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STREIGHT'S RAID INTO GEORGIA.

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Union force of 4,500 men, under , Georgia, expecting to swoop down Gen. Gordon Granger, Van Dorn, successively on Rome and Atlanta, with a superior force, assailed," with destroying there large manufactories, intent to capture it; but was easily machine-shops, and magazines. He beaten off, with a loss of 200 or 300, was hardly well on his road, however, including 80 prisoners; our loss before Forrest and Roddy, with a being 37 only.

superior force of Rebel cavalry, were A few days later, Maj.-Gen. J. J. after him ; following sharply, and Reynolds pushed out, with his divi- easily gaining upon him, through a sion and two brigades of cavalry, to running fight of over 100 miles ; McMinnville; whence he drove out when, his ammunition being exMorgan, taking 130 prisoners, de- hausted and his men nearly worn out, stroying a large amount of Rebel Streight surrendered, when 15 miles stores, and returning “ without loss. from Rome. His men were treated as

Col. Watkins, 6th Kentucky, with other captives and exchanged; while 500 cavalry, surprised “ a Rebel camp Streight and his officers were retained on the Carter's creek pike, 8 miles for a time in close prison, on a defrom Franklin ; capturing 140 men, mand of Gov. Brown, of Georgia, 250 horses and mules, and destroying that they be treated as felons, under a large amount of camp equipage. a law of that State, which makes the

inciting of slaves to rebellion a high Col. A. D. Streight, 51st Indiana, crime. The specific charge was that at the head of 1,800 cavalry, was negroes were found among their men next dispatched" by Rosecrans to in uniform and bearing arms; which the rear of Bragg's army, with in- was strenuously denied : the few structions to cut the railroadsin north- negroes with them being claimed as western Georgia, and destroy gen- servants of officers; and the only erally all dépôts of supplies and one who was armed insisting that he manufactories of arms, clothing, &c. was carrying his employer's sword, Having been taken up the Tennessee as an act of duty. After a long conon steamboats from Fort Henry to finement, Streight, with 107 other of Eastport, Ala., where he was joined our officers, escaped “ from Libby by an infantry force under Gen. Prison, Richmond: 60 of them, inDodge, they attacked and captured cluding Streight, making their way Tuscumbia, inflicting considerable to our lines. He estimates his loss in loss on the Rebels; and, while Gen. killed and wounded during this raid Dodge made a sweeping raid through at 100, including Col. Hathaway, North Alabama, returning ultimate-killed ; and puts the Rebel loss at ly to his headquarters at Corinth, five times that number. He surCol. Streight struck for Northern rendered, in all, 1,365 men.

30 April 10. 40 April 20. “ April 26. 43 April 27. <3 April 29. “ Feb. 9, 1864.

XIV.

OPERATIONS AGAINST VICKSBURG.

VICKSBURG, on the lower Missis- 1 -Jefferson Davis, in a speech at Jacksippi, about midway between Cairo son, having in 1862 pronounced it and its mouth, was the natural cen- | indispensable to the Confederacy that ter and chief citadel of the Slave- the control of the Mississippi should holders' Confederacy. Located on an not be surrendered to Federal power almost unique ridge of high, rolling fresh preparations to "röpossess” land adjoining the great river, sur- it were early set on foot among the rounded by the richest and best cul- | Union commanders above. Gen. tivated Cotton region in America, Grant's department of West Tenneswhereof the slave population con- see having been so enlarged’ as to siderably outnumbered the free, it include Mississippi, he at once comhad early devoted itself, heart and menced preparations for an advance; soul, to the Rebel cause. Its natural transferring,' soon after, his headstrength and importance, as com quarters from Jackson to Lagrange; manding the navigation of the great whence he pushed out Gen. Mcartery of the South-west, were early Pherson, with 10,000 infantry, and appreciated; and it was so fortified 1,500 cavalry, under Col. Lee, to and garrisoned as to repel—as we Lamar, driving back the Rebel cavhave seen'—the efforts of our fleets alry. At length, all things being and expeditions, which, after the fall ready, Grant impelledo a movement of New Orleans and that of Mem- of his army down the great Southphis, assailed it from below and from ern Railroad from Grand Junction above respectively and conjointly. through Holly Springs to Oxford; Being the chief outlet for the surplus, our cavalry advance, 2,000 strong, products of the State of Mississippi, being pushed forward to Coffeeville, connected with Jackson, its capital, where it was suddenly confronted and 44 miles east, by a railroad, and thus attacked by Van Dorn,' with a supewith all the railroads which traverse rior infantry force, by whom it was the State, as also with the Washita beaten back three miles, with a loss Valley, in northern Louisiana, by a of 100 men. railroad to Monroe, while the Yazoo Grant was, with his main body, brought to its doors the commerce of still at Oxford, preparing to move on another rich and capacious valley, to Jackson and Vicksburg, when Vicksburg, with 4,591 inhabitants in Van Dorn struck' a damaging blow 1860, was flourishing signally and at his communications. The railroad growing rapidly until plunged head- having by this time been repaired long into the vortex of Rebellion and and operated to Holly Springs, that Civil War.

| village had been made our temporary Both parties to the struggle hav- dépôt of arms, provisions, and muniing early recognized its importance tions, which had here been accumu* See pages 57 and 101. Oct. 16, 1862. 'Nov. 4. Nov. 8. Nov. 28. Dec. 5. ' Dec. 20.

VAN DORN CAPTURES HOLLY SPRINGS.

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lated, while the railroad farther south and paroled 1,800 men and 150 offiwas being repaired, to such an extent cers; but this must include the sick that they were estimated by the ene- and wounded whom they found in my as worth at least $4,000,000. The the hospital. Two locomotives and post was in charge of Col. R.C. Mur- 40 or 50 cars were among the propphy, 8th Wisconsin, who had over erty destroyed; the Rebels coming 1,000 men under his command; while prepared with cans of spirits of turbales of cotton and barrels of four pentine to hasten the conflagration : by thousands proffered the readiest the burning arsenal blowing up, at 3 means of barricading its streets and P. M., with a concussion which shatkeeping out ten times his force, until tered several buildings, while 20 men it could be reduced by heavy guns were wounded by flying balls and and regular approaches, or at least shell. The Rebels left at 5, after a consumed by volleys of shells. stay of ten hours, which they had

Grant had warned Murphy of his improved to the utmost: thence prodanger the night before, and did not ceeding to assail, in rapid succesimagine his capture a possibility; but sion, Coldwater, Davis's Mill, Midno preparation had been made for dleburg, and Bolivar, farther north; resistance, no street barricaded; not but, though the defenders of each even our men posted to resist an as- were fewer than Murphy might have sault; when, at daybreak, Van Dorn rallied to his aid at Holly Springs, burst into the town with his wild each was firmly held, and the raiders cavalry, captured the imbecile or easily driven off. Murphy, it need traitorous wretch who should have hardly be added, was dismissed from defended it, and burned all but the the service in a stinging order' by little plunder his men were able to Gen. Grant-said order to take efcarry off, including a large hospital fect from Dec. 20th, the date of his full of our sick and wounded soldiers, cowardly and disgraceful conduct.” which his Adjutant had promised to Grant had seasonably dispatched spare. Our cavalry (2d Illinois) re- 4,000 men by rail to the relief of fused to surrender, and cut their way Holly Springs—or rather, to guard out by a resolute charge, in which against the possibility of its capture, they lost but 7 men, disabling 30 so vital was its importance; but they Rebels. Murphy filled up the meas were stopped midway by some obure of his infamy by accepting pa struction on the track, and only arroles, with his men; so as to prevent rived two hours after the enemy had their recapture and relieve the ene- departed. my of the trouble of guarding them. Thus, by the baseness of one misThe Rebels claim to have captured creant, were not only 2,000 men and Richmond Dispatch, Jan. 15, 1863.

mass of excited, frantic, frightened human beThe enraptured writer elsewhere says:

ings—presented an indescribable picture, adapt“The scene was wild, exciting, tumultuous.

ed to the pencil of Hogarth." Yankees running; tents burning; torches flam

And again : ing; Confederates shouting; guns popping; sa

"The ladies rushed out from the houses, wild bers clanking; Abolitionists begging for mercy; with joy, crying out: 'There's some at the 'Rebels' shouting exultingly; women, en disha Fair Grounds: chase them! kill them! for God's bille, clapping their hands, frantic with joy, cry- / sake!'" ing, "Kill them! kill them!' -a heterogeneous | Dated Holly Springs, Jan. 8.

several millions' worth of property | defenses had been transformed into sacrificed, but the fair promise of an abatis, covering rifle-pits. Unknown important expedition utterly blight- to Sherman, Grant's recoil from Oxed. By the loss of his stores and ford had liberated the Rebel army trains, Grant was completely para- previously confronting him; which lyzed, and compelled to fall back to had forthwith been apprised" of the Grand Junction: thence moving cloud gathering on the Mississippi. westward to Memphis, so as to de- Gen. Pemberton, who was in chief scend by the river to Vicksburg. command at Grenada, had at once

faced about; and, three days later, Gens. A. P. Hovey and C.C. Wash- having definite advices that Sherburne, with some 3,000 men, had man's gunboats had reached the crossed" the Mississippi from Helena mouth of the Yazoo, he began to simultaneously with Grant's advance; send his men southward by rail; foltaking post near the head of Yazoo lowing himself next day. Thus, exPass, capturing a Rebel camp, and peditious as were Sherman's movemoving down the Coldwater and ments, most of the Rebel forces in Tallahatchie rivers, with intent to all that region, except Van Dorn rëenforce Grant; but this was now and his cavalry, were on hand to refrustrated, and their force recalled to sist him. the Mississippi.

| Sherman's army was uniquely The day after the Holly Springs | Western ; and, with the West, the disaster, Gen. W. T. Sherman had rëopening of the Mississippi was an left Mernphis with the Right Wing absorbing passion. It was brave, of the “Army of the Tennessee”—| well officered, and ably commanded; some 30,000 strong—on boats which while Com. Porter's gunboats were passed down the Mississippi and 12 ready to render it every assistance miles up the Yazoo to Johnston's that gunboats could ; it encountered Landing, where the troops were de- none of those unforeseen, fortuitous barked," and a general assault was mischances, against which even Ge made next day on the well-manned nius is impotent, and Valor fruitless; fortifications and batteries which de- it fought superbly, and piled the fended Vicksburg o the north. The earth with its dead and wounded ; ground between the Yazoo and the yet it failed, simply because such precipitous bluffs whereon the Rebels defenses as it was required to assail were fortified, is agreeably (to al- are, when fairly armed and manned, ligators) diversified by 'swamps,' | absolutely impregnable to simple as

sloughs, lagoons,' and 'bayous ;'sault. They may be overcome by and is in the main a profound mire, regular approaches; they may be resting on quicksand 'Chickasaw mastered by the surprise of some unBayon,' connecting the two rivers, is guarded but vital point; they must its most salient feature; but much yield at last to famine, if closely and of it had been a cedar swamp, or persistently invested; but to hurl boggy thicket, whereof so much as column after column of infantry upon lay directly in front of the Rebel them is simple, useless slaughter. 20 Nov. 20. 11 Dec. 26.

12 Dec. 21.

con boats which / well officered, and

passed down the

SAERMAN APPROACHES THE YAZOO BLUFFS.

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Yet this nowise impeaches the ger | reconnoitered, and found even more eralship of Sherman, who could not difficult than rumor had made them. tell what they were, nor who were Chickasaw bayou was conclusively behind them, until he had given ascertained to be passable but at two them a trial.

points-one a narrow levee; the Let us condense the painful de- other a sand-bar-each completely tails :

commanded by the enemy's sharpGen. Sherman was quite aware of shooters, who were thoroughly the natural strength of the Rebel line covered by their rifle-pits and other of defense, and that the labor of defenses; while batteries, trenches, thousands of slaves had for months and rifle-pits rose, tier above tier, up been devoted to its increase, by the the steep bluffs beyond, which were digging of trenches and rifle-pits, the crowned by still heavier batteries. planting of batteries, felling of trees And Gen. Steele, whose division, exfor abatis, &c., &c. But, he rea-cept Blair's brigade, had been desoned, that line is at least 15 miles barked above the junction of the long, from Vicksburg to Haines's bayou with the Yazoo and the Bluff; there are but about 15,000 cypress swamp and slough beyond, men behind it, which is but 1,000 to on advancing next day," found his the mile; and it must be that a se- progress barred by an impassable ries of vigorous attacks will develop swamp, traversed only by a long some point whereon an instant and corduroy causeway, so thoroughly overwhelming superiority of num- swept and enfiladed by Rebel batbers can be made to tell. And so it teries and rifle-pits that he could would, had not the bayous, lagoons, hardly hope to take across it half and swamps—but more especially the men who made the attempt; Chickasaw bayou—so protected the which he properly declined, and was entire Rebel front that there were justified by Sherman in so doing. but four points at which it could Meantime, Gen. Geo. W. Morgan's be reached from the Yazoo ; and division had advanced, under cover these were so covered and enfi of a dense fog and the fire of its laded by hostile batteries, rifle-pits, artillery, against the center of the &c., that approach was all but cer- Rebel defenses: reaching the bank of tain destruction. The knowledge of the bayou where it runs nearest to this impregnability was one of the the bluffs, whereby its progress was costly lessons of the war.

completely arrested; but it held its During the 26th and 27th, our men ground through the ensuing night. were debarked without resistance, Gen. Morgan L. Smith's division on the south bank of the Yazoo; simultaneously advanced over less and, being formed in four columns, favorable ground, considerably to the gradually pushed forward, driving right; its leader being disabled beback the enemy's pickets, toward the fore noon by a sharp-shooter's bullet frowning bluffs southward. During through his hip, while reconnoiterthe ensuing night, the ground and ing; when his command devolved obstacles in our front were carefully on Gen. David Stuart. A narrow

19 Dec. 28. VOL. 11.—19

ground ringtore non

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