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tacked next morning in this strong sion, at once ordered a charge, and position; but Lee, not unmindful of was shot dead while leading it, the still recent and sore experience by a bullet through his head. His of Malvern Heights, was too good a command thereupon fell back in disGeneral to repeat his own blunders. order, uncovering the flank of Reno's Aware that a demoralized army un- other division, which thereupon fell der an inapt commander may be back also. most safely and surely assailed on its Gen. Phil. Kearny, with his diviflank and rear—by blows that threat. sion of Ileintzelman's corps, now aden to cut off its line of supply and vanced and renewed the action, in retreat-he started Jackson north- the midst of a thunder-storm so ward, with his own and Ewell's divi furious that ammunition could with sions, at an early hour next morn great difficulty be kept serviceable; ing, ** with instructions to turn and while the roar of cannon was utterly assail our right. Crossing Bull Run unheard at Centerville, barely three at Sudley Ford, Jackson took a coun. miles distant. Riding forward too try road thence to Little River turn recklessly, Kearny, about sunset, was pike, on which, turning sharply to shot dead, when almost within the the right, he moved down toward Rebel lines, and the command of his Fairfax C. H.; and, toward evening division devolved on Gen. Birney, of the next day, when nearing the who promptly ordered a bayonet. little village of Germantown, a mile charge by his own brigade, consistor two from Fairfax C. II., he found ing of the 1st, 38th, and 40th New his advance resisted. Pope, not even | York. The order was executed by threatened with a front attack, had Col. Egan with great gallantry, and ere this suspected the Rebels of a the enemy's advance driven back fresh atteinpt to flank his right, and considerably; Gen. Birney holding had directed Gen. Sumner to push the field of conflict through the night, forward two brigades toward the burying our dead and removing our turnpike, while Gen. Hooker was wounded. Our total loss here canthat afternoon dispatched to Fairfax not have exceeded 500 men ; but C. H. to support the movement. | among them were Gens. Kearny and

Skirmishing commenced at 5 P. M. Stevens, and Maj. Tilden, 38th New Gen. Reno, near Chantilly, with the York, who fell in the closing bayonetremains of two divisions, poorly sup- charge. plied with ammunition, found him. Jackson's flanking movement and self confronted by Jackson's far su- attack, though wisely conceived and perior numbers, but composed wholly vigorously made, had failed to of infantry; the rapidity of his march achieve any material results. His having left his artillery behind on report claims no prisoners nor arms the road. Gen. Isaac J. Stevens, captured." commanding Reno's 20 or left divi. Pope's retreat from Centerville » August 31.

* Sept. 1. were in position on our right and front, cover37 He says:

ing his line of retreat from Centerville to Fair. “Early next morning, Sept. lst, we moved fax Court House. Our line of battle was forward; and, late in the evening, after reaching for ned-Gen. Hill's division on the right; Ox Hill, came in contact with the enemy, who | Ewell's division, Gen. Lawton commanding, in

THE LOSSES OF POPE'S CAMPAIGN.

189

had in effect commenced on the 1st, | killed, beside those already named, when he found himself flanked by were Cols. Fletcher Websier, son of Jackson; and was continued through the great Daniel, Roberts, 1st Mich., out that and the following day, with O'Connor, 2d Wisc., Koltes, 73d out further annoyance from the Pa., commanding a brigade, Cantenemy, until his whole army was well, 82d Ohio, and Brown, 20th drawn back within the intrench- Ind. Among our wounded on the inents which, along the south bank 30th, were Maj.-Gen. Robert C. of the Potomac, cover the approaches Schenck and Col. Hardin, of the to Washington; when he resigned Pa. Reserves. Among the Rebels his command, and was succeeded by wounded in these fights, were Brig.Gen. McClellan.

Gens. Field and Trimble, and Cols.

Forno and Baylor, commanding brigGen. Lee officially claims to have ades. captured, during his campaign against Pope, more than 7,000 pris- How far Pope's disasters are justly oners, beside 2,000 of our wounded attributable to his own incapacity, left in his hands, with 30 pieces of and how far to the failure or withartillery, and 20,000 small arms; holding of support on which he had while our losses of railroad cars, a right to calculate, it is time now to munitions, tents, and camp equipage, consider. In his report, he says: must have been immense. Lee's “It seems proper for me, since so much Medical Director makes the Rebel | misrepresentation has been put into circula

tion as to the support I received from thio losses in the two days' fighting on Army of the Potomac, to state precisely Manassas Plains, 1,090 killed, 6,154 what forces of that army came under my

coinmand, and were at any time engaged in wounded : total, 7,244. Longstreet

the active operations of the campaign. reports his losses from the 23d to the Reynolds's division of Pennsylvania Re30th of August, inclusive. at 4.725. serves, about 2,500, joined me on the 230

of August, at Rappahannock Station. The A. P. Hill reports the losses in his

corps of Heintzelman and Porter, about division, from the 24th to the 31st, 18,000 strong, joined me on the 26th and at 1,548. Probably the entire Rebel

, and 27th of August, at Warrenton Junction.

The Pennsylvania Reserves, under Reyloss from Cedar Mountain to Chan-nolds, and İleintzelman's corps, consisting tilly did not fall short of 15,000 men ;

of the divisions of Hooker and Kearny,

rendered most gallant and efficient service while Pope's, if we include that by stragglers who never rejoined their they had reported to me. Porter's corps. regiments must have been fully from unnecessary and unusual delays, and

frequent and flagrant disregard of my double that number. Among our orders, took no part whatever except in the center, and Jackson's division, Gen. Starke of Gregg, Thomas, and Pender were then commanding, on the left--all on the right of the thrown into the fight. Soon, a portion of turnpike road. Artillery was posted on an emi. | Ewell's division became engaged. The conflict nence to the left of the road. The brigades of now raged with great fury; the enemy obstiBranch and Field, Col. Brockenbrough com. / nately and desperately contesting the ground unmanding the latter, were sent forward to feel til their Geng. Kearny and Stevens fell in front and engage the enemy. A cold and drenching of Thomas's brigade; after which, they retired thunder-shower gwept over the field at this from the field. By the following morning, the time, striking directly into the faces of our Federal army had entirely disappeared from our troops. These two brigades gallantly engaged view; and it soon appeared, by a report from the enemy; but so severe was the fire in front Gen. Stuart, that it had passed Fairfax Court and flank of Branch's brigado as to produce in | House and had moved in the direction of Washit some disorder and falling back. The brigades | ington city."

the action of the 30th of August. This the enemy's force between Pope and oursmall fraction of 20,500 men was all of the selves. Can Franklin, without his artillery 91,000 veteran troops from Harrison's or cavalry, effect any useful purpose in Landing which ever drew trigger under front? Should not Burnside at once take my command, or in any way took part in steps to evacuate Falmouth and Acquia, at that campaign. By the time the corps of the same time corering the retreat of any Franklin and Sumner, 19,000 strong, joined of Pope's troops who may fall back in that me at Centerville, the original Army of Vir direction? I do not see that we have force ginia, as well as the corps of Heintzelman, enough in hand to forin & connexion with and the division of Reynolds, bad been so Pope, whose exact position we do not much cut up in the severe actions in which know. Are we safe in the direction of the they had been engaged, and were so much Valley ?" broken down and diminished in numbers by

Half an hour later, he telegraphed: the constant and excessive duties they had | performed, that they were in little condition “I think our policy now is to make these for any effective service whatever, and re- works perfectly safe, and mobilize a couple quired, and should have had, some days of of corps as soon as possible ; but not to adrest to put them into anything like condition vance thein until they can have their artilto perform their duties in the field.” lery and cavalry."

Gen. McClellan, we have seen, An hour later, he telegraphed was ordered on the 3d of August to again : withdraw his army from the Peninarmo from the Penin. “I still think that we should first provide

for the immediate defense of Washington sula. He hesitated, and reinon

on both sides of the Potoinac. strated; but the orders were rëite "I am not responsible for the past, and

cannot be for the future, unless I receive rated more peremptorily; and he left

authority to dispose of the available troops Harrison's Bar with his rear-guard according to my judgment. Please inform on the 16th of August. Having

me at once what my position is. I do not

wish to act in the dark." embarked and dispatched his corps

At 6 P. M., he telegraphed again: successively at and near Fortress

“I have just received the copy of a disMonroe, he left that post on the 23d, patch from General Pope to you, dated 10 arriving at Acquia creek on the 24th, |

A. M., this inorning, in which he says: All

forces now sent forward should be sent to removing to Alexandria on the 27th ;

;] my right at Gainesville.' on which day Halleck telegraphed 1 “I now have at my disposal here about him:

10,000 men of Franklin's corps, about 2,800

of Gen. Tyler's brigade, and Col. Tyler's “Porter reports a general battle immi 1st Connecticnt Artillery, which I recomnent. Franklin's corps should move out by mend should be held in land for the defense forced marches, carrying three or four days of Washington. provisions, and to be supplied, as far as “If you wish me to order any part of possible, by railroad. Perhaps you may this force to the front, it is in readiness to prefer some other road than to Centerville." march at a moment's notice to any point To this, he replied, at 10:20 A. M. :

you may indicate.

" In view of the existing state of things in “ I have sent orders to Franklin to pre- lour front, I have deemed it best to order pare to march with his corps at once, and to Gen. Casey to hold bis men for (from) Yorkrepair here in person to inform me as to his town in readiness to move, but not to send means of transportation.”

them off till further orders.” At 1:15 P. M., he again tele- At 4:40 P. M. next day, Aug. 28th, graphed Gen. Halleck as follows: he telegraphed Gen. Halleck:

“Franklin's artillery has no horses except “Gen. Franklin is with me here. I will for four guns without caissons. I can pick up know in a few minutes the condition of arno cavalry. In view of these facts, will it tillery and cavalry. We are not yet in connot be well to push Sumner's corps here by dition to move; may be by to-morrow water as rapidly as possible, to make imme- morning. Pope must cut throngh to-day, diate arrangements for placing the works in or adopt the plan I suggested. I have front ot' Wishington in an efficient condition ordered troops to garrison the works at of defense? I have no ideans of knowing | Upton's Hill. They must be lield at any

MOCLELLAN 'MARKING' TIME.

191

cost. As soon as I can see the way to spare tion to accomplish much, if he meets with them, I will send a good corps of troops serious resistance. I should not have moved there. It is the key to Washington, which bim but for your pressing oriler of last connot be seriously inenaced so long as it is night. What lave you from Vienna and held."

Dranesville ?" At 4:45 P. M., he telegraphed At noon, he telegraphed again : again :

“ Your telegram received. Do you wish "Your dispatch received. Neither Frank- | the movement of Franklin's corps to conlin's nor Sumner's corps is now in condition tinue? He is without reserve ainmunition to move and fight a battle. It would be a and without transportation. Would it meet sacrifice to send them out now. I have your views to post the rest of Sumner's sent aids to ascertain the condition of the corps between Arlington and Fort Corcoran, commands of Cox and Tyler; but I still where they can either support Cox, Frankthink that a premature movement in small lin, or Chain Bridge, and even Tenallyforce will accomplish nothing but the de town? struction of the Troops sent out. I repeat “Franklin has only between 10,000 and that I will lose no time in preparing the 11,000 ready for duty. How far do you troops now here for the field; and that wish this force to advance ?" whatever orders you may give, after hearing what I have to say, will be carried out." |

| Gen. McClellan had already diTo these dispatches, Gen, Ilalleck, rected Franklin to halt his command at 8:10 P. M., responded as follows:

near Anandale; and, at 1 P. M. this " There must be no further delay in day, he telegraphed Gen. Halleck as moving Franklin's corps toward Manassas. follows: They must go to-morrow morning, ready or not ready. If we delay too long to get

“I shall endeavor to hold a line in adready, there will be no necessity to go at

vance of Forts Allen and Marcy, at least all; for Pope will either be defeated or vic

with strong advancell guards. I wish to torious without our aid. If there is a want

hold the line through Prospect Hill, Mackof wagons, the men must carry provisions

all's, Minor's, and Hall's Hill. This will with them till the wagons can come to their

give us timely warning. Shall I do as seems relief."

best to me with all the troops in this vi

cinity, including Franklin, who, I really At 10:30 of the following day— think, ought not, under present circumthe day of Pope's first indecisive stances, to advance beyond Anandale?" battle at Gainesville or Groveton Halleck, at 3 P. M., replied: McClellan telegraphed to Gen. Hal "I want Franklin's corps to go far leck as follows:

enough to find out something about the

enemy. Perhaps he may get such inforina" Franklin's corps is in motion; started tion at Anandale as to prevent his going about 6 A. M. I can give him but two | farther. Otherwise, he will push on towarıl squadrons of cavalry. I propose moving Fairfax. Try to get something from direcGen. Cox to Upton's Hill, to hold that im tion of Manassas, either by telegram or portant point with its works, and to pnsh

through Franklin's scouts. Our people cavalry sconts to Vienna, via Freedom Hill

must inove more actively, and find out and Hunter's Lane. Cox has two squadrons where the enemy is. I am tired of guesses.” of cavalry. Please answer at once whether this meets your approval. I lave directed

Fifteen minutes before, McClellan Woodbury, with the Engineer brigade, to ) had telegraphed the President as folhold Fort Lyon, bowever. Detailed last night two regiments to the vicinity of Forts

lows: · Ethan Allen and Marcy. Meagher's brigade “I am clear that one of two courses is still at Acquia. If he moves in support | should be adopted : 1st. To concentrate all . of Franklin, it leaves is without any reliable our available forces to open communication troops in and near Washington. Yet Frank with Pope; 2d. To leave Pope to get out of Jin is too weak alone. What shall be done? his scrape, and at once use all our means to No more cavalry arrived; hare but three make the Capital perfectly safe. squadrons. Franklin has but forty rounds! “No middle ground will now answer. of aminunition, and no wagons to move | Tell me what you wish me to do, and I wil more. I do not think Franklin is in condicio all in iny power to accomplish it. I wish

* August 23.

to know what my orders and authority are. | wagon trains to move to Pope with the least I ask for nothing, but will obey whatever possible delay.” orders you give. I only ask a prompt deci Gen. Halleck, at 9:40 A. M. on the sion, that I may at once give the necessary orders. It will not do to delay longer."

fatal 30th, telegraphed McClellan :

“I am by no means satisfied with Gen. To which the President, at 4:10

Franklin's march of yesterday, considering P. M., responded as follows:

the circumstances of the case. He was very " Yours of to-day just received. I think wrong in stopping at Anandale. Moreover, your first alternative—to wit: 'to concen

I learned last night that the quartermaster's trate all our available forces to open com

department would have given him plenty of munication with Pope'-is the right one.

transportation if he had applied for it any But I wish not to control. That I now leave

1 time since his arrival at Alexandria. He to Gen. Halleck, aided by your counsels.

| knew the importance of opening coinmuni" A. Lincoln.”

cation with Gen. Pope's army, and should But McClellan had already not

have acted more promptly."

At 11 A. M., McClellan responded : only arrested Franklin's march at

“Have ordered Sumner to leave one Anandale, but sent Sumner's corps brigade in the vicinity of Chain Bridge, and northward toward Arlington and to move the rest, via Columnbia pike, on

Anandale and Fairfax Court House, if this Chain Bridge, instead of toward the

is the roote you wish them to take. Ile enemy. At 7:50 P. M., Halleck tele and Franklin are both instructed to join graphed him thus:

Pope as promptly as possible. Shall Couch

move also when he arrives ?" “You will inmediately send construction

To which Halleck, at 12:20 P. M., train and guards to repair railroad to Ma. nassas. Let there be no delay in this. I responded as follows: have just been told that Franklin's corps “I think Couch should land at Alexan. stopped at Anandale, and that he was this dria and be inmediately pushed out to Pope. evening in Alexandria. This is all contrary Send the troops where the fighting is. Let to my orders. Investigate and report the me know when Couch arrives." fact of this disobedience. That corps must push forward, as I directed, to protect the

Franklin's and Sumner's corps railroad and open our communications with were now actually pushed forward, Manassas."

and found Pope without difficulty, McClellan, at 8 P. M., telegraphed defeated and driven back on Center to Halleck :

ville. Had they been there two days “It was not safe for Franklin to move earlier, and had Porter now and then beyond Anandale, under the circumstances, until we knew what was at Vienna. Gen.

condescended to obey an order, that Franklin remained here until about 1 P. M., defeat might have been transformed endeavoring to arrange for supplies for his

into a victory. It seems clear that command. I am responsible for both these circumstances, and do not see that either neither McClellan, nor any of his was in disobedience to your orders. Please devoted lieutenants, was anxious that give distinct orders in reference to Frank

victory, under such auspices, should lin's movements of to-morrow." At 10 P. M., Gen. McClellan tele

be achieved. Pope's appointment to graphed again :

the command, and his address to his “Not hearing from you, I have sent

army on opening the campaign," had orders to Gen. Franklin to place himself in been understood by them as reflecting communication with Gen. Pope by advanc- on the strategy of the Peninsular caming, as soon as possible, and, at the same time, cover the transit of Pope's supplies.

paign; and this was their mode of Orders have been given for railway and | resenting the indignity.

* See page 173.

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