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stream, picking up a number of barely 7,000 men had reached him. stragglers.

He had resolved to recross the RapGen. Reno, with 8,000 of Burn- pahannock on the night of the 22d, side's corps, having joined" him, and fall upon the flank and rear of Gen. Pope advanced his infantry to the long Rebel column constantly Robertson's river and Raccoon Ford, passing up the river ; but, during with his center at and around Cedar that night, a heavy rain set in, which, Mountain, and began again to operate before morning, had drowned all the with his cavalry on the enemy's com- fords and carried away the bridges in munications, until satisfied that the his front, rendering his meditated whole Rebel Army of Virginia was blow impossible. rapidly assembling to overwhelm During that night, Gen. J. E. B. him; one of his cavalry expeditions Stuart, with 1,500 Rebel cavalry and having captured J. E. B. Stuart's 2 guns, having crossed the RappaAdjutant, bearing a letter from Gen. hannock at Waterloo Bridge and Lee," at Gordonsville, which clearly IIart's Mill during the preceding day, indicated that purpose. Holding his pushed on unobserved to Warrenton, advanced position to the last, so as surprised Gen. Pope's headquartersto afford time for the arrival of Mc- train near Catlett's Station, during the Clellan's army, he commenced" a re- intense rain and darkness; capturing treat across the Rappahannock, which Pope's field Quarterınaster and his was effected in two days without loss; dispatch-book, with a quantity of uniand, though the Rebels, of course, forms and personal baggage, burnfollowed sharply with their cavalry, ing the wagons, and trying to burn reaching the river on the morning of the railroad bridge over Cedar Run; the 20th, they found the fords so but the tremendous rain then fallguarded and fortified that they could ing defeated this design. Stuart not be forced without heavy loss; so, claims to have reached the Rapafter three days of skirmishing and pahannock at Warrenton Springs, on artillery-firing at Kelly's Ford and his return next day, with 300 prisRappahannock Station, they com oners and many horses, here crossing menced a movement up the stream, unharmed, after a night's bivouac with intent to turn our right. and a little skirmishing. Pope's

Pope, still under orders to main actual headquarters during this raid tain his communications with Fre were near Rappahannock Station ; dericksburg, was unable to extend but our army trains were parked his right farther without too much around Catlett's, and guarded by weakening his center, and tele- 1,500 infantry and five companies of graphed again and again to Wash-cavalry; so that Stuart's cheap sucington that he must be rëenforced or cess inflicted on us more disgrace retreat. He was assured, on the than injury—a disgrace which the 21st, that, if he could hold on two intense darkness and pouring rain days longer, he should be so amply explain, but do not excuse. strengthened as to enable him to as- Still, the enemy confronting us in sume the offensive ; yet, on the 25th, ample force at Rappahannock Sta" August 14. ** Dated August 15.

13 August 18.

our right.

POPE PREPARING TO FIGHT.

179

tion, Sulphur Springs, and Waterloo | them before advancing. Supported Bridge, kept moving heavy columns by Gens. Reno and Banks, he crossed up their side of the river, with evi- Great Run next morning" and occudent intent to flank and fall upon | pied Sulphur Springs under a heavy our right; and Pope, facing along fire of artillery from the Rebel batthe turnpike from Warrenton to teries over the Rappahannock, reGainesville, resolved there to give building the Sulphur Springs bridge, battle. Meantime, IIeintzelman's and pushing forward in the direction long-expected corps from McClellan's of Waterloo Bridge, which was ocarmy had reached Warrenton Junc-cupied by Gen. Buford's cavalry at tion," and Porter had reported from noon of that day; Sigel's advance, the neighborhood of Bealton Station ; under Milroy, arriving late in the while Sturgis, Cox, and Franklin, afternoon: when our army may be were telegraphed from Washington said to have been concentrated, to be just at hand. Pope, therefore, facing to the west, with Sigel's corps believed, and had a right to believe, and Buford's cavalry near the Rapthat he was to be supported, in the pahannock at Waterloo Bridge, with struggle now imminent, by 40,000 to Banks's behind it; Reno's farther 50,000 veterans from the Army of east, and very near Sulphur Springs; the Potomac, and had made disposi- McDowell, with Ricketts’s and King's tions and given orders accordingly. divisions, at Warrenton ; lleintzelHe requested Gen. Halleck to push man behind him at Warrenton JuncFranklin with all speed to Gaines- tion, where Sturgis and Cox were ville; and sent orders to Manassas hourly looked for; while Franklin Junction that the first division which was expected to come in on his right, reached that point from Alexandria and Porter to push forward and join should halt and take post in the Reno. But unsuccessful fighting works at that place, pushing forward and constant marching had by this its cavalry toward Thoroughfare Gap time reduced Sigel's corps to 9,000 to watch the enemy's movements in effectives; Banks's to 5,000; Mcthat quarter; while Gen. Sturgis, Dowell's, including Reynolds's divicommanding at Alexandria, had al- sion, to 15,500; and Reno's to 7,000; ready been directed" by him to post to which add 4,000 thoroughly usedstrong guards along the railroad from up cavalry, and Pope's army proper Manassas Junction to Catlett's, per- could bring into action hardly sonally superintending the execution 40,000 men. Add to these the corps of this order.

of Heintzelman and Porter, just arSigel, who had slowly moved up rived from McClellan's army, and it the Rappahannock, and encountered" might be said that his whole coma Renel force at Great Run, two mand numbered nearly 60,000; but miles below the Sulphur Springs, had Heintzelman had reached Warreneasily driven it, but not till it had ton Junction by railroad, without had time to destroy certain bridges; artillery or wagons, with only four and the great flood then prevailing rounds of ammunition to the man, compelled him to halt and rebuild and without horses even for his field * August 23. 16 August 22.

16 August 23.

17 August 24.

officers; while Porter, at Warrenton | arrived at Bristow soon after JackJunction, had a very small supply of son, to whom they fell an easy prey. provisions and barely 40 rounds of So far, Jackson's success had been cartridges per man.

without flaw; but his position was Lee, who had by this time nearly critical, and there was obviously no his whole army on the Rappahan- time to be lost. Weary and footnock, had abandoned the idea of sore as were his men, he at once disforcing a passage of that river, in patched Gen. Trimble, with the 21st favor of an effort, by a long flank North Carolina and 21st Georgia inmovement, to turn our right. To fantry, under Stuart—who took part this end, Jackson was directed to of his cavalry—with orders to strike take the advance, cross above Water Manassas Junction, seven miles farloo, and move around our army so ther north, carry it at all hazards, as to strike the railroad in its rear; and capture the large amount of while Longstreet, following, was to stores there collected. Stuart moved menace our front and fix Pope's at- slowly, because of the darkness of tention until Jackson's hazardous the night, as well as the weariness movement should be accomplished. of his command; but, sending Col.

Jackson moved rapidly across " Wickham, with the 4th Virginia cavthe Rappahannock at Hinson's Mill, alry, to the rear of the Junction, he four miles above Waterloo, and en charged and carried it with his incamped that night at Salem, behind fantry before midnight, capturing 8 the Bull Run Mountains, between guns, 300 prisoners, 175 horses, 200 Thoroughfare and Manassas Gaps. new tents, 10 locomotives, 7 trains Starting early next morning, he loaded with provisions and munipassed through Thoroughfare Gap tions, and immense quantities of and moved south-easterly by Gaines- quartermaster and commissary stores. ville, where he was joined by Stuart Our forces, consisting of the 11th with two cavalry brigades; striking New York battery and 4 or 5 combefore dark" the Alexandria Railroad panies of infantry, seem to have been at Bristow Station, thus placing him- taken by surprise; which is the more self directly between Pope's far su- unaccountable since a train, which perior force and his base at Alexan- had barely escaped capture at Brisdria or Washington; having encoun- tow, had, soine hours before, run by tered no resistance. In fact, Pope the Junction at full speed, rushing seems to have been completely de- into a down train loaded with sol. ceived," with his cavalry still watch- diers, which was standing on the ing for a Rebel advance from the track at Bull Run bridge, four miles Rappaþannock; as two trains of cars, east of Manassas, completely demolmoving northward from Warrenton, ishing 5 freight cars, killing 3 sol1 Aug. 25.

19 Aug. 26. emy is threatening, or moving up the Valley of the %0 Gen. Banks, from his position near the Rap Shenandoah, via Front Royal, with designs upon pahannock, reported to Pope at 11:25 A. M. on the Potomac-possibly beyond." Pope, at War. the 25th, that his Aid, Col. Clark, in charge of reuton Junction, at 9:30 that night, sent to Mo the Signal Corps, had observed a general move. | Dowell at Warrenton, that, “I believe the whole ment of the Rebel army to the west and north. force of the enemy has marched for the Shenandoah Banks adds: “It seems to be apparent that the en. I Valley, by way of Luray and Front Royal."

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DEFEATS OF SCAMMON AND G. W. TAYLOR. 181 diers, and severely wounding others; | Pope, considerably astonished, bethe conductor and engineer of the gan by this time to have a realizing fagitive train being themselves badly sense of his condition. He had this injured. A surprise at the Junction, morning as ordered McDowell, with whereby 4 of our guns were taken at Sigel and Reynolds, to move rapidly the first dash of the Rebel cavalry, on Gainesville, so as to reach it that and an immense amount of property night; while Reno, followed by lost, which a well-officered regiment Kearny's division of Heintzelman's might have saved, could never have corps, was directed to move on occurred in any service but ours. parallel roads to Greenwich, and

Col. Scammon, with the 11th and thence communicate at once with 12th Ohio, of Gen. Cox's division, McDowell, supporting him it rerecently from West Virginia, was sta- quired. Pope himself, with Hooker's tioned at Union Mills, across Bull division of Heintzelman's corps, Run, whither a few of our routed moved directly up the railroad handful at Manassas escaped, giving toward Manassas, ordering Porter the alarm. He at once ordered an to remain at Warrenton Junction advance upon the Junction, which until Banks should arrive from Faybrought on, at daylight," a conflict; etteville, when he should march wherein our men were worsted and forthwith on Gainesville, where a driven back across Bull Run Bridge, battle was anticipated. The trains which Scammon attempted to hold; were instructed to keep in the rear but by noon he was fairly beaten off, of Hooker, protected by the corps retreating up the railroad toward behind him from attack. Alexandria; while part of the Rebel Approaching Bristow Station that cavalry, justly elated with their tri. afternoon, Hooker encountered the umph, pushed across and raided, division of Ewell, which had been burnt, and destroyed at will, at Fair. left there by Jackson on his advance fax, and on to Burke's Station. to Manassas; when a sharp fight

Meantime, Brig.-Gen. George W. occurred, in which Ewell was overTaylor, with the 1st, 2d, 3d, and 4th powered and driven, with a loss of New Jersey infantry, of Franklin's some 300 on each side; Ewell losing division, had been sent forward by a part of his baggage, but burning rail from Alexandria, and, debarking the bridge and thoroughly destroying near Centerville, pushed eagerly for the railroad. He of course fell back ward to regain the lost fight; but on Jackson at Manassas; while by this time Jackson, who was quite Hooker, from want of ammunition, aware that moments were precious, was unable vigorously to pursue him. had brought up from Bristow. his Jackson, justly afraid of being asown and A. P. Hill's divisions, com- sailed by Pope's entire army, was prising 10 brigades and 12 batteries : forced to evacuate Manassas, moving by which Taylor was quickly routed, westward, in order to unite more himself losing a leg in the encoun- readily with Longstreet, then known ter; the Rebels remaining com to be approaching; and compelled pletely masters of the situation. to burn some thousands of barrels of 2 Aug. 27.

August 27.

flour, beef, pork, and bacon, whereof sisted in seeking a more immediate the Rebel army stood in greater need junction with Longstreets advance. than did ours. McDowell, Kearny, Pope reached Manassas, with Kearand Reno reached, during the night, ny's division and Reno's corps, about the positions assigned them by Pope. noon; Jackson having left with bis

Longstreet had only started the rear-guard an hour earlier. Pope day before from the south side of the immediately pushed forward all his Rappahannock, opposite Warrenton forces in hand upon Centerville, Springs, and had not yet entered ordered Porter to come up at once Thoroughfare Gap. Could McDow-to Manassas, and McDowell to adell but block it effectually with a few vance toward Centerville. Meanregiments and batteries, while the wbile, McDowell, unordered, had rest of our army was hurled upon detached Ricketts's division and sent Jackson, our triumph must be cer- it toward Thoroughfare Gap; so that tain and decisive. Hence Pope, it was no longer available for the about dark, sent back explicit orders directed movement on Centerville. to Porter, at Warrenton Junction, to Late in the afternoon, Kearny move forward at 1 A, M.," and report occupied Centerville; Jackson's rearto headquarters at Bristow, 10 miles guard retreating by Sudley Springs; distant, during the night or early next while part of his force took the Warmorning. This order Porter failed to renton turnpike toward Gainesville, obey; not moving till after daylight, impeding our advance on both roads and not reaching Bristow till 107 A. M. by destroying the bridges over Bull

McDowell was likewise ordered, Run and Cub Run. At 6 P. M., at 9 P. M.," to press forward, at the Jackson's advance, now moving very earliest dawn, toward Manassas toward Thoroughfare Gap, encounJunction, resting his right on the tered King's division of McDowell's Manassas Gap Railroad, while Reno corps, and a sanguinary combat enadvanced simultaneously from Green- sued, which was terminated by darkwich upon Manassas, and Kearny ness, the advantage being on the side upon Bristow. Kearny reached Bris- of the Rebels. The loss on both sides tow at 8 A. M.," with Reno on his was heavy; and among the Rebel left, and was immediately pushed wounded were Maj.-Gen. Ewell and forward, followed by Hooker, on the Brig.-Gen. Taliaferro; the former track of Ewell. McDowell gave severely. orders for the required movement at Pope, still at Centerville, was ap2 A. M.; but Sigel, who held his ad- prised of this collision at 10 P. M., vance, had not fairly cleared Gaines and then felt that he had Jackson ville at 74 A, M.

sure. Sending orders to McDowell Meantime, Jackson, who was not and King to hold their ground at all easily caught napping, had com- hazards, and directing Kearny to menced his evacuation of Manassas at push forward at 1 A. m.“ from Cen3 a. M., moving viâ Centerville; and terville, along the Warrenton turnthus escaping the destruction which pike, and to hug Jackson close, so as probably awaited hiin had he per to prevent his retreating northward

% August 25. 4 August 27. % August 28. 20 August 29.

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