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LONG STREET ON AAND- BATTLE OF GAINESVILLE. 183
toward Leesburg; and to Porter, ing, of King's abandonment of the whom he supposed to be now at Gainesville road, had sent orders to Manassas Junction, to move upon Sigel, at Groveton, to advance and Centerville at dawn, he confidently attack vigorously at daylight, supexpected to have Jackson inclosed ported by Reynolds ; while IIeintzeland early in the morning assailed by man, with Hooker's and Kearny's 25,000 on either side, who were to divisions, was to push forward from crush him before Longstreet could Centerville toward Gainesville; Reno possibly arrive.
following, with orders to attack But he was reckoning without his promptly and vigorously. Fitz-John host-or rather, without the other Porter, with his own corps and King's one. Gen. Longstreet's advance had division, was to move from Manassas reached Thoroughfare Gap at 3 upon the Gainesville road with all. P. 2..," and passed through it; but speed, with intent to turn Jackson's encountered on this side a superior flank at the intersection of the Warforce, strongly posted, by which it renton turnpike. was easily repulsed. As there was Sigel, who was nearest the enemy, no time to be lost, Gen. D, R. Jones, with the division of Schurz forming with two brigades, was sent in at his right, that of Schenck_liis left, once; while Hood, with two others, and the brigade of Milroy between following a mountain foot-path, at- them, advanced, by order, at 5 A. M., tempted to turn our right; and Wil- and was fully engaged before 7; cox, with two more, making a circuit gaining ground by hard fighting till through Hopewell Gap, three miles half past 10, when Milroy and north, was to come in on our rear. Schurz had advanced a mile, and
Ricketts's single division was of Schenck two miles, though obstinately course unable to stand against Long- resisted by the enemy. But the street's heavy corps, and was driven off Rebel strength in their front was with loss, commencing its retreat just constantly increasing, and now asat dark. Longstreet's whole force sumed the offensive, hurling heavy was pushed rapidly through the pass, masses of infantry against our right; and, early next day," its van was in which held its ground firmly by the Gainesville, pressing on to the rescue aid of its batteries, but not without of Jackson, its steps quickened by the beavy loss. roar of cannon, and meeting no re- Schenck, being now ordered by sistance to the desired concentration ; Sigel to strike the Rebel assailants McDowell and King having got out in flank and rear, was soon briskly of the way during the night, retreat- engaged; the enemy attempting to ing on Manassas Junction. When flank him in turn. At this moment, Longstreet, before noon, came rapidly Gen. Kearny's division of Ileintzelinto action on the right of Jackson, man's corps arrived on the field, by already hotly engaged, the Rebel the Sudley Springs road, and went army was once more rëunited, and in on Sigel's riglit; while Reno, comfelt itself invincible.
ing up by the Gainesville turnpike, Pope, apprised, just before morn- supported our center; and Reynolds, 57 August 28.
20 August 29.
PLAN OF SECOND BATTLE OF BULL RUX, INCLUDING THE MORE IMPORTANT POSITIONS OCCUPIED FROM AUGUST 27
TO BEPTEMBER 1.
Explanations. AA-(arrow-heads)-indicate the route pursued by forced by McDowell and Reno, and confronted by Jack. Jackson's forces, viz. : to Manassas Junction, Aug. 27; son (a, b, c), who was afterward röenforced by Longvia Centerville to Groveton and Sudley Springs on the street, Aug. 29. 28th, and on the 1st of September to near Germantown. The same position substantially, but extending farther
The wsition of Hooker's and Ewell's forces in their to the left, was held on the 30th, by Heintzelman, Reno, engagement on the 27th, near Bristow, is shown; while Porter, Sigel, and Reynolds (named in order from right the position of the commands of McDowell and Sigel, at to left), supported by McDowell. Gainesville, and Reno and Kearny, at Greenwich, as held No attempt is made to represent the changes of posithat night, are also shown, being indicated by the respection which occurred during the two days of severe fight. tive initials, viz.:
The position of the several commands at Centervillo R-Reno.
on the 81st August, and near Germantown on the 1st The positions of Gens. McDowell and Sigel were some- | September, are indicated by initials, where the full nama what farther advanced toward Centerville, at the time does not occur, viz. : of their collision with Jackson's advance on the 28th.
NI-Heintzelman. A, B, C, represent the lines formed by the commands
S-Sigel. of Heintzelman, Bigel, and Reynolds, afterward rien. | P-Reno.
BATTLE OF GAINESVILLE, OR SECOND BULL RUN. 185
asion of along
with the Pennsylvania Reserves, the left, advanced by order, charged caine into position, at noon, on our the enemy's left and swept back his extreme left. About 2 P. M., Gen. first line, rolling it up on his center Hooker, with Heintzelman's remain- and right. King's division was sent ing division, came down the Sudley into the fight about sunset, and adSprings road on our extreme right; vanced considerably beyond our genand his troops immediately went in eral line of battle; but, soon finding to the aid of the wasted and hungry itself confronted by a heavier force commands of Schurz and Milroy, of the enemy, was brought to a stand. who were thus enabled to refill their Meantime, Hood charged in turn, cartridge boxes and obtain some with a fresh division of Longstreet's much needed food and rest.
corps, which had marched through The fighting thence till 4 P. M. the Gap that day and been sent by was desultory—a succession of heavy Lee to the relief of Jackson, now skirmishes from point to point along clearly outnumbered. Hood's famous the front; either General being intent Texas brigade and that of Law rushed on his approaching rëenforcements, forward with great intrepidity, reand trusting to time as his friend. pulsing Kearny's most advanced reAt 45, McDowell being announced giments, taking 1 gun, 4 flags, and as at hand, Pope sent a peremptory 100 prisoners. Darkness arrested the order to Porter to go into action on conflict, either army resting on the the enemy's right, turning it if pos- field of battle; but Pope, with some sible; and, an hour later, presuming reason, claining the advantage, in this order obeyed, directed Heintzel- that he held some ground which had man and Reno to attack the enemy been wrested from the enemy during in front; which order was gallantly the day. The losses on either side obeyed.”
were probably not far from 7,000 And now, though Fitz-John Por- men. ter was still missing, and King's di- ! But Pope was really beaten, though vision did not reach the field till near he did not yet know it. His aim had sunset, our army was for once supe- been to overwhelm Jackson before rior in numbers; Kearny's and Hook- Lee, with Longstreet, could come to er's fresh regiments pressing forward his assistance; and in this he had and crowding back the enemy's left, conspicuously failed. Had his entire which had been skillfully disposed for army been in hand and in line of a good part of the day behind the battle by 9 o'clock that morning, his embankment of an abandoned rail success would have been certain and road, which served most effectively easy; but, dropping in by brigades as a breast-work. At 5 P. M., Kear- and divisions throughout the day, ny, bringing up nearly his entire and Porter not even getting into acdivision, and changing his front to tion at all," he had barely held his
* Pope, in his official report, says:
20 Pope, in his official report, says: " In this attack, Grover's brigade of Hooker's "About 8 P. M., the greater portion of the field division was particularly distinguished by a deter- of battle was occupied by our army. Nothing mined bayonet-charge, breaking two of the ene. | was heard of Gen. Porter up to that time; and my's lines, and penetrating to the third before it his forces took no part whatever in the action; could be checked.”
I but were suffered by him to lie idle on their " In his official report, he says: made a vigorous attack on the enemy, as he was
own; and now his opportunity had ing him that rations would be loaded vanished. Longstreet's corps had in the available wagons and cars at been arriving throughout the day, Alexandria 80 soon as he would send and was now all present-much of it back a cavalry escort to bring out the perfectly fresh, so far as fighting was trains. If cavalry had been ever so concerned, and ready for most effec- necessary to the guarding of railroad tive service on the morrow. trains, he had probably not then a
Pope, so often disappointed and regiment that could have gone to baffled, found his fighting force re- Alexandria and back within 48 duced by casualties and by strag- hours. He had received no rëengling, on the morning of that event- forcements or supplies since the 26th, ful morrow, to about 40,000 men." and had no assurance that any were These had had a surfeit of marching on the way. To retreat was diffiand fighting, with very little eating, cult; to stand still and famish unadfor the two preceding days; while visable; so he ordered Porter, suphis artillery and cavalry horses had ported by King, to advance down been ten days in harness, and two the Warrenton turnpike and attack; days without food. To his appeal of while Heintzelman and Reno, supthe 28th to Gen. Halleck for rations, ported by Ricketts's division, were for forage, and fresh horses, he had to assail and turn the enemy's left. that morning at daylight" received Porter's attack was feeble ; and not an answer from Gen. Franklin, writ- unreasonably so, since he encounten by direction of Gen. McClellan, tered the enemy in greatly superior and dated 8 P. M. of the 29th, inform- numbers, and was speedily thrown arms, within sight and sound of the battle during and checked by the dest: uction of this large the whole day. So far as I know, he made no force as to have been no longer in condition to effort whatever to comply with my orders or to prosecute further operations of an aggressive take any part in the action. I do not hesitate to character." say think, if he had discharged his duty as became a soldier under the circumstances, and had
"At that time, my effective force, greatly reexpected and directed to do, at any time up to
duced by losses in killed, wounded, missing, and 8 o'clock that night, we should have utterly broken down men. during the severe operations crushed or captured the larger portion of Jack of the two or three days and nights previous; son's force before he could have been by any | the sharp actions of Ilooker, King, and Ricketts possibility sufficiently rienforced to have made on the 27th and 28th, and the furious battle on the an effective resistance. I did not myself feel for | 29th, were estimated by me and others asf lows: a moment that it was necessary for me, having | McDowell's corps, including Reynolds's division, given lien, Porter an order to march toward the 12.000 men; Sigel's corps, 7,000; Reno's corps, enemy, in a particular direction, to send him in 7,000; lieintzelınan's corps, 7,000; Porter's corps, addition specific orders to attack; it being his which had been in no engagement, and was, or clear duty, and in accordance with every military
ought to have been, perfectly fresh, I estimated at precept, ti» hare brought his forces into action
about 12,000 men, including the brigade of Piatt, wherever he encountered the enemy, when a
which formed a part of Sturgis's division, and furious battle with that enemy was raging during
the only portion that ever joined me. But of the whole day in his immediate presence. I be- | this force tho brigades of Piatt and Griffin, num. lieve-in fact, I am positive that at 5 o'clock on bering, as I understood, about 5,000 men, had the afternoon of the 29th. Gen. Porter had in been suffered to march off at davlight on the his font no considerable body of the enemy | 30th for Centerville, and wero not available for believed thien, as I am very sure now, that it was operations on that day. This reduced Porter's easily practicable for him to have turned the effective force in the field to about 7.000 men; right flank of Jackson, and to have fallen upon which gave me a total force of 40,000 men. his rear; that, if he had done so, we should have | Banks's corps, about 5,000 strong, was at Brisgained a decisive victory over the army undertow Station, in charge of the railroad trains, and Jackson before he could have been joined by of a portion of the wagou trains of tho army, any of the forces of Longstreet; and that the still at that place." army of Gen. Loe would have been so crippled | Aug. 30.
POPE DEFEATED AT GAINESVILLE.
187 back in confusion; the Confederates | Hood's two brigades again led the pursuing eagerly and joining battle charge, followed by the divisions of along the entire front, but struggling Evans, R. H. Anderson, and Wilcox, especially to overwhelm and turn sustained by those of Kemper and our left, where Schenck, Milroy, and D. R. Jones; the Rebel artillery Reynolds, soon rëenforced by Rick- doing fearful execution on our disetts, maintained the unequal contest ordered and recoiling infantry. At throughout the afternoon; while Por- dark, our left had been forced back ter's weakened corps was rallied, re- considerably, but still stood firm and formed, and pushed up to their sup- unbroken, and still covered the turnport; rendering good service, espe pike which was our only safe line of cially the brigade of regulars under retreat. At 8 P. M., Pope sent writCol. Buchanan. Gen. Tower led his ten instructions to his corps combrigade, of Ricketts's division, into manders to withdraw deliberately action, in support of Reynolds, with toward Centerville, designating the eminent skill and gallantry; its con route of each, and the position he duct being such as to elicit enthusi. was to take ; while Reno was ordered astic cheers from our entire left wing. to cover the retreat; which was made Reno’s corps, also, being withdrawn slowly, quietly, and in good order : from our right center, was thrown no pursuit across Bull Run being into action on our left, and displayed attempted." conspicuous gallantry.
Franklin's corps, from McClellan's But the fates were against us. army, reported 8,000 strong, was, The enemy was aware of his ad- unknown to Pope, throughout this vantage, and resolved to press it to mournful day, a little east of Centerthe utmost. Our attack on his left, ville.“ Pope reached that point beunder Jackson, for a time promised tween 9 and 10 P. m., and at once success; until our advancing troops made his dispositions for resisting a were mowed down by the cross-fire Rebel attack. But none was atof 4 batteries from Longstreet's left, tempted. Sumner, as well as Frankwhich decimated and drove them lin, from McClellan's army, joined back in confusion. Jackson, seeing him here, raising his total force to them recoil, immediately ordered an fully 60,000 men; which was probaadvance; which Longstreet supported bly more than the enemy could now by pushing forward bis whole com- bring against him. mand against our center and left. Pope evidently expected to be at* Lee, in his official report, says:
enemy's right and intercept his retreat to Wash“The obscurity of night and the uncertainty ington. Jackson's progress was ritarded by of the fords of Bull Run rendered it necessary the inclemency of the weather and the fatiguo to suspend operations until morning; when the of his troops; who, in addition to their arduous cavalry, being pushed forward, discovered that marches, had fought three severe engagements the enemy had escaped to the strong position of in as many days. He reached Little River turnCenterville, about four miles beyond Bull Run. pike in the evening, and the next day, SeptemThe prevalence of a heavy rain, which began ber 1st, advanced by that road toward Fairfax during the night, threatened to render Bull Run impassable, and impoded our movements.
* Pope, in his official report, says. Longstreet remained on the battle-field to en. gage the attention of tho enemy, and cover the “ About 6 P. M., I heard accidentally that burial of the dead and the removal of the Franklin's corps had arrived at a point abont wo:inded; while Jackson proceeded by Sudler's four miles east of Centerville, and 12 miles in our lord to the Little River turnpike, to turn the rear, and that it was only about 8,000 strong."