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JACKSON ROUTS HOWARD'S CORPS.

357

ridges occupied by his batteries, | Sunset found him thus far adwhence he opened on our left, upon vanced, holding the road over which our wagons in the cleared space the Rebels were originally marching; around the Chancellorsville house, his division formed in square, with next morning.*

his artillery in the center; Barlow's The 3d (Sickles's) corps, having brigade of the 5th corps, which had arrived by a hard march from below advanced to support his right, being Fredericksburg, had been mainly up with him; but Whipple's diviposted in reserve near our center, sion of the 3d and one of the 12th while Hooker, about daybreak, rode corps, which were to have covered along his right, which he apprehended his left, being invisibly distant. was too far extended, or not strongly Soon, panic-stricken fugitives from posted, and which he found no wise the 11th, now almost directly in Birprepared by earthworks and batteries ney's rear, brought tidings of a great for a flank attack; but he was as- disaster. The Rebel movement to sured by Slocum and Howard that our right, along our front—which had they were equal to any emergency. been either culpably disregarded by

Thus our army stood still, when, at Howard, or interpreted as a retreat 8 A. M., Birney, commanding Sickles's of the Rebel army on Richmond1st division, which had been thrown had culminated, a little before 6 P. M., well forward toward our right, be- in a grand burst of Stonewall Jacktween the 12th and the 11th corps, son, with 25,000 men, on the exposed reported a continuous movement of flank of that corps. Emerging sudRebel forces along his front toward denly from the thick woods which our right; whereupon, Sickles, at his enveloped that flank, and charging own suggestion, was ordered by Hook- it from three sides, as it were, the er to push forward Birney's division, Rebels caught some of our men prefollowed by another, to look into the paring their suppers, with arms matter.

stacked, and gave them no time to Birney, at 10 A, M., directed Clark's recover. In a moment, the 1st divisrifled battery to open on the Confed-ion, Gen. Devens, was overwhelmed ; erate wayfarers, which he did with its commander being among the great effect, throwing their column the wounded, and one-third of his into disorder, and compelling it to force, including every General and abandon the road. The movement Colonel, either disabled or captured. being evidently continued, however, Driven back in wild rout down the on some road a little farther off, Chancellorsville road upon the posiSickles, at 1 P. M., directed Birney tion of Gen. Schurz, it was found to charge the passing column; and that his division had already retreathe did so; bridging with rails a petty ed-perhaps fled is the apter wordcreek in his front, passing over his di- and an attempt made to rally and vision and two batteries, and striking form here proved abortive; the 17th the rear of the Rebel column with Connecticut, which bore a resolute such force that he captured and part in the effort, had its Lt.-Col. brought off 500 prisoners.

killed and its Colonel severely wound* Saturday, May 2.

ed. Back upon Steinwehr's division Keenan, 8th Pennsylvania, he said, rolled the rabble rout, in spite of “You must charge into those woods Howard's frantic exertions; and, al- with your regiment, and hold the though a semblance of organization Rebels until I can get some of these and consistency was here maintained, guns into position. You must do it, the great majority of the corps at whatever cost.” “I will,” was the poured down to Chancellorsville and calm, smiling response of the patriot, beyond, spreading the infection of who well understood that theorder was their panic, and threatening to stam- his death-warrant. Ten minutes later, pede the entire army.

he was dead, and a good part of his Sickles had been preparing to regiment lay bleeding around him; strike a still heavier blow than that but their charge had stayed the Rebel of Birney, and had, to that end, rush, and enabled Pleasanton to get obtained from Hooker Pleasanton's his own battery of horse artillery into cavalry, perhaps 1,000 strong, with position, his guns double-shotted with permission to call on Howard and canister, and trained on the ground, Slocum for aid ; when he was thun- 200 yards distant, over which the derstruck by tidings that Howard's enemy must come on. And now, corps was demolished. As he had clearing the field of fugitives, pickheard no firing of consequence, he ing up what guns and ammunition refused at first to credit the story; he could from the wreck of the 11th but he was soon constrained to be- corps, and adding these to Sickles's, lieve it. Not only was the 11th corps he had them all properly posted and gone, but the triumphant Rebels were double-shotted, and was ready for his in his rear, between him and head-expected visitors. quarters; so that when, recalling He had not long to wait. The Birney from his advanced position, woods in his front were by this time he sent to Hooker for his 3d division, full of them; darkness was falling; he was informed that it could not be and some of the enemy resorted to sent—Hooker having been obliged to the unworthy stratagem (quite too use it to arrest the progress of the common on either side) of displaying enemy, and prevent their driving a false flag, and pretending to be him from Chancellorsville.

friends. One of our gunners exSickles was in a critical position; claimed, “ General, that is our flag!” but he had now his two divisions in whereupon he sent forward an aid to hand, with his artillery—which had ascertain. “Come on, we are friends !" not been used in Birney's advance was called out; and, in another massed in a cleared field; where Pleas- moment, the woods blazed with musanton, coming in from the front with ketry, and the Rebels charged out of a part of his force, met the rushing them, rushing upon our guns; which flood of fugitives from the right, and that instant opened, and swept whole was told that a charge of cavalry was ranks of them away. Three charges required to stop the enemy's advance. were thus made-one of them to (He had at most 500 men, wherewith within fifty yards of the guns-but to arrest a charge of 25,000, led by each was repelled with great slaughStonewall Jackson.) Turning to Maj. I ter; though Pleasanton had no in

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DEATH OF STONEWALL JACKSON.

359 fantry support worth naming for his His loss was the greatest yet susbatteries; and his few remaining tained by either party in the fall of a troopers, being green recruits, were single man ; though Sidney Johnston not adapted to such an emergency; had probably military talents of a yet these for a time were all the sup- higher order. But Jackson's power port he had.

• over his men was unequaled; and it In front of these batteries, fell Stone- was justified by the soundness of his wall Jackson, mortally wounded—by judgment as well as the intrepidity the fire of his own men, they say ; " of his character. Contrary to the but it was dark, in dense woods, vulgar notion, his attacks were all and men were falling all around well considered, and based on a carehim from our canister and grape; ful calculation of forces; and he so that it is not impossible that he showed as high qualities in refusing was among them. Prisoners taken to squander his men toward the close by Pleasanton soon afterward told of the fray at Antietam, and again at him that Jackson was mortally Fredericksburg, as he did in his most wounded, and mentioned other high brilliant charges. Accident seemed officers as, like him, stricken down by to favor him at times, especially in our fire; adding that their forces were his later Valley campaign; but then, " badly cut up," and, “as to the accident is apt to favor a commander men, they were disorganized.” Still, who is never asleep when there is it seems probable that Jackson fell anything to be gained or hoped from by a fire from his own infantry, deliv- being awake, and who, if required, ered in accordance with his orders. can march his men forty miles per

> * The Life of Stonewall Jackson, by a Vir. horse ; Col. Crutchfield, Chief of Artillery, was ginian,” gives the following account of his fall: wounded; and two couriers were killed. Gen. " Gen. Jackson ordered Gen. Hill to advance

Jackson received one ball in his left arm, two

inches below the shoulder joint, shattering the with his division, reserving his fire unless cavalry

bone and severing the chief artery; a second approached frum the direction of the enemy; and then, with that burning and intense enthusiasm

passed through the same arm, between the elbow

and wrist, making its exit through the palm of for conflict which lay under his calm exterior, hastened forward to the line of skirmishers who

the hand; a third ball entered the palm of his were hotly engaged in front. Such was his

right hand, about the middle, and, passing

through, broke two of the bones. ardor, at this critical moment, and his anxiety to

"He fell from his horse, and was caught by penetrate the movements of the enemy, donbly

Capt. Wormly, to whom he said, 'All my wounds screened as they were by the dense forest and

are by my own men.' gathering darkness, that he rode ahead of his

"The firing was responded to by the enemy, skirmishers, and exposed himself to a close and dangerous fire from the enemy's sharp-shooters,

who made a sudden advance; and, the Confederposted in the timber.

ates falling back, their foes actually charged over

Jackson's body. He was not discovered, how"So great was the danger which ho thus ran, that one of his staff said: "General, don't you

ever; and, the Federals being driven back in think this is the wrong place for you?' He re

turn, he was rescued. Ready hands placed him plied quickly: The danger is all over; the ene

upon a litter, and he was borne to the rear, amid my is routed. Go back, and tell A. V. Hill to

a heavy fire from the enemy. One of the litterpress right on!' Soon after giving this order,

bearers was shot down, and the General fell

from the shoulders of the men, receiving a Gen. Jackson turned, and, accompanied by his

severe contusion, adding to the injury of the arm, staff and escort, rode back at a trot, on his wellknown 'Old Sorrel,' toward his own men. Un

and injuring the side severely. The enemy's happily, in the darkness it was now 9 or 10

fire of artillery on the point was terrible. Gen. o'clock at night the little body of horsemen was

Jackson was left for five minutes until the fire

slackened, then placed in an ambulanco and car. mistaken for Federal cavalry charging, and the regiments on the right and left of the road fired

ried to the field hospital at Wilderness Run." a sudden volley into them with the most lament

He died, eight days afterward, at Guineas' able resultg. Capt. Boswell, of Gen. Jackson's Station, fivo miles from the placo of his fall, and staff, was killed, and borne into our lines by his his remains rest at Lexington, Va., his home.

day. It is doubtful if all the advan- | not merely concealed its inferiority tages, including prestige, which the in numbers, but rendered it immateRebels gained around Chancellors- rial; while Hooker had lost heart, by ville, were not dearly purchased by reason of Howard's sudden disaster; the loss of Thomas Jonathan Jackson. and his subordinates were paralyzed

Pleasanton, no longer annoyed, by their ignorance of this region of proceeded with his work, getting woods and dense thickets, in which batteries arranged, with caissons, &c., they could rarely determine whether from the debris left behind by the they were confronting a regiment or stampeded corps, until he had forty a division, and in which, with 60,000 guns in position, and three roads men at hand, they were never able to built across an adjacent marsh; so put in half that number so as to that, with the support of Sickles's render them of any service. infantry, he deemed his position At daylight, the Rebels pushed fortenable against the entire Rebel ward heavy columns on their chosen army. Sickles, who was again in points of attack, infesting our whole communication with Hooker, ad-front with sharp-shooters, and keepvanced Birney's division at midnight, ing each of our corps which they had Hobart Ward's brigade in front, determined not to attack in constant charging down the plank road, driv- expectation of a charge in force. ing back the Rebels, and recovering But their main effort was made from a part of the ground lost by Howard; the west, by direct advance on Chanbringing away several of our aban-cellorsville down the plank road on doned guns and caissons. And now, the ground wherefrom Howard had reporting in person to Hooker, he was been hurled. Never did men charge ordered to fall back on Chancellors- with more desperate determination, ville—the collapse of the 11th corps more utter recklessness of their own having rendered our force inadequate, lives, than did that morning the Rebas was judged, for the defense of so els, now led by J. E. B. Stuart (A.P. extended a front. This order would Hill having been disabled soon after seem to have been unfortunate. At Jackson was, in front of Pleasanton's daylight," Sickles commenced the batteries), dashing themselves upon movement-Birney in the rear-and Sickles's corps; whose forty guns, was of course closely followed by the ably fought, tore through their close enemy, whose infantry filled the ranks with frightful carnage. Those woods ; but our men retired slowly guns were supported by Berry's and and steadily, by successive forma- Birney's divisions of their own corps; tions, and left nothing to the enemy the remaining division (Whipple's) but one dismounted gun, a shattered supporting Berry's, as Williams's (of caisson, and our dead.

Slocum's corps) supported Birney's. Lee's army was nearly all now Charging up to the mouths of our concentrated in Hooker's front, and cannon, the Rebels were mowed down on his left flank, elated with its easy by hundreds ; but fresh regiments rout of the 11th corps and its gene- constantly succeeded those which had ral success; covered by woods, which been shattered ; until Sickles, finding

Sunday, May 3.

HOOKER STUNNED-SICKLES DRIVEN.

361

his cartridges running low, sent word that French and Hancock, with two to Hooker that he could not hold his divisions of Couch's corps, had charged ground without assistance.

the left of the Rebel attacking force, Major Tremaine, who bore this then threatening Meade's front, and message, found the General stunned forced it back. But this scarcely and senseless. A cannon-ball had abated the pressure on Sickles, who just now struck a pillar of the Chan- was freshly assailed in his new posicellorsville house, against which he tion, and—being still nearly destiwas leaning, and hurled him to the tute of ammunition—was again comfloor. He was supposed by his staff pelled to recoil, after repelling, mainly to be dead or dying; so Tremaine with the bayonet, five fierce charges, could get no response to Sickles's and capturing eight flags. Under message; and, after sending once Couch's orders, our army was genermore to headquarters in vain, Sickles ally withdrawn a mile northward, or

-his artillery being now out of am- toward the Rappahannock, leaving the munition—was obliged to recede to wreck of the Chancellorsville house his second line of defenses, expecting to the enemy, whose guns had by this to be sharply followed, and to be time reduced it to a heap of ruins. compelled to hold his ground with Sickles testified, when before the the bayonet. But the enemy's for Committee on the Conduct of the mation had been so completely pul- War, that only his and a part of the verized by our guns, and their losses 12th (Slocuin's) corps were engaged had been so fearful, that half an hour when he first sent to Hooker for elapsed before they renewed their at- help; and that, with 10,000 of the tack. Had a corps been promptly 30,000 then unengaged, he could sent to his assistance, Sickles believes have won a decided victory. As it

was, the fact that he lost no prisonThe precious hour passed, while ers, while he took several hundred, our army was without a head. Gen. and that nearly 4,000 of his 18,000 Couch was next in rank, and might men were that day disabled, includhave assumed active command dur- ing two of his three division coming Hooker's insensibility, but hesi- manders (Berry and Whipple) killed, tated to do so. Nothing had been and Gen. Mott, of the New Jersey done to relieve Sickles's corps of the brigade, wounded, without the loss weight of all Jackson's force, save of a gun" on his repeated retreats, * Sickles, in his testimony, says:

1 Gen. Hancock, commanding a division of the "At the conclusion of the battle of Sunday. 2d corps, thus describes, in his testimony, the Capt. Seeley's battery, which was tho last that retirement of our army from Chancellorsville: fired a shot in the battle of Chancellorsville, had 45 "My position was on the other side of the horses killed, and in the neighborhood of 40 men Chancellor house: and I had a fair view of this killed and wounded; but, being a soldier of great battle, although my troops were facing and fightpride and ambition, and not wishing to leave any ing the other way. The first lines referred to of his material in the hands of the enemy, he finally melted away, and the whole front apwithdrew so entirely at his leisure that he car- peared to pass out. First the 3d corps went ried off all the harness from his dead horses, out; then the 12th corps, after fighting a long loading his cannoniers with it; he oven took al time: and there was nothing left on that part part of a set of harness on his own arm, and so of the line but my own division that is, on moved to the rear. I think this is as significant that extremo point of the line on the side of the a fact as I can state to you, indicating the ina | Chancellor house toward the enemy. I was di. bility of the enemy to follow up."

| rected to hold that position until a change of

that victory was his

passed, while ers, while he

4000 of his 18,000

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