. Impressed with the belief | been confided to me. that my usefulness as the commander of the
“GEORGE G. MEADE, Army of the Potomac is iinpaired, I part
“Major-General Commanding." from it, yet not without the deepest emotions. The sorrow of parting with the
Such a change of commanders, for comrades of so many battles is relieved by no more urgent reasons, on the very the conviction that tho courage and devo- brink of a great battle, has few paraltion of this army will never cease nor fail; that it will yield to my successor, as it has
lels in history. Whatever his faults, to me, a willing and hearty support. With Hooker was loved and trusted by his the earnest prayer that the triumph of this
soldiers, who knew less of Meade, army may bring successes worthy of it and the nation, I bid it farewell.
and had less faith in him. Had that “Joseph HOOKER, Major-General." | army been polled, it would have Bidding a cordial but hurried fare- voted to fight the impending battle well to his general and staff officers, under Hooker without the aid of Gen. Hooker left at once for Balti- French's 11,000 men, rather than more; being instructed to await there under Meade with that rëenforcefurther orders from the Adjutant- ment. But it was inured ere this to General's office. Three days bring- being astonished oftener than delighting none, he went over to Washing- ed, and to moving firmly onward in ton; where he was forthwith arrest-I the path of duty, even when that
path was not irradiated by the sun-, levy of money on a defenseless place, shine of Hope. And now its heart which had in all things evinced a was swelling with joyful trust that meek and quiet spirit, is justifiable the enemy it had so long confronted by the laws of war, it is difficult to was soon to be met in mortal strife see how the unsupported charges of where every circumstance of position rapacity and extortion leveled against and local knowledge would not tell | Gen. Butler's rule in truculent and in that adversary's favor.
venomous New Orleans can be plauLee's army had for a few days sibly condemned or complained of. traversed south-eastern Pennsylvania J. E. B. Stuart, with a considat will, burning railroad and turn- erable proportion of the Rebel pike bridges, breaking up tracks, cavalry, was watching on our left severing telegraph wires, &c., &c., flank when Hooker crossed the Poas was to be expected, and levying tomac, and crossed himself” at contributions on the country, though Seneca soon afterward; moving up rendering a very general obedience on our right so far as Westminster; to Lee's order," exhorting and en- burning 17 canal boats, also a train joining his men to abstain frorn all of 178 army wagons, laden with wanton destruction or of damage to army stores, and picking up quite a private property. Col. White, with number of our officers who were his cavalry advance, had reached hastening to join their regiments at the Susquehanna at Wrightsville ;the front. From Westminster, he where a bridge over the river was made his way across our front to needlessly burned to prevent a cross- Carlisle, which he found evacuated; ing. Gen. Ewell that day occupied and, hastening thence on the track York, whose Burgess (David Small) of Longstreet's infantry, was in went out several miles to meet him season for the fray at GETTYSBURG ; and surrender the borough, which whereon Lee, on hearing that Hooker was promised special immunity in was across the Potomac in force, had consideration thereof; but was, im- hastened to concentrate his whole mediately upon its occupation, re-army. quired* to furnish, in addition to Hooker was preparing, when suliberal supplies of food and clothing, perseded, to strike heavily at Lee's $100,000 in cash, whereof $28,000 line of communications, which would was actually raised and paid over, of course compel him to concentrate with a good portion of the creature and fight; Meade changed the direccomforts likewise required. If this tion of certain corps, moving more to 23 Dated Chambersburg, June 27
“Required for the use of Early's command: 34 June 28.
"Two thousand pairs shoes or boots ; 1,000
pairs socks; 1,000 felt hats; $100,000 in 23 " Required for the use of Early's division :
C. E. SNODGRASS, "One hundred and sixty-five barrels of flour, " Major and Chief Q. M. Early's division. or 28,000 pounds baked bread; 3,500 pounds “ June 28, 1863." sugar; 1,650 pounds coffee ; 300 gallons mo
" Approved; and the authorities of the town lasses; 1,200 pounds salt; 32,000 pounds fresh
of York will furnish the above articles and the beef, or 21,000 pounds bacon or pork.
money required; for which certificates will be • The above articles to be delivered at the
given. J. A. EARLY, Maj.-Gen. Commanding." market-house on Main street, at 4 o'clock, P. M.
“Wu. W. THORNTON, Captain and A. C. S.” | 20 June 28.