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LINCOLN PROPOSES AID TO EMANCIPATION. 259 This bill having reached the against Slavery as the main cause of House, Mr. Stevens, of Pa., in Com- our subsisting troubles in a Special mittee of the Whole, moved" the Message, ao which proposed that the laying aside successively of each bill Houses of Congress should unite in preceding it on the calendar, and adopting this joint resolution : thus reached this one; which was Resolved, That the United States, in ortaken up and debated by Judge

der to cooperate with any State which may

adopt gradual abolition of Slavery, give to Thomas, of Mass., and Mr. Crittenden, such State pecuniary aid, to be used by such of Ky., in opposition. Mr. Stevens

State, in its discretion, to compensate it for

the inconvenience, public and private, protried to close the debate next day, duced by suchy change of system.” but failed; and the bill was advoca This proposition he commended in ted by Messrs. F. P. Blair, of Mo., these guarded and deferential terms: Bingham, Blake, Riddle, Ashley, and “ If the proposition contained in the resoHutchins, of Ohio, Rollins, of N. H.,

lution does not meet the approval oť Con

gress and the country, there is an end of it. and Van Horn, of N. Y. Mr. Ste

But, if it does cominand such approval, I vens at length induced the Commit deem it of importance that the States and

people immediately interested should be at tee to rise and report the bill; when

once distinctly notified of the fact, so that the measure was further opposed by they may begin to consider whether to Messrs. H. B. Wright, of Pa., Wads.

accept or reject it.

"The Federal Government would find worth, Harding, Menzies, and Wick

its highest interest in such a measure, as liffe, of Ky., and supported by Messrs. one of the most important means of selfHickman, of Pa., Train, of Mass.,

preservation. The leaders of the existing

Rebellion entertain the hope that this Gov. Lovejoy, of Ill., Dunn, of Ind., Cox ernment will ultimately be forced to acand Vallandigham, cf Ohio; and

knowledge the independence of some part

of the dis:iffected region, and that all the passed under the Previous Question: 13

Slave States north of such part will then Yeas 92; Nays 39. [Messrs. G. H. say, The Union for which we have strngBrowne, of R. I., English, of Conn.,

gleil being already gone, we now clioose to

go with the Southern section.' To deprive Haight and Odell, of N. Y., Sheffield, them of this hope substantially ends the of R. I., and B. F. Thomas, of Mass., Rebellion; and the initiation of Emancipa

tion deprives them of it, and of all the States voted Yea with the Republicans ;

initiating it. while Messrs. J. B. Blair and Wm. | “The point is not that all the States tolG, Brown, of Va., James S. Rollins. Ierating Slavery would very soon, it at all,

| initiate Emancipation; but, while the offer of Mo., and Francis Thomas, of Md., is equally made to all, the more Northern voted Nay with the Democrats and shall, by snch initiation, make it certain to Kentuckians.] The bill, thus passed

the more Southern that in no event will the

former ever join the latter in their proposed on the 11th, was signed by the Presi Contecleracy. * * * While it is trne that dent on the 16th of April, 1862."

the adoption of the proposed resolution would be merely initiatory, and not within

itself a practical measure, it is recorninended · President Lincoln made his first

in the hope that it would soon lead to im

portant practical results. In full view of overt, yet cautious, demonstration my great responsibility to my God and to to April 10.

part of Blacks; but U. S. Treasurer Spinner Some of the anomalies of the slaveholding was waited on by a District negro (free), who systen were brought to light in the execution had bought and paid for his (slave) wife, and of this measure. For instance: while it had who required parment not only for her but for long been visual for White men to sell their their half-dozen childreo-all his legal and salaparti-colored children, there were no known ble chattels and the claim could not be disalprecedents for a like thrifty procedure on the lowed.

%0 March 6, 1862.

ject."

my country, I earnestly beg the attention Sherman, of Ohio, Doolittle, of of Congress and the people to the sub

Wisc., Browning, of Ill., and Mor

rill, of Maive, also advocated the Mr. Stevens, of Pa., having moved measure; and it passed 25 – Yeas 32 and carried a reference of this Mes (including Davis, of Ky., Ilenderson, sage by the House to a Committee of of Mo., Thomson [Dem.], of N. J., the Whole on the State of the Union, and Willey, of Pa.); Nays-Messrs. and Mr. R. Conkling, of N. Y., hav- Bayard and Saulsbury, of Del., Kening moved” the resolve above recom- nedy, of Md., Carlile, of Va., Powell, mended, a debate sprung up thereon; of Ky., Wilson, of Mo., Wright, of which is notable only as developing N. J., Latham, of Cal., Nesmith and the repugnance of the Unionists of the Stark, of Oregon. It is noteworthy Border Slave States, with that of the that a majority of these Nays were Democrats of all the States, to com- the votes of Senators from Border pensated or any other Emancipation. States, to which it proffered compenMessrs. Wadsworth, Mallory, Wick-sation for their slaves, all whom have liffe, and Crittenden, of Ky., and Cris- since been frved without compensafield, of Md., spoke for the former; tion. The President of course apMessrs. Richardson, of Ill., Voorhees, proved” the measure; but no single of Ind., Biddle, of Pa., for the lat- Slave State ever claimed its benefits; ter. All the Republicans who spoke and its only use inhered in its dernonsupported, the proposition; though stration of the willingness of the Messrs. Stevens and Hickman, of Pa., Unionists to increase their already characterized it as timid, temporizing, heavy burdens to pay for the slaves and of small account. It passed the of the Border States—a willingness House a by 89 Yeas (Republicans, which the infatuation of the ruling West Virginians, and a few others class in those States rendered abornot strictly partisans) to 31 Nays (in. tive, save in its inevitable tendency cluding Crisfield, Leary, and Francis to soften prejudice and reconcile the Thomas, of Md., with Crittenden, minds of loyal slaveholders to a social Dunlap, Harding, Wadsworth, and revolution fast becoming inevitable. Wickliffe, of Ky.—the rest Democrats).

Mr. Wilson, of Mass., having givThe resolve having reached the en notice" of a joint resolve granting Senate and been duly referred, Mr. aid to the States of Delaware and Trumbull, of Ill., reported” it favo- Maryland to emancipate their slaves, rably from the Judiciary Committee; Mr. Saulsbury, of Del., objected to when, on its coming up," it was its consideration; and it lay over. fiercely assailed by Mr. Saulsbury, When called up,” he declared his inof Delaware, and more temperately flexible hostility to it, and his puropposed by Messrs. Willey, of Va., pose to interpose every available McDougall a:id Latham, of Cal., and obstacle to its passage. It was intro Powell, of Ky. Mr. Henderson, of duced, however, and had its first readMo., supported it, and thenceforward ing; but was not again taken up. acted as an emancipationist. Messrs. Soon, however, Mr. White, of Ind., * Mar. 10. – Mar. 11. 29 Mar. 20. % Mar. 24. * Apr. 2. * Apr. 10. "Mar. 7, 1862. * Mar. 10.

SLAVERY EXCLUDED FROM THE TERRITORIES.

261 !

proposed a more comprehensive | ferred-Yeas 81; Nays 51-to the measure; contemplating the gradual Select Committee aforesaid ; which extinguishment, at the National cost, was only enabled to perfect it on the of Slavery in all the Border Slave last *day of the session; when the States, and moved its reference to a Ilouse refused-Yeas 63; Nays 57Select Committee of nine. Mr. Mal to suspend the rules in favor of its lory, of Ky., moved that this propo immediate consideration, which resition do lie on the table; which quired a vote of two thirds. So perfailed: Yeas 51; Nays 68; and it then ished the last effort to compensate the prevailed: Ycaz 67; Nays 52. loyal States for the Emancipation of

The Committee having been ap- their Slaves—The Democrats and all pointe:1," Mr. Whito reported" there. the Border-State members who were from a biil offering $300 per head not friends of the Administration from the Treasury for the legal eman-, unanimously resisting it in every cipation of the slaves of Delaware, shape and to the extent of their powMaryland, Virginia, Kentucky, Ten- er. nessee, and Missouri, or either of We have seen " that the XXXVIth' them. The bill was committed, but Congress, after it had become Renot acted on; having been reported publican through the with Irawal of too near the close of the Session. the representatives of the Gulf Next winter, Mr. Ilenderson," in the States, organized the new Territories Senate, and Mr. Noell," in the Ilousc, of Colorado, Nevada, and Dakotah, submitted biils of similar tenor, pro- by acts which maintained a profound viding for compensated emancipation silence with regard to Slavery. The in Missouri alone. Each encountered hope of thius winning a portion of the a bitter opposition from the Demo- slaveholding interest to active loyalty cratic and most of the Border-State in the approaching struggle having Members ; but Mr. Noell's finally been disappointed, Mr. Arnold, of passed" the Ilouse-Yeas 73; Nay3 | Ill., subrnitted to the next llouse a 46. The Senate acted on Mr. Hen- | bill abolishing and prohibiting Slavderson's bill, which provided only for ery in every Territory of the Union ; very Gradual Einancipation-he de- which Mr. Lovejoy, of Ill., duly reclaring that if Congress should offer ported and pressed to a vote; ultihis State $10,000,000 för an act of mately modifying the bill so as to Immediate Abolition, he would op- read as follows: pose its acceptance. The Senate de

| * An Act to secure freedom to all persons within the

Territories of the United States; bated hotly and tediously the rival "To the end that freedom may be and advantages of Iminediate and Grad.

remain forever the fundamental law of the

land in all places whatsoever, so far as it ual Emancipation: the Democrats lies within the power or depends upon the Opposing both but indlining the scale action of the Government of the United in favor of the latter; which pre

States to make it so, therefore

Be it enacted, &c., That Slavery or invailed-26 to 11—and in this shape voluntary servitude, in all cases whatsoever the bill passed : " Yeas 23; Nays 18.

(other than in the punishment of crime,

whereof the party shall have been duly conOn reaching the House, it was re-victed), shall henceforth cease, and be pro

* April 7. April 14. "July 16. $ Feb. 12, 1863. 96 March 3.3 Vol. I., p. 388 * Dec. 19. Dec. 15. ^ Jan. 6, 1863. s March 24, 1862. 39 May 1.

hibited forever, in all the Territories of the Menzies, Wadsworth, and Wickliffe, of United States now existing, or hereafter tu lu.. bo formed or acquired in any way."

o Ky.,Clements and Maynard, of Tenn., No measure of the session was more

Hall, Noell, and J.S. Phelps, of Mo.

| 22 of the 50 from Border Slave States. vehemently opposed, not only by the Democrats wit sout exception, but by

The bill having reached the Senate, the Border-State Unionists with equal

it was reported" by Mr. Browning, zeal and unanimity; even Mr. Fish

of Illinois, substituting for the terms er, of Del., denouncing it, though he

above cited the following: did not vote on the final passage. act, there shall be neither Slavery nor in

"That, from and after the passage of this Mr. Cox, of Ohio, stigmatized it in voluntary servitude in any of the Territories debate as "a bill for the benefit of of the United States now existing, or wlich

nay at any time liereafter be formed or acSecession and Jeff. Davis." Mr.

| quired by the United States, otherwise than Crisfield, of Md., characterized it as in punislıment of criine, whereof the party “a palpable violation of the rights of shall bave been duly convicted.”. the States, and an unwarrantable in- In this shape it passed : “ Ycas 28 terference with private property—a (all Republicans); Nays 10 (all Opfraud upon the States which have position); and the House concurred " made cessions of land to this Govern- in the Senate's amendment-Yeas ment, a violation of the Constitution, 72; Nays 38—and the bill, being apand a breach of the pledges which provid” by the President, became brought the dominant [Republican] henceforth and evermore the law of party into power "_"a usurpation ” | the land. - destructive of the good of the The policy of confiscating or emancountry," &c., &c. Judge Thomas, cipating the slaves of those engaged of Mass., held that Congress could in the Rebellion was very cautiously not warrantably pass this act without and timidly approached at the first providing compensation för slave- or extra session of this Congress. holders in the Territories. Messrs. Very early in the ensuing session, it Bingham, of Ohio, Stevens and Kel- wüs again suggested in the Senate by ley, of Pa., R. Conkling and Diven, Mr. Trumbull," of Illinois, and in the of N. Y., Arnold and Lovejoy, of 111., House by Mr. Eliot,“ of Mass. and others, defended the bill, and it At the former session, Congress passed, “under the Previous Question: had ventured only to direct the conYeas,83 (all Republicans but Sheffield, fiscation of the right or property of R. I., and Judge Thomas, of Mass. of masters in such slaves as those

-to meet whose objections the origi- masters permitted or directed to lanal bill had been modified): Nays, 50: bor on fortifications or other works composed of all the Democrats and designed to aid the Rebellion; but Border-State Unionists who voted, now, a bolder and more sweeping including Messrs. Calvert, Crisfield, measure ves deemed requisite. Mr. Leary, Francis Thomas, and Webster, Eliot's joint resolve-after disclaimof Md., J. B. Blair, Wm. G. Brown, ing all right to interfere with the inand Segar, of Va., Casey, Crittenden, ternal affairs and institutions of local Dunlap, Grider, Harding, Mallory, States in peace-affirmed that the ex, 40 May 12. "May 15. 13 June 9. L " See Vol. I., chap. XXXIV., particularly page 4 June 17. “ June 19.

1.569–70. 40 Doc. 5, 1861. "7 Dec. 2, 1801.

ON FREEING THE SLAVES OF REBELS.

263

isting war must be prosecuted ac-1 In the same spirit, but more temcording to the laws of war, and perately, the bill was opposed by

“That, therefore, we do hereby declare Messrs. Browning, of Ill., Willey, of that the President, as the Coinmander-in-| Va Henderson of Mo.. and Colchief of our army, and the officers in command under liim, have the right to ernan- lamer, of Vt. (the first and last Recipate all persons held as slaves in any publicans ; the others very decided military district in a state of insurrection against the Nittional Government, and that

Unionists), as well as more unsparwe respectfully advise that such' order of ingly by Messrs. Garret Davis and Einancipation be issued, whenever the same Patrol of Kv Soulsbury of Del

e Powell, of Ky., Saulsbury, of Del., will avail to weaken the power of the Rebels in arms, or to strengthen the military Carlile, of Va., and others of the power of the loyal forces.”

Opposition; while it was supported Mr. Trumbull proposed to enact by Messrs. Trumbull, of 111., Wilson that the slaves of all persons who and Sumner, of Mass., IIoward, of shall take up arms against the Uni- Mich., Wade and Sherman, of Ohio, ted States, or in any manner aid or Morrill and Fessenden, of Maine, abct the existing Rebellion, shall Clark and Ilale, of N. H., and nearly thereupon be discharged from service all the more decided Republicans. or labor, and become thenceforth för- So intense and formidable was tl ever free ; any existing law to the resistance that the Senate at length " contrary notwithstanding.

referred the bill to a Select CommitThese propositions, with various tee of seven-Mr. Clark, of N. II., modifications, were vehemcntly dis- chairman—who duly reported therecussed in either IIouse, not continu- from “ A bill to suppress Insurrecously, but alternately with other tion, and punish Treason and Rebelmeasures, nearly to the end of that | lion;" which merely authorized the long and excited session. By friend President, at his discretion, to proand foe, they were debated as though claim free all slaves of persons who their success or failure would decide shall bɔ found in arms against the the issue of Union or Disunion. By | United States thirty days after the all the anti-Republicans, and by some issue of such proclamation. On this of the more conservative Republicans, bill being taken up," Mr. Davis, of they were denounced as utterly, glar- Ky., tried to have it so amended ingly, in antagonisın to the Federal | that the said slaves, instead of being Constitution, and as calculated to ex- freed, should be sold and the protinguish the last vestige of Unionism ceeds put into the Treasury; but in the Slave States, but especially in only seven Senators were found suffithose that had seceded. Sail Senator

ciently Democratic to sustain that Cowan,"" of Pennsylvania:

proposition. He next proposed that * Pass this bill, and the same messenger

er no slave should be emancipated who carries it to the South will come back to us with the news of their complete con- | under this act, until he should be on solidution as one man. We shall then have his way to be colonized at some done that which treason could not do: wei og selves shall then have dissolved the

| point outside of the United States : Unio:: ; we shall have rent its sacred char- which proposition received but six ter, and extinguished the last vestige of affec

vestige of affec; votes. llere the Senate bill was tion for it in the Slave States by our blind and passionate folly."

dropped, in deference to the action * Elected as a Republican in 1861. “ May 6, 1862. to May 16.

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