« 上一頁繼續 »
the batteries on beguns to evacuater ward defense
hardly fall into and hermined
Porter, who had returned to the I was ambushed" and fired on by 200 Yazoo on the 16th, now röopened sharp-shooters at Liverpool Landing communication hence with Grant and on his return, with a loss of 1 killed, Sherman, sending them much needed 9 wounded; but encountered no other provisions, and preparing to attack resistance. the batteries on Haines's Bluff, which the enemy had begun “ to evacuate, An immediate assault on the landand which, on the appearance of our ward defenses of Vicksburg was degunboats, they ran away from, leav- termined on by Grant, who appreing guns, forts, munitions, tents, and hended an attack on his rear by equipage of all kinds, to fall into our Johnston, strongly rëenforced from hands. It would hardly be credited Bragg's army, and who counted much on other testimony than his own," on the demoralization of Pemberthat our Admiral proceeded to de- ton's forces by their succession of stroy this inestimable material of defeats and disasters. Accordingly, war, with full knowledge that Grant's after some reciprocal cannonading triumphant army, more especially and sharp shooting, a general assault Sherman's corps, were at hand to was ordered at 2 P. M. ;which only defend and utilize it.
resulted in an advance of the front The fall of Haines's Bluff com- of our several corps to a close proxpletely uncovered Yazoo City, in imity to the Rebel defenses. Blair's fact, the whole Yazoo Valley; and division of Sherman's corps alone Porter at once dispatched Lt. planted its colors on their works; the Walker, with five gunboats, up the 13th regulars, of Giles Smith's brigriver. Walker reached Yazoo City ade, doing so at a cost of 77 out of at 1 P. M. ;* finding the Rebel Navy 250 men; its leader, Capt. WashingYard and vessels in flames, and the ton, being among the mortally city ready to surrender. Among the wounded. The 83d Indiana, Col. vessels on the stocks was the ram Spooner, and the 127th Illinois, Col. Republic, 310 feet long by 75 wide; Eldridge, likewise carried the outer the Mobile, ready for plating, &c., slope of the Rebel earthworks, and &c. In the Navy Yard, were five held their ground till night, firing at saw and planing mills, an extensive any head that appeared above the machine-shop, beside carpenter and parapet, but were unable to enter; blacksmith shops, &c., &c. All of while the regiments on either side of these that the Rebels had not already these, though they gained positions fired were burned by Walker, who close up to the works, were even less found 1,500 Rebel sick and wounded successful. Sherman, seeing that in hospital and paroled them. He they were here exposed to hourly 74 On the 17th.
zine, and destroyed the works generally. I also 7He says, in his dispatch of May 20th to the
burned up the encampments, which were per
manently and remarkably well constructed, look. Secretary of the Navy:
| ing as though the Rebels intended to stay some “The works at Haines's Bluff were very for: time. Their works and encampments covered midable. There are 14 of the heaviest kind of many acres of ground; and the fortifications and mounted 8- and 10-inch and 77-inch rifled guns, rifle-pits proper of Ilaines's Bluff extend about with ammunition enough to last a long siege. As a mile and a quarter. Such a net-work of forts the gun-carriages might again fall into the hands I never saw." of the enemy, I had them burned, blew up the maga. l 70 May 20 1 7 May 23. 8 May 19. 10 May 22.
THE GRAND ASSAULT ON VICKSBURG.
enemy like to helter from the ides Smith's bri
decimation to no purpose, ordered of the column a fire that swept it them, after dark, to fall back a short down in an instant. No troops distance to a point where the irregu- could or should persist in braving larities of the ground afforded them such utter, useless destruction. The comparative shelter and safety. rear of the column attempted to rush
The two following days were de- on; but it was madness; and soon voted to bringing up and distribu- all had sought cover from that deadly ting provisions—the campaign in fire. Mississippi having thus far been. Still, the assault was not abanprosecuted on our part with scarcely doned; but, swerving to the left, a day's rations for three days' ser- Ewing's men, in the advance, crossed vice: the country traversed being the ditch on the left face of the bas drawn upon for whatever it could tion, and, climbing up its exterior afford: while roads were made, can- slope, planted their colors near the non planted, &c.; the enemy like- top, and burrowed in the earth for wise improving the time to the shelter from the flanking fire of the utmost. And now Gen. Grant enemy; while Giles Smith's brigordered a second and more deter-ade, turning down a ravine, found mined assault at all points, to be cover, formed line, and threatened the made simultaneously at 10 A. M." parapet still farther to the left; Kil
At the moment named, our sol- by Smith deploying his men on the diers darted from under cover and off slope of a spur of hill, and keeprushed upon the Rebel works before ing up, with Ewing's, a fire on any them—their men all shielded by their head that appeared above the parabreastworks, while ours were neces- pet. Our artillery and infantry besarily exposed to a close and deadly ing still at work, our stormers easily fire.
held their ground; and, at length, Sherman's attack was made by Giles Smith's and Ransom's brigades Frank Blair's division, led by the attempted to carry the parapet by brigade of Gen. Hugh S. Ewing, assault; but were repelled with loss. 30th Ohio, with Giles Smith's and Meantime, Steele's division, which T. Kilby Smith's closely following; had advanced half a mile farther to sharp-shooters skirmishing in the the right, was fighting desperately to advance, and a storming party car- little profit; yet, on the receipt of a rying boards and poles wherewith to dispatch from McClernand to Grant, bridge the ditch-five batteries con- announcing that his corps had carcentrating their fire on the enemy's ried three Rebel forts, Sherman orbastion constructed to command the dered Tuttle to renew the assault on approach.
his left; and Mower's brigade was In vain. The storming party had sent up where Ewing's had been rereached the salient of the bastion pulsed. Mower did his best; and the unassailed, and passed toward the colors of his leading regiment (11tla sally-port, when there shot up be- Missouri) were planted beside those hind the parapet, a double rank of of Blair's storming party, and there the enemy, who poured on the head remained till withdrawn after night
fall; but no substantial success was ready to be fired, and doubtless doachieved to balance the heavy loss. ing execution among its gunners.
Steele had like ill success in his McClernand supposed his assault attack; his men advancing across ra- successful, and reported to Grant that vines and gullies to a point between he had carried two of the Rebel forts; the bastion and the Mississippi ; and again: “We have gained the whence they made their way, under enemy's intrenchments at several a heavy fire, up to the parapet, which points, but are brought to a stand ;" they failed to carry, but held posses- at the same time asking for rëension of the hill-side beneath it till forcements. Grant, when he received night; when they were withdrawn, the first dispatch, immediately orlike the rest.
dered the assault on Sherman's front The assault by McPherson's corps, (where he then was) to be renewed ; in the center, was equally spirited while he started back to his original and equally fruitless, save in carnage: position with McPherson in the cenour losses being probably tenfold ter; which he had not reached when those of the strongly fortified and he received from McClernand the furthoroughly sheltered Rebels. Some ther message above cited; whereupon, ground was here gained in the as- though distrusting its accuracy, he sault; but it was inainly abandoned ordered Quinby's division of McPherafter dark.
son's corps to report to McClernand; On our left, McClernand's attack whose dispatches he showed to Mcseemed for a time more effective, or, Pherson as an incitement to press the at least, was believed by him to be enemy in his front, so as to prevent 80. Rushing forward to the assault a concentration against our left. precisely at 10 A. M., Lawler's and Nothing came of all this but agLandrum's brigades had, within 15 gravated losses-mainly on our side. minutes, carried the ditch, slope, and McClernand's taking of the forts was bastion, of the fort they confronted, after the well-known similitude of the which was entered by Sergeant Grif- captured Tartar: his men could get fith and 11 privates of the 22d Iowa; into them at the cost of not coming all of whom fell in it but the Ser- out again. Two hours later, he wrote geant, who brought away 13 Rebels again that: “I have lost no ground. as prisoners. The colors of the 48th My men are in two of the enemy's Ohio and 77th Illinois were planted forts (which was partially true of his on the bastion; and, within the next dead]; but they are commanded by quarter of an hour, Benton's and rifle-pits in the rear. Several prisonBurbridge's brigades, fired by this ers have been taken, who intimate example, had carried the ditch and that the rear is strong. At this moslope of another strong earthwork, ment, I am hard pressed.” And that planting their colors on the slope; was the sum total of our progress in while Capt. White, of the Chicago this quarter: the assault of OsterMercantile Battery, carried forward haus's and Hovey's divisions, farther one of his guns by hand to the ditch, to our left, having been promptly double-shotted it, and fired it into an repulsed by a deadly enfilading fire, embrasure, disabling a Rebel gun which drove them to take shelter
FAILURE OF THE GRAND ASSAULT.
behind a friendly ridge and remain | must have enabled him to attack me in the there. while there; while McArthur's division, in the division rear, and possibly to succeed in raising the
siege. Possession of Vicksburg at that which had been ordered by Grant to tiine would have enabled me to have turned röenforce McClernand, proved to be
| upon Johnston and driven him from the
State, and possess myself of all the railroads some miles distant, so that it did not
and practical military highways: thus effecarrive till next morning; and Quin tually securing to ourselves all territory
west of the Tombigbee; and this before the by's two brigades came up, fully
season was too far advanced for campaign. observed by the enemy, who corre ing in this latitude. It would have saved spondingly shifted their own forces.
Government sending large rëenforcements,
much needed elsewhere; and, finally, the When these brigades came to hand,
troops themselves were impatient to possess it was nearly dark; and Col. Boom Vicksburg, and would not have worked in
the trenches with the same zeal, believing it er, commanding one of them, was
unnecessary, that they did after their failkilled as he led his men into action. ure to carry the enemy's works.” Finally, at 8 P. M., our men were re
He afterward adds : called from the more advanced and
"The assault of this lay proved the imperiled positions they had taken, quality of the soldiers of this ariny. Withleaving pickets to hold the ground out entire success, and with a heavy loss,
there was no murinuring or coinplaining, solidly gained, wherever that was
no falling back, nor other evidence of depracticable; and our army sank to moralization. rest, having lost nearly 3,000 men in
“After the failure of the 22d, I deter
mined upon a regular siege. The troops this wasteful assault-a third of them, now, being fully awake to the necessity of Grant estimates, by reason of McCler- | this, worked diligently and cheerfully. The nand's mistake in supposing and re- until the 3d of July, when all was about
work progressed rapidly and satisfactorily porting that he had carried two forts ready for a final assault.” by his initial effort.“
Vicksburg was now completely Grant, in his report, gives the fol- invested; for Porter's gunboats lowing excellent reasons for ordering watched the river above and below this assault:
to prevent any escape to or succor “I believed an assault from the position from the Louisiana side: with 13gained by this time could be made successfully. It was known that Johnston was at inch mortars and 100-pounder rifled Canton with the force taken by him from Parrotts mounted on rafts, anchored Jackson, rëenforced by other troops from the east, and that more were daily reaching
under the high bank, whence, enhim. With the force I had, a short time tirely out of harm's way, they could
The diary of a citizen of Vicksburg, who pits by the enemy in the rear; the city by the was a resident during the siege, gives the fol mortars opposite; and the batteries by the gunlowing account of this day's experiences within
boats. Such cannonading and shelling has perthe city among civilians, who had only to con
haps scarcely ever been equaled; and the city
was entirely untenable, though women and chil. sult their own safety:
dren were on the streets. It was not safe from "The morning of this day opened in the same behind or before ; and every part of the city was manner as the previous one had closed. There alike within range of the Federal guns. The had been no lull in the shelling all night; and, gunboats withdrew, after a short engagement; as daylight approached, it grew more rapid and but the mortars kept up the shelling, and the furious. Early in the morning, too, the battle armies continued fighting all day. Several desbegan to rage in the rear. A terrible onslaught perate charges were made in force against the was made on the center first, and then extended lines without accomplishing their object. It farther to the left, where a terrific struggle took I would require the pen of a poot to depict the place, resulting in the repulse of the attacking awful sublimity of this day's work—the inces. party. Four gunboats also came up to engage sant booming of cannon and the banging of the batteries. At this time, the scene presented | small arms, intermingled with the howling of an awfully sublime and terrific spectaclo--three shells, and the whistling of Minié-balls, made points being attacked at once; to wit, the rifle. the day truly most hideous."
throw shell into the city—some of deep ravines gave birth to many them having a range of 3} miles. welcome springs of cool, sparkling We still held military possession of water. Thus our soldiers actually the peninsula opposite, which we improved in health as they dug their had vainly tried to coax the Missis- way into Vicksburg; so that, while sippi to cross; and a 3-gun battery Grant could hardly have put 20,000 on the levee annoyed the Rebel gar men into line of battle the day after rison, finally burning up their foun- the unlucky assault, he had many dery, wherein they were casting shot more effectives a month later ; beside and shell. The Cincinnati had been which, he had been röenforced by sunk" by the Rebel batteries; but Lauman's division, and by two others there were five large gunboats left— from Memphis, under Gen. C. C. two above and three below the town. Washburne, one drawn from MisAnd so, keeping a sharp lookout for souri, under Gen. F. J. Herron, and an attack by Jo. Johnston on his two divisions of the 9th corps, unrear, Grant sat down to digging his der Maj.-Gen. J. G. Parke. way into Vicksburg from the east, Our first mine was sprung under a with a force not very much superior principal fort opposite our center, on in numbers to that which he had so the 25th, throwing down a part of badly beaten at Champion Hills and its face: a bloody struggle following the Big Black, and whose capture for its possession, in which we but was now but a question of time. partially succeeded. Three days For Pemberton was notoriously short later, another face of the same fort of both provisions" and ammunition was blown off; and now the enemy
-42,000 percussion caps having were obliged to recede a little, conbeen smuggled in to him after the structing or strengthening other deinvestment; yet he was ultiinately fenses behind it; and thus the siege reduced to ten per man. Of his went on the rugged ground render30,000 men, 6,000 were in hospital, ing tedious approaches unnecessary sick or wounded, leaving probably -and fort after fort being mined, not more than 15,000 thoroughly fit while counter-mines were run by the for duty. His hopes of relief were enemy—the diggers of either army slender; for the Big Black in our often hearing the sound of each other's rear, with the sharp, wooded ridges picks, which gave token that only a among which our besiegers were thin screen of earth divided them. encamped, afforded strong defensive Had it been essential to dig down positions, which were carefully im- those serried heights, which constiproved. The sheltering woods ren- tuted the Gibraltar of the Rebellion, dered our camps much cooler than the work would doubtless have been the naked, dusty city; while the done; but Famine mines more surely 5 May 27.
June 3: “We are now eating half_rations : 49 The diary of John W. Sattenwhite, 6th bread, rice, and corn-meal mixed.” June 10: Missouri (Rebel), who fought throughout the “Our beef gave out to-day. We are now draw. siege, notes, under date of May 26 : “ We have ing one-quarter of a pound of bacon to the been on half rations of coarse corn-bread and man." June 18: “Our rations changed: 1 poor beef for ten days." June 1: "Wo are pound of flour, 1 pound of bacon to the man: now eating bean-bread, and half-rations at that.” | quite light."