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173 such a movement simple madness. / Before quitting Washingtonfor In order, however, to effect at least the field, Pope had ordered Gen. a diversion in favor of McClellan's King, at Fredericksburg, to push worsted army, and to enable it to forward detachments of his cavalry abandon the Peninsula without fur- to the Virginia Central Railroad and ther loss, he drew Sigel from Middle- break it up at several points, so as to town, via Front Royal, to Sperryville, impede the enemy's communication on one of the sources of the Rappa- between Richmond and the Valley; hannock, near the Blue Ridge; while which was effected. He had likeBanks, following nearly the same wise directed Gen. Banks to advance route from the Valley, came in a few an infantry brigade, with all his miles farther east; and Ricketts's cavalry, to Culpepper Court House, division of Gen. McDowell's corps ad- thence pushing forward cavalry so vanced south-westwardly from Ma- as to threaten Gordonsville. The nassas Junction to a point a little advance to Culpepper having been eastward of Banks. Pope wrote to unresisted, Banks was next ordered Gen. McClellan, then on the Penin. to send Hatch, with all his cavalry, sula, a letter proposing hearty coop- to capture Gordonsville, destroy the eration and soliciting suggestions, railroad for 10 or 15 miles east of it, which elicited but a vague and by and thence push a detachment as far no means cordial response.' He had as Charlottesville, burning bridges doubtless suggested to the President and breaking up railroads as far as the appointment of a common mili- possible ; but Hatch, taking along tary superior; whereupon Maj.-Gen. infantry, artillery, and heavy trains, Halleck was relieved of his command was so impeded by bad roads that he in the West and called' to Washing had only reached Madison Court ton as General-in-Chief, assuming House on the 17th—a day after command July 23d.

Ewell, with a division of Lee's army

McClellan and his lieutenants had of course against the enemy. It is my purpose to do so; read and resented Pope's address to his army on and that speedily. taking the field, which they, not unreasonably,

“I am sure you long for an opportunity to

win the distinction you are capable of achieving. interpreted as reflecting on their strategy,

That opportunity I shall endeavor to give you. though Pope disclaims such an application. Its "Meantime, I desire you to dismiss from your text is as follows:

minds certain phrases which I am sorry to find “WASHINGTON, July 14, 1862. much in vogue amongst you. ** To the Officers and Soldiers of the Army of

"I hear constantly of taking strong positions Virginia:

and holding them- of lines of retreat and of bases "By special assignment of the President of

of supplies. Let us discard such ideas. the United States, I have assumed cominand of

"The strongest position a soldier should dethis army. I have spent two weeks in learning

sire to occupy is one from which ho can most your whereabouts, your condition, and your

easily advance against the enemy. wants; in preparing you for active operations,

"Let us study the probable lines of retreat of and in placing you in positions from which you

our opponents, and leave our own to take care can act promptly and to the purpose.

of themselves. Let us look before, and not be“I have come to you from the West, where

hind. Success and glory are in the advance. we have always seen the backs of our enemies

Disaster and shame lurk in the rear. - from an army whose business it has been to

"Let us act on this understanding, and it is soek the adversary, and to beat him when found

safe to predict that your banners shall be in--whose policy has been attack, and not defense.

scribed with many a glorious deed, and that "In but one instance has the enemy been

your names will be dear to your countrymen

forever. able to place our Western armies in a defensive

Јонх PoPE, attitude. I presume that I have been called

"Maj.-Gen. Commanding." here to pursue the same system, and to lead you / July 11. •July 29. July 14.

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BANKS PUSHES ON TO CEDAR MOUNTAIN. 175 from Richmond, had reached Gor- | serve his communications with Gen. donsville, rendering its capture by King at Fredericksburg, ordered' a cavalry impossible. Pope at once concentration of his. infantry and ordered Hatch, through Banks, to artillery upon Culpepper, his headmove westwardly across the Blue quarters, and pushed forward CrawRidge from Madison, with 1,500 to ford's brigade toward Cedar (or 2,000 picked men, and swoop down rather Slaughter's) Mountain: an upon and destroy the railroad west- eminence commanding a wide prosward of that barrier. Hatch com- pect to the south and east, and which menced this movement; but, soon should have been occupied and fortibecoming discouraged, gave it up, fied by our forces some days before. and returned, via Sperryville, to Banks, by order, advanced promptMadison. Pope thereupon relieved ly from Hazel Run to Culpepper; him from command, appointing Gen. but Sigel, still at Sperryville, instead Buford, chief of artillery to Banks's of moving at once, sent to ascertain corps, in his stead.

by which route he should come; At length, Pope, having joined thus losing several hours, and arhis army, ordered Banks to move riving too late to be of use. Gen. forward to Hazel Run, while Gen. Banks, by order, moved forward next McDowell, with Ricketts's division, morning toward Cedar Mountain, advanced from Waterloo Bridge to supporting, with the rest of his corps, Culpepper, which Crawford's brigade the advance of Gen. Crawford, under. of Banks's corps had already occu- verbal orders from Pope, which were pied for several days. Buford, with reduced to writing by his Adjutant, his cavalry, held Madison C. H., in these words : picketing the upper fords of the na- ! " CULPEPPER, Ang. 9th-9:45 a. M. pidan, and as low down as Barnett's “From Col. Lewis Marshall: Gen. Banks Ford; while Bayard was posted on will move to the front immediately, assume

command of all the forces in the front, dethe Orange and Alexandria Railroad,

bad, ploy his skirmishers if the enemy approachnear the Rapidan river, picketing es, and attack him immediately as soon as the fords from Barnett's as low down he approaches, and be rëenforced from

| here." as Raccoon Ford. The enemy crossing a considerable force in the Calling on Pope as he left Culpepvicinity of the junction of Buford's per, Banks asked if there were furand Bayard's pickets, both Generals ther orders, and was referred to Gen. reported their advance; but it was Roberts, Pope's chief of staff, who some days before it was determined was to accompany him and indicate whether they were intending to ad- the line he was to occupy; which he vance in force on Madison C. H., or took: Roberts saying to him repeattoward Culpepper C. H. On the edly before he left, “There must be 8th, the Rebels pressed Bayard's no backing out this day;" words pickets, and his force fell back needing no interpretation, and hardly toward Culpepper C. H., followed by such as should be addressed by a the enemy.

Brigadier to a Major-General com. Pope, under instructions to pre- manding a corps. 6 August 7. * August 8.

August 9.

Stonewall Jackson, with his own its numbers, he advanced four guns division, following Ewell's, had to the front and opened fire upon reached Gordonsville July 19th, Crawford's batteries, his own diviand, sending thence for rëenforce- sion, under Winder, being thrown ments, had received A. P. Hill's di- out to the left as it arrived, still vision, increasing his force to some under cover of the woods. Ewell's 25,000 men; with which he ad- batteries were successfully posted at vanced,' driving back our cavalry the foot of the mountain, some 200 and reaching Slaughter's or Cedar feet above the valley, whence their Mountain this day. From the fire was far more effective than splendid outlook afforded by this ours. Meantime, Hill's division was mountain, he saw his opportunity, arriving, and being sent in to the and resolved to profit by it. Push- support of whatever portion of the ing forward Ewell's division on the Rebel line was weakest, until not Culpepper road, and thence to the less than 20,000 veterans, with every right along the western slope of the advantage of position and shelter, mountain, but keeping it thoroughly formed the Rebel line of battle; covered by woods which concealed against which Banks's 6,000 or 8,000

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Explanations : A Position of Gen: Banks's corps both before and after 6 Position of Rebel troops corresponding with posi. his advance upon the enemy, on the afternoon of Aug. 9. tion B.

B Farthest advance of Gen. Banks's corps, and place of ( Farthest advance of Rebels in the afternoon, from Beverest fighting.

which point they were driven evening of Ang. 9.

• August 7.

19 August 9.

BANKS DEFEATED AT CEDAR MOUNTAIN. 177 advanced, at 5 P. M., across open fields / son claims to have taken 400 prisand up gentle acclivities, thoroughly oners, 1 gun, and 5,302 small arms, swept by the Rebel cannon and mus- with a loss on his part of 223 killed, ketry.

including Gen. C. S. Winder, 2 Lt.Had victory been possible, they Colonels, and a Major ; with 1,060 would have won it. Early's brigade wounded : among them Cols. Wilof Ewell's division held the road, and liams and Sheffield, 3 Majors, and 31 was so desperately charged in front missing; total, 1,314. and on its right flank, that it held its Gen. Pope had remained throughground only by the opportune arrival out the day at Culpepper, neither of Thomas's brigade of Hill's divi- desiring nor expecting a serious ension; while the left of Jackson's di- gagement, and assured from time to vision, under Taliaferro, was so as time that only skirmishing was going sailed in flank and rear that one on at the front; until the continuous brigade was routed and the whole roar of cannon assured him, soon flank gave way, as did also Early's. after 5 o'clock, that the matter was But the odds were too heavy; and, grave. Ordering forward Ricketts's though our men proved themselves division, he arrived with it on the heroes, they could not defeat three field just before dark, and directed times their number, holding the foot | Banks to draw in his right wing upon of a mountain and covered by woods. his center, so as to give room for The best blood of the Union was Ricketts to come into the fight; but poured out like water, but in vain. the Rebels, though victorious, adGen, Geary, who, with five Ohio re- vanced with great caution, and, findgiments and the 28th Pennsylvania, ing themselves confronted by fresh made the most desperate charge of batteries, recoiled, after a sharp arthe day, was himself wounded, with tillery duel, and took shelter in the most of his officers. Gen. Crawford's woods. Ricketts's guns continued brigade came out of the fight a mere vocal until midnight; but of course skeleton. The 109th Pennsylvania, to little purpose. Meantime, Sigel's 102d New York, and several other corps began to arrive, and was sent regiments, left half their number to the front abreast of Ricketts's; dead or wounded on that fatal field. Banks's corps being withdrawn two Gens. Augur and Carroll were se- miles to the rear to rest and rëorganverely wounded; as were Cols. Don- ize. nelly, 46th Pa., Creighton, 7th Ohio, But there was no more fighting. and Majors Savage, 2d Mass., Arm- Jackson clung to his mountain and strong, 5th Ohio, and Pelouze, his woods till the night of the 11th ; Banks's Adjutant. Gen. Prince was when, aware that King's division had taken prisoner after dark, by acci- just come up from Fredericksburg, dent, while passing from one part of and that Pope was about to strike at his command to another. Our loss his communications, and thus comin killed and wounded could hardly pel him to fight on equal terms, he, have been less than 2,000 men. leaving a part of his dead unburied, We were not so much beaten as fair- retreated rapidly across the Rapidan. ly crowded off the field; where Jack-Our cavalry pursued him to that

VOL, II.-12

after darkone part of

his com

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