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such a movement simple madness. In order, however, to effect at least a diversion in favor of McClellan's ■worsted army, and to enable it to abandon the Peninsula without further loss, he drew Sigel from Middletown, via Front Royal, to Sperry ville, on one of the sources of the Rappahannock, near the Blue Ridge; while Banks, following nearly the same route from the Yalley, came in a few miles farther east; and Ricketts's division of Gen. McDowell's corps advanced south-westwardly from Manassas Junction to a point a little eastward of Banks. Pope wrote to Gen. McClellan, then on the Peninsula, a letter proposing hearty cooperation and soliciting suggestions, which elicited but a vague and by no means cordial response.' lie had doubtless suggested to the President the appointment of a common military superior; whereupon Maj.-Gen. Halleck was relieved of his command in the West and called* to Washington as General-in-Chief, assuming command July 23d.
'McClellan and his lieutenanU had of courso read and resented Pope's address to his array on taking the field, which they, not unreasonably, interpreted as reflecting on their strategy, though Pope disclaims such an application. Its text is as follows:
"washington, July 14, 18C2. "To the Officers and Soldiers of the Army vf Virginia:
"By special assignment of the President of the United States, I have assumed command of this army. I havo spent two weeks in learning your whereabouts, your condition, and your wants; in preparing you for active operations, and in placing you in positions from which you can act promptly and to the purpose.
"I have corao to you from the AVest, where we have always seen tho backs of our enemies —from an army whose business it has been to •eek the adversary, and to beat him when found —whose policy has been attack, and not defense.
'' In but one instance has the enemy been able to place Out Western armies in a defensive attitude. I presume that I have been called here to pursue the same system, and to lead you
Before quitting Washington4 for the field, Pope had ordered Gen. King, at Fredericksburg, to push forward detachments of his cavalry to the Virginia Central Railroad and break it up at several points, so as to impede the enemy's communication between Richmond and the Valley; which was effected. He had likewise directed Gen. Banks to advance an infantry brigade, with all his cavalry, to Culpepper Court House, thence pushing forward cavalry so as to threaten Gordonsville. The advance to Culpepper having been unresisted, Banks was next ordered' to send Hatch, with all his cavalry, to capture Gordonsville, destroy the railroad for 10 or 15 miles east of it, and thence push a detachment as far as Charlottesville, burning bridges and breaking up railroads as far as possible; but Hatch, taking along infantry, artillery, and heavy trains, was so impeded by bad roads that he had only reached Madison Court House on the 17th—a day after Ewell, with a division of Lee's army
against the enemy. It is my purpose to do so; and that speodily.
"I am sure you long for an opportunity to win the distinction you are capable of achieving. That opportunity I shall endeavor to give you.
"Meantime, I desire you to dismiss from your minds certain phrases which I am sarry to find much in vogue amongst you.
"I hear constantly of taking strong positions and holding them—of lines of retreat and of basos of supplies. Let us discard such ideas.
"Tho strongest positiou a soldier should desire to occupy is one from which ho can most easily advance against tho onemy.
"Let us study the probable lines of retreat of our opponents, and leave our own to take care of themselves. Let us look before, and not behind. Success and glory are in tho advance. Disaster and shame lurk in the rear.
"Let us act on this understanding, and it is safe to predict that your banners shall be inscribed with many a glorious deed, and that your namos will be dear to your countrymen forever. John Pope,
•July 11. 4 July 29. 'July 14.
BAKES PUSHES ON T
from Richmond, had reached Gordonsville, rendering its capture by cavalry impossible. Pope at once ordered Hatch, through Banks, to move westwardly across the Blue Ridge from Madison, with 1,500 to 2,000 picked men, and swoop down upon and destroy the railroad westward of that barrier. Hatch commenced this movement; but, soon becoming discouraged, gave it up, and returned, via Sperryville, to Madison. Pope thereupon relieved him from command, appointing Gen. Buford, chief of artillery to Banks's corps, in his stead.
At length, Pope, having joined his army, ordered" Banks to move forward to Hazel Run, while Gen. McDowell, with Ricketts's division, advanced from Waterloo Bridge to Culpepper, which Crawford's brigade of Banks's corps had already occupied for several days. Buford, with his cavalry, held Madison C. H., picketing the upper fords of the Rapidan, and as low down as Barnett's Ford; while Bayard was posted on the Orange and Alexandria Railroad, near the Rapidan river, picketing the fords from Barnett's as low down as Raccoon Ford. The enemy crossing a considerable force in the vicinity of the junction of Buford's and Bayard's pickets, both Generals reported their advance; but it was some days before it was determined whether they were intending to advance in force on Madison C. II., or toward Culpepper C. H. On the 8th, the Rebels pressed Bayard's pickets, and his force fell back toward Culpepper C. II., followed by the enemy.
Pope, under instructions to pre
• August 7.
O CEDAR MOUNTAIN. 175
serve his communications with Gen. King at Fredericksburg, ordered' a concentration of his infantry and artillery upon Culpepper, his headquarters, and pushed forward Crawford's brigade toward Cedar (or rather Slaughter's) Mountain: an eminence commanding a wide prospect to the south and east, and which should have been occupied and fortified by our forces some days before.
Banks, by order, advanced promptly from Hazel Run to Culpepper; but Sigel, still at Sperryville, instead of moving at once, sent to ascertain by which route he should come; thus losing several hours, and arriving too late to be of use. Gen. Banks, by order, moved forward next morning' toward Cedar Mountain, supporting, with the rest of his corps, the advance of Gen. Crawford, under, verbal orders from Pope, which were reduced to writing by his Adjutant, in these words:
"Culpepper, Aug. 0th—9:45 A. M. "From Col. Lewis Marshall: Gen. Banks will move to the front immediately, assume command of all the forces in the front, doploy his skirmishers if the enemy approaches, and attack him immediately as soon as he approaches, and be reenforced from here."
Calling on Pope as he left Culpepper, Banks asked if there were further orders, and was referred to Gen. Roberts, Pope's chief of staff, who was to accompany him and indicate the line he was to occupy; which he took: Roberts saying to him repeatedly before he left, "There must be no backing out this day;" words needing no interpretation, and hardly such as should be addressed by a Brigadier to a Major-General commanding a corps.
Stonewall Jackson, with his own division, following Ewell's, had reached Gordonsville July 19th, and, sending thence for reinforcements, had received A. P. Hill's division, increasing his force to some 25,000 men; with which he advanced," driving back our cavalry and reaching Slaughter's or Cedar Mountain this day." From the splendid outlook afforded by this mountain, he saw his opportunity, and resolved to profit by it. Pushing forward Ewell's division on the Culpepper road, and thence to the right along the western slope of the mountain, but keeping it thoroughly covered by woods which concealed
its numbers, he advanced four guns to the front and opened fire upon Crawford's batteries, his own division, under Winder, being thrown out to the left as it arrived, still under cover of the woods. Ewell's batteries were successfully posted at the foot of the mountain, some 200 feet above the valley, whence their fire was far more effective than our3. Meantime, Hill's division was arriving, and being sent in to the support of whatever portion of the Rebel line was weakest, until not less than 20,000 veterans, with every advantage of position and shelter, formed the Rebel line of battle; against which Banks's 6,000 or 8,000
BANKS DEFEATED AT CEDAR MOUNTAIN.
advanced, at 5 p. M., across open fields and up gentle acclivities, thoroughly swept by the Rebel cannon and musketry.
Had victory been possible, they would have won it. Early's brigade of Ewell's division held the road, and was so desperately charged in front and on its right flank, that it held its ground only by the opportune arrival of Thomas's brigade of Hill's division; while the left of Jackson's division, under Taliaferro, was so assailed in flank and rear that one brigade was routed and the whole flank gave way, as did also Early's. But the odds were too heavy; and, though our men proved themselves heroes, thev could not defeat three times their number, holding the foot of a mountain and covered by woods. The best blood of the Union was poured out like water, but in vain. Gen. Geary, who, with five Ohio regiments and the 28th Pennsylvania, made the most desperate charge of the day, was himself wounded, with most of his officers. Gen. Crawford's brigade came out of the fight a mere skeleton. The 109th Pennsylvania, 102d New York, and several other regiments, left half their number dead or wounded on that fatal field. Gens. Augur and Carroll were severely wounded; as were Cols. Donnelly, 46th Pa., Creighton, 7th Ohio, and Majors Savage, 2d Mass., Armstrong, 5th Ohio, and Pelouze, Banks's Adjutant. Gen. Prince was taken prisoner after dark, by accident, while passing from one part of Ids command to another. Our loss in killed and wounded could hardly have been less than 2,000 men. We were not so much beaten as fairly crowded off the field ; where JaekTol. xx.—12
son claims to have taken 400 prisoners, 1 gun, and 5,302 small arms, with a los3 on his part of 223 killed, including Gen. C. S. Winder, 2 Lt.Colonels, and a Major; with 1,060 wounded: among them Cols. Williams and Sheffield, 3 Majors, and 31 missing; total, 1,314.
Gen. Pope had remained throughout the day at Culpepper, neither desiring nor expecting a serious engagement, and assured from time to time that only skirmishing was going on at the front; until the continuous roar of cannon assured him, soon after 5 o'clock, that the matter was grave. Ordering forward Ricketts's division, he arrived with it on the field just before dark, and directed Banks to draw in his right wing upon his center, so as to give room for Ricketts to come into the fight; but the Rebels, though victorious, advanced with great caution, and, finding themselves confronted by fresh batteries, recoiled, after a sharp artillery duel, and took shelter in the woods. Ricketts's guns continued vocal until midnight; but of course to little purpose. Meantime, Sigel's corps began to arrive, and was sent to the front abreast of Ricketts's; Banks's corps being withdrawn two miles to the rear to rest and reorganize.
But there was no more fighting. Jackson clung to his mountain and his woods till the night of the 11th; when, aware that King's division had just come up from Fredericksburg, and that Pope was about to strike at his communications, and thus compel him to fight on equal terms, he, leaving a part of his dead unburied, retreated rapidly across the Rapidan. Our cavalry pursued him to that