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not darkness had set in, Rosecrans in fact, our inter

turn overmatched and hurled back | menced the movement, as stealthily in disorder; losing four of their guns, as possible, at 11 P. M.; gathering up the flag of the 26th Tennessee, and a his men and guns so cautiously that considerable body of prisoners. Had even our pickets were not aware of not darkness fallen directly, while a his Hegira till broad daylight," when heavy rain had set in, Rosecrans too late for effective pursuit; which, would have pursued the fugitives in fact, our inferiority in cavalry right into Murfreesboro'." As it must at any rate have rendered comwas, Crittenden's corps and Davis's paratively fruitless. We do not seem division both passed over, rëoccupied even to have advanced on his track the commanding ground, and, before till Monday." morning, were solidly intrenched there, ready for whatever emergency. Wheeler's cavalry, after vigorously

Another night of anxious watchful- resisting our advance to Stone river, ness gave place to a morning of had been dispatched" by Bragg to pouring rain, by which the ground the rear of our army; capturing Lawas so sodden as to impede the move-vergne,“ taking 700 prisoners, and ment of artillery. We were short of destroying heavy army trains, with ammunition till 10 A. M., when an a large amount of stores. Thence anxiously expected train was wel lastening to Rock Spring and Nocomed. Batteries were now con- | lensville, they made still further capstructed on the ground so handsome-tures at each ; and, having passed ly gained on our left, by which even around” our arıny, reached the left Murfreesboro' could be shelled; and flank of Bragg's, just as it commenced Gens. Thomas and Rousseau, who its great and successful charge on had for days been annoyed by Rebel McCook; guarding that flank, and sharp-shooters from the cedar thickets coming into action as it gained the in their front, obtained permission Nashville turnpike, just north of from Rosecrans to dislodge them by Overall's creek. Wheeler of course a charge, following a sharp fire of claims the advantage in this fight; artillery-four regiments entering but admits that he fell back at the and soon clearing the woods, captur- close, numbering Col. Allen and Lt.ing 70 or 80 prisoners. No coun- Col. Webb among his wounded. Next ter-movement being attempted, the morning, he went up the turnpike to fourth day closed peacefully, and Lavergne; capturing another train was followed by a quiet night and a gun; regaining, by order, the

Quiet on our side only. Bragg front during the night; and, being had concluded to leave, and com- again sent, at 9 P. M., to our rear; 15 He says, in his report:

Thomas, on Monday morning, drove the Rebel “The enemy retreated more rapidly than they rear-guard (cavalry) six or seven miles southhad advanced. In twenty minutes, they had ward, and that lost 2,000 men.”

"We learned that the enemy's infantry had 16 Saturday, Jan. 3. 7 Sunday, Jan. 4. reached Shelbyville by 12 M. on Sunday; but,

18 Rosecrans, in his official report, says he re- owing to the impracticability of bringing up ceived news on Sunday morning that the enemy supplies, and the loss of 557 artillery horses, bad fled from Murfreesboro'. when burial par. | farther pursuit was deemed inadvisable." ties were sent out to inter the dead, and the 19 Night of Dec. 29–30. cavalry ordered to reconnoiter. He adds that ! * Dec. 30.

21 Dec. 31.

INNES'S GALLANT DEFENSE OF LAVERGNE.

281

where he, at 2 P. M. next day.?? had a I have resulted in great damage to the enemy.

I caused the enemy to be charged on three fight with a heavily guarded ordnance

sides at the same time, by Cols. Cox and train, which he stopped, and claims to Smith and Lt.-Col. Malone; and the charge have damaged, but was unable to

was repeated four times; but the enemy

was so strongly posted that it was found capture or destroy; returning during impossible to dislodge hiin.” the night to Bragg's left flank, and covering his retreat on the 4th and 5th.

Rosecrans makes his entire force On the whole, the enemy's opera

who participated in this struggle tions in the rear of our army, during

37,977 infantry, 3,200 cavalry, and this memorable conflict, reflect no

2,223 artillery: total, 43,400; and credit on the intelligence and energy

states his losses as follows: killed, with which they were resisted. The

1,533;" wounded, 7,245 ; total, 8,778, prisoners—2,000 or more—taken by

or fully 20 per cent. of the number the Rebels were of course mainly

engaged. He adds that his provoststragglers and fugitives, barely worth

marshal says his loss of prisoners will paroling; but they figure largely in

fall below 2,800. He says nothing Wheeler's and in Bragg's reports.

of prisoners taken by him, though we And it is not doubtful that Rose

certainly did take at least 500, beside crans's inability to improve his ulti

wounded. He judges that the Rebmate success was largely owing to

els had fifteen per cent, advantage in the destruction of his trains by these

their choice of ground and knowledge triumphant raiders. The silver lining to this cloud is a

of the country; and says that they

had present 132 regiments of infantry most gallant defense made on the 1st

and 20 of cavalry, beside 24 smaller by Col. Innes's 1st Michigan Engi

organizations of cavalry, 12 battalions neers and Mechanics, only 391 strong, who had taken post on high ground

of sharp-shooters, and 23 batteries of

artillery—all which, he estimates, near Lavergne, and formed such a barricade of cedars, &c., as they hur

must have presented an aggregate of

fully 62,720 men. He thinks their riedly might. Here they were ” at

killed and wounded must have tacked, at 2 P. M., by Wharton's cav

| amounted to 14,560 men. If he had alry, whom they successfully resisted and beat off. Wharton's official re

only told us how many of them he

buried, and how many wounded (or port is their best eulogium. He was

others) fell into his hands, he would in command of six or eight regiments, and here is his account of this affair:

have earned our gratitude.

| Bragg, per contra, says he had but "A regiment of infantry, under Col. 35.000 men on the field when the Dennis, also was stationed in a cedar-brake, and fortifications, near this point. I caused fight commenced, of whom but the battery, under Lt. Pike, who acted with about 30,000 werc infantry and artilgreat gallantry, to open on it. The fire, at

lery; and that he lost of these over & range of not more than 400 yards, was kept up for more than an hour; and must 10,000, of whom 9,000 were killed

Jan. 3.

93 Jan. 1.

Among our wounded, besido those already * Among our killed, beside those already men. | named, were Cols. Forman, 15th Ky., Humtioned, were Cols. Jones, 24th Ohio, McKee, 3d phreys, 88th Ind., Alexander, 21st Ill., Hines, Ky., Williams, 25th Ill., Harrington, 27th Ill., 57th Ind., Blake, 40th Ind., and Lt.-Col. Tanner, Stem, 101st Ohio, and Millikin, 3d Ohio cavalry. | 22d Ind.

and wounded." He claims to have | Humboldt, Union City, &c., burning taken 6,273 prisoners, many of them bridges, tearing up rails, and parolby the raids of his cavalry on the ing captured Federals (over 1,000, trains and fugitives between our army according to his reports—700 of them and Nashville; and he estimates our at Trenton alone), was struck on his losses at 24,000 killed and wounded, return at PARKER's Cross-ROADS, with over 30 guns to his 3. He between Huntingdon and Lexington, claims to have captured, in addition, and thoronghly routed. He first en6,000 small arms and much other countered Col. C. L. Dunham, with valuable spoil, beside burning 800 a small brigade of 1,600; who had, wagons, &c., &c. It seems odd that, the day before, been pushed forward after such a fight, he should have from Huntingdon by Gen. J. C. Sulretired so hastily as to leave 1,500 of livan, and who was getting the worst his sick and wounded (Union ac- of the fight-having been nearly surcounts says 2,600), with 200 medical rounded, his train captured, and he and other attendants, in his deserted summoned to surrender—when Sul. hospitals at Murfreesboro'. 34 livan came up at double-quick, with

It is a fair presumption that our the two fresh brigades of Gen. Haylosses, both in men (prisoners includ- nie and Col. Fuller, and rushed upon ed) and material, were greater than the astonished Rebels, who fled in those of the Rebels; and that Rose- utter rout, not attempting to make a crans's army was disabled by those stand, nor hardly to fire a shot. Forlosses for any effective pursuit; but rest himself narrowly escaped capture; this does not and can not demolish | losing 4 guns, over 400 prisoners, the fact that the battle of Stone river, including his Adjutant, Strange, 80 gallantly, obstinately, desperately two Colonels, many horses, arms, fought, was lost by Bragg and the &c., &c. He filed eastward to ClifRebels, and won by the army of ton, where he rëcrossed the Tennesthe Cumberland and its heroic com- see, and thence made his way back mander.

to Bragg. He lost in the fight about On the day ” of the great struggle 50 killed and 150 wounded—the latat Stone river, Gen. Forrest, who, ter being included among the priswith 3,500 cavalry, had been detach- oners. Dunham reports his loss at ed by Bragg to operate on our com- 220: 23 killed, 139 wounded, and 58 munications in West Tennessee, and missing. who had for two weeks or more been | Gen. John H. Morgan, who had raiding through that section, threat- been likewise dispatched by Bragg ening Jackson, capturing Trenton, to operate on Rosecrans's communi

Among his killed were Gens. James E. them, with their dépôts and hospitals; while Rains (Missouri), and Roger W. Hanson (Ken- our troops had scarcely a roof to their heads-tucky); and Cols. Moore, 8th Tenn., Burks, 11th and thatTexas, Fisk, 16th La., Cunningham, 28th Tenn., " The only question with me was, whether and Black, 5th Ga. Among his wounded were | the movement should be made at once, or deGens. James R. Chalmers and D. W. Adams.

layed 24 hours to save a few of our wounded. He says, in his report, that his men were

As it was probable that we should lose by ex

haustion as many as we should remove of the "greatly exhausted” by the long contest and its | wounded, my inclination to remain was yielded." privations—as if they were peculiar in that re 27 Dec. 31. spect—when they had Murfreesboro' just behind l 33 Crossing the Tennessee at Clifton, Dec. 13. * Dec. 24. ** Dec. 28. * Dec. 30. ** Dec. 20. *Feb. 3, 1863.

RAIDS OF CARTER AND WHEELER.

283

cations, simultaneously with Forrests | his old quarters; having lost but doings in West Tennessee, passing 20 men, mainly prisoners—and killed the left of Rosecrans's army, rode in- or captured over 500. Having been to the heart of Kentucky; and, after ridden all but incessantly 690 miles, inconsiderable skirmishes at Glas- with very little to eat, many of his gow, Upton, and Nolin,” pressed on horses gave out and were left to die to Elizabethtown, which he took, af- on the return. ter a brief, one-sided conflict, capturing there and at the trestlework on Gen. Wheeler, in chief command the railroad, five or six miles above, of Bragg's cavalry, 4,500 strong, several hundred prisoners, destroy- with Forrest and Wharton as Brigaing the railroad for miles, with a diers, passing Rosecrans's army by quantity of army stores. He then its right, concentrated his forces at raided up to Bardstown, where he Franklin, and pushed north-westturned" abruptly southward, being ward rapidly to Dover, near the site threatened by a far superior force; of old Fort Donelson, which our retreating into Tennessee by Spring- Generals had seen no reason to refield and Campbellsville; having in- pair and occupy. But he found ** flicted considerable damage and in- Dover held by Col. A. C. Harding, curred very little loss.

83d Illinois, with some 600 men fit But his raid was fully countered for duty; his battery and one or two by one led ” about the same time by companies being absent; but HardBrig.-Gen. H. Carter (formerly Col. ing proved the man for the exigency. 2d Tennessee) from Winchester, Ky., He at once sent across to Fort Henacross the Cumberland, Powell's, and ry for assistance, and dispatched a Clinch mountains, through a corner steamboat down the Cumberland for of Lee county, Va., to Blountsville gunboats; at the same time throwand Zollicoffer (formerly Union Sta- ing out and deploying his men so as tion), East Tennessee, where 150 of to impede to the utmost the advance the 62d North Carolina, Maj. Mc- of the Rebels, and opening upon Dowell, were surprised and captured them so soon as they came within without a shot, and the railroad range, with a 32-pounder and 4 brass bridge, 720 feet long, over the Hols- guns, which were all he had. Thus ton, destroyed, with 700 small arms fighting with equal energy and judgand much other material of war. ment, he repelled alternate charges Pushing on ten miles, to Clinch’s Sta- and invitations to surrender until tion, Carter had a little fight, captur- dark, though nearly surrounded and ed 75 prisoners, and destroyed the pressed from both sides by his assailrailroad bridge, 400 feet long, over ants, who, with reason, confidently the Watauga, with a locomotive and expected to capture him. In their several cars ; returning thence by last charge, the Rebels lost Col. McJonesville, Lee connty, Va., rëcross- Nairy, of Nashville, who fell while ing the Cumberland range at Hauk's vainly endeavoring to rally his men. Gap; and, after two or three smart No relief arrived from Fort Henry skirmishes, returning in triumph to till next morning; but the gunboat Fair Play, Lt. Fitch, leading four | us a skillful blow at Spring Hill, 10 others, all of them convoying a fleet miles south of Franklin, and 30 from of transports up the river, had been Nashville, whither Col. John Cohailed 24 miles below by Harding's burn, 33d Indiana, had been dismessenger, and incited to make all patched from Franklin, with 2,000 speed to the rescue. Harding was infantry, 600 cavalry, and a light still holding his ground firmly, battery, simultaneously with Sherithough nearly out of ammunition, dan's advance from Murfreesboro'. having lost one of his guns and 45 Before reaching Spring Hill, bis out of 60 artillery horses—when, at advance was contested; and, on the 8 P. M., the Fair Play arrived, and morning of the next day," he was considerably astonished the Rebels assailed by a far superior force, by by a raking fire along their line. which he was in the course of the The other gunboats were soon on day all but surrounded; and, after hand, and doing likewise, but to little fighting until his ammunition was purpose; since the Rebels had taken exhausted, was compelled to surto their heels at the first sound of render his remaining infantry, 1,306 guns from the water, leaving 150 in number. His cavalry and artillery, dead and an equal number of prison- having run away in excellent season, ers behind them. Harding estimates escaped with little loss. Van Dorn's their wounded at 400, and makes his force consisted of six brigades of own loss 16 killed, 60 wounded, and cavalry and mounted infantry. 50 prisoners. Wheeler, as if satis- A fortnight later, Col. A. S. Hall, fied with this experience, returned 105th Ohio, with four regiments, quietly to Franklin.

numbering 1,323 men, moved nearly Gen. Jeff. C. Davis, with his divi- east from Murfreesboro', intending to sion of infantry and two brigades of surprise a Rebel camp at Gainesville; cavalry, under Col. Minty, had been but he missed his aim, and was soon sent * westward by Rosecrans, as if to confronted by a regiment of hostile intercept Wheeler on his way south- cavalry; before which, Hall slowly ward. He captured 141 of Wheel- withdrew to the little village of Miler's men, including two Colonels; ton, 12 miles north-east of Murfreesbut returned o to Murfreesboro' with boro', taking post on Vaught's IIill, out a fight and without loss. a mile or so distant; where he was

Gen. P. H. Sheridan next made" a assailed by a superior Rebel force, similar demonstration southward, under Gen. Morgan. But his men nearly to Shelbyville, then turning were skillfully posted, supporting a north-westward to Franklin ; having section of Harris's 19th Indiana battwo or three skirmishes with inferior tery, which was admirably served, forces, under Forrest and Van Dorn, and doubtless contributed very essenwho fled, losing in all about 100, tially to Morgan's defeat, with a loss mainly prisoners; while our loss was of 63 killed and some 200 or 300 10. Sheridan returned to Murfrees-wounded, including himself. Hall's boro' after an absence of ten days. entire loss tras but 55.

Meantime, Van Dorn had dealt Franklin, being occupied by a * Jan. 31. 35 Feb. 13. 36 March 4. 97 March 5. 5 March 20.

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