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133 to Schenck for assistance. Schenck | 3 missing. Our total loss in this well was at Franklin, 34 miles north, contested action was 256, including which distance he traversed, with his 145 slightly wounded. Gen. Jackbrigade, in 23 hours, joining Milroy son's report adınits a loss on his part at 10 a. M. of the 8th ; but he of 461–71 killed, including 3 Cobrought only three regiments, reduced | lonels and 2 Majors, and 390 woundby details to less than 2,000 men; ed, among whoin was Gen. Johnson. while Milroy's force was but very Our troops retreated to Franklin little stronger. Jackson's column during the night, carrying off their was considerably the larger, though wounded, but burning a part of their it is stated that but six regiments were stores. actually engaged in the fight. | Jackson pursued next day toward

The Rebels advanced to and posted Franklin, but did not see fit to atthemselves on the top of a ridge in tack. Returning to McDowell," he the Bull Pasture Mountain, where it recrossed the Shenandoah Mountain is traversed by the Staunton turn to Lebanon White Sulphur Springs; pike, a mile or two west of McDow where he gave his troops a brief rest, ell. Schenck saw that Milroy's posi- and then resumed " his march to tion was untenable, being command- Harrisonburg, having ascertained ed by hights in several directions; that Banks had fallen back to Strasbut he could not safely abandon it in burg. Being joined near Newmarket broad daylight, and so decided to re- by Ewell's division, he moved ria main. Some desultory skirmishing Luray upon Front Royal, keeping and cannonading followed ; until, at his advance carefully masked by 3 P. M., upon information that the Ashby's cavalry, so that he swooped Rebels were trying to plant a bat- down“ almost unannounced on our tery on the mountain, where it would small force holding that position, command our whole encampment, under Col. John R. Kenly, who Schenck directed Milroy, with the nevertheless made a spirited resist3d Virginia, 25th, 32d, and 82d ance, but was soon driven out with Ohio, numbering a little over 2,000 loss by the enemy's overwhelming inen, to advance and feel of the ene- numbers. Kenly, after abandoning my. Led by Col. N. C. McLean, of the town, attempted to make a stand the 75th Ohio, they charged up the on a ridge scarcely a inile in its rear; mountain with great gallantry, defy- but, his force being hardly a tenth of ing the fire of a superior force, whose that assailing him, he was soon comheads only were visible, and were pelled to retreat across the river, after engaged at close range for an hour destroying his camp and stores. He and a half, during which an attempt tried to burn the bridge over the was made to turn the Rebel right, North Fork of the Shenandoah, but but repulsed. The fight did not the Rebels were upon him and extinwholly cease till 8 P. M., when our guished the flames. A few miles men were withdrawn by order, farther on, he was overtaken by the bringing in their dead and wounded, Rebel cavalry under Ashby and taking 4 prisoners and reporting but Flournoy, and a fight ensued, in ** May 14. 07 May 17.

68 May 23.

which Col. K. was severely wounded, town—a report soon confirmed by a his train captured, and his command disorderly rush of fugitives and nearly destroyed. Fully 700 prison wagons to the rear. The column ers, a section of rifled 10-pounders, was thereupon rëorganized, with the and a large amount of stores, were train in the rear; and, on reaching among the trophies of this Rebel Middletown, Col. D. Donnelly, comtriumph. Our men fought nobly; manding the vanguard, encountered but they were 900 against 8,000. a small force of Rebels, who were

Gen. Banks remained quiet and easily repulsed and driven back on unsuspecting at Strasburg, with no the road to Front Royal. Col. Brodenemy in his front, and no sign of head, 1st Michigan cavalry, now took danger, until the evening of the 23d, the advance, and soon reported the when he was astounded by tidings of road clear to Winchester. Before all Kenly's disaster, and assurances that our army had passed, the Rebels adthe Rebels, 15,000 to 20,000 strong, vanced on the Front Royal road in were pressing forward to Winchester, such force as to occupy Middletown, directly in his rear. Shields's divi- compelling our rear-guard to fall back sion having been sent, by order from to Strasburg, making a circuit thence Washington, to the Rappahannock, to the north, whereby the 1st Verhe had hardly 5,000 men at hand, mont, Col. Tompkins, was enabled with perhaps 2,000 or 3,000 more to rejoin Banks at Winchester in scattered through the Valley in his season for the fight of next morning; rear. Jackson's force must have cx- while the 5th New York, Col. De ceeded 20,000 men.“ Banks had, Forrest, made its way through the on the first tidings of trouble at mountains to the Potomac, bringing Front Royal, dispatched a small in a train of 32 wagons and many force to the aid of Kenly; but this stragglers. There was some fighting was now recalled, and our trains sent with our rear-guard at Strasburg, forward on the road to Winchester, and again at Newtown, eight miles escorted by Gen. Hatch, with our from Winchester; but our men recavalry, and 6 pieces of artillery. treated with moderate loss, and our At 9 A. M. our column was in mo- infantry and artillery were again tion, and had hardly proceeded three concentrated at Winchester by midmiles when it was apprised that the night. Here they were allowed a train had been attacked, and that rest of two or three hours, broken at the Rebels held the road at Middle- brief intervals by the rattlo of mus

60 Lt.-Gen. Jackson, in his olicial report, says: On our side, Drig-Gen. Gordon, in his official

“My command at this time embraced Ashby's | report, says: cavalry; the 1st brigade, under Gen. Winder;

“From the testimony of our signal officers, the 2d brigade, Col. Campbell commanding; 3d

and from a fair estimate of the number in Rebel brigade, Col. Fulkerson commanding; the troops

lines drawn up on the hights, from fugitives recently under command of Brig.-Gen. Edward and deserters, the number of regiments in the Johnson; and the division of Gen. Ewell, com Rebel army opposite Winchester was 28, being prising the brigades of Gens. Elzey, Taylor,

| Ewell's division, Jackson's and Johnson's forces; Trimble, and the Maryland Linc. consisting of the whole being commanded by Gen. Jackson. the 1st Maryland regiment and Brockenbrough's These regiments were full, and could not have battery, under Brig.-Gen. Geo. H. Stewart, and numbered less than 22,000 men, with a correthe 2d and 6th Virginia cavalry, under" Col. sponding proportion of artillery." Flournoy."

60 May 24.




ketry, as the Rebels closed around columns, each protected by an effithem, their artillery opening at day- cient rear-guard, and reached Mar

tinsburg, 22 miles distant, in the Banks had now less than 7,000 course of the afternoon. Here a halt men,“ opposed to more than 20,000, of two and a half hours was taken, to flushed with victory, and confident rest and refresh ; our rear-guard leavthat the day would witness the cap- ing that town at 7 P. m., and reaching ture or destruction of our little army. the Potomac, opposite Williamsport, Col. Geo. II. Gordon commanded 12 miles farther, in the course of the our right; Col. Dudley Donnelly our evening. left. Gen. Hatch, who had been cut 1 Gen. Geo. II. Stewart, with the off at Middletown, had just rejoined Rebel cavalry, pursued so far as with his cavalry. Facing the enemy Martinsburg; but Jackson halted his boldly, our men held their ground for infantry not far beyond Winchester five hours, inflicting and suffering though he sent a brigade, three days considerable loss; until, Jackson's later," to Charlestown, driving out a entire army having by this time been small Union force which held that brought up, it was manifest that place, and pursuing it to Halltown, further resistance was madness, and which was occupied next day by the could only result in our destruction. main body of his army. Our trains being by this time well on | Gen. Banks admits a loss, in his the road, the order to retreat was hurried retreat for 53 miles, of 38 given, and our line of battle, under a killed, 155 wounded, and 711 misswithering fire of musketry from left, ing; total, 90+; with 53 out of 500 right, and center, bruke into column wagons, and no guns. This of course of march and moved rapidly through does not include the losses by Col. Winchester, amid the deafening yells Kenly's rout at Front Royal, nor the of their exulting pursuers, which were sick and wounded left in hospitals at echoed with delirious frenzy by the Strasburg and Winchester. We lost Winchester Rebels." The 2d Massa also a large amount of quartermaster chusetts, Lt.-Col. Andrews, which, and commissary stores, most of which with the 3d Wisconsin, Col. Ruger, were destroyed. Jackson admits a formed our rear-guard, halted, undis total loss, including that at Front mayed by the hideous din, in a street Royal, of 68 killed and 329 wounded ; of the town, to re-form its line, and and claims to have captured 2 guns, then resumed its rapid but steady 9,354 small arms, and about 3,050 march, sharply followed, but not prisoners, including 750 sick and seriously annoyed, by the eager foe. wounded, whom he paroled and left Our troops moved in three parallel in the hospitals when he retreated,

a May 25.

6" Gen. Gordon, in his official report, says: *Gen. Binks's official report says:

"My retreating column suffered serious loss "My own command consisted of 2 brigades of in the streets of Winchester: males and females less than 4,000 men, all told, with 900 cavalry, | vied with each other in increasing the number of 10 Parrot: guns, and ono battery of 6-pounders, their victims by firing from the houses, throwing smooth-bore cannon. To this should be added hand-grenades, hot water, and missiles of every the 10th Mine regiment of infantry, and 5 com- | description." panies of Marylind cavalry, stationed at Win. / Yet Winchester was not burned when wo rechester, which were engaged in the action." I took it.

May 28.

sending some 2,300 up the Valley. | army at Franklin, Pendleton county, Ile attributes his failure to crush 24 miles north of Monterey, was Banks entirely to the misconduct of likewise ordered" by telegraph from Ashby's cavalry, who stopped to pil- Washington to hasten across the lage our abandoned wagons between main range of the Alleghanies to Middletown and Newtown, and could Harrisonburg, hardly 50 miles disnot thereafter be brought to the front tant, and thus intercept the retreat till too late.“

of Jackson up the valley, and coopJackson, after menacing Harper's erate with McDowell and Shields to Ferry," which was held by Gen. crush him. Rufus Saxton, called in his detach- There is a direct road from Frankments and commenced a rapid re- lin to Harrisonburg, not absolutely treat." It was high time. Gen. impassable by an army, though it Shields, whose division had been crosses four distinct ranges of steep detached from Banks, and marched mountains; but Gen. Fremont's over a hundred miles to join Mc- trains were at Moorefield, 40 miles Dowell at Fredericksburg, to replace north by east, and to attempt crossthe division of Gen. Franklin--al- ing without them was to doom his ready sent to McClellan—and enable army to starvation, there being little McDowell to move directly on Rich- for man or beast to eat in those wild mond, was now ordered from Wash-mountains. He therefore decided to ington to postpone this movement, go by Moorefield, which compelled and push 20,000 men rapidly to the him to go 20 miles farther northShenandoah, along the line of the east, to Wardensville, in order to Manassas Gap Railroad. Gen. Fre- find a practicable route across the mont, who had concentrated his little mountains. Stripping his army as

65 Speaking of our retreat from Winchester, / with him, and found him not yet ready for the he says:

contemplated advance on Richmond, but that he “The Federal forces, upon falling back into the would be that afternoon, and that Shields's ditown, preserved their organization remarkably vision could go on Sunday. He [McDowell] well. In passing through its streets, however,

added, that he had once before moved on Sunday they were thrown into confusion; and, shortly after debouching into the plain and turnpike to

-alluding to the battlo of Bull Run-and had Martinsburg, and after being fired upon by our been very much condemned for it all over the artillery, they presented the aspect of a mass of country, but that he was ready to do so again. disordered fugitives. Never have I seen an op The President therefore suggested that he might portunity when it was in the power of cavalry to

get a "good ready," and start on Monday, which reap a richer harvest of the fruits of victory."

was agreed on. Messrs. Lincoln and Stanton 66 May 29.

07 May 30.

returned to Washington that night, and “had * Gen. McDowell, in his testimony before the

hardly left before a telegram came announcing Committee on the Conduct of the War, states

this raid of Jackson up [down the Shenandoah that Shields's division, 11,000 strorg, raising his

| Valley." This was soon followed by an order entire forco—not including Franklin's division,

to send a division up after Jackson. MeDowell already sent to McClellan-to 41,000 men, joined

adds: “I did so, although I replied that it was him at or near Fredericksburg either on the 22d or 23d of May, but in want of artillery ammuni

a crushing blow to us all.” The President or.

dered another brigade to move up there, and tion: that which they had having just been con

then another brigade, and then another regi. demned at Catlett's Station, and the new supply

ment. Two divisions were thus sent beforo ordered from the Washington arsenal having got

McDowell, whose heart was set on the Richaground on the flats of the Potomac and thus been delayed. On Saturday, the 24th, the Presi

mond movement, followed himself. dent and Secretary of War came down to confer ! " May 24.



naked as possible, he left Franklin of those in front of Shields. Passing next morning, the soldiers discard through Harrisonburg," Jackson diing even their knapsacks, but taking verged from the great road leading five days' rations of hard bread; and southwardly to Staunton, moving thus, through constant rain, and over south-easterly, with intent to cross mountain roads that could be made the South Fork at Port Republic. barely passable, he crossed the Al- His rear was bravely and ably proleghanies and descended into the tected by the 2d and 6th Virginia Valley, reaching and occupying Stras cavalry, Gen. Turner Ashby, who burg on the evening of June 1st, just that day repulsed a spirited charge in time to be too late to head Jack- of our cavalry in advance, capturing son, who had retreated through that Col. Percy Wyndhain and 63 men. place a few hours before. Next Being still sharply pressed, Ashby morning, Gen. Bayard," with the called for an infantry support; when cavalry advance of Shields's division, the brigade of Gen. Geo. H. Stewart reached that point.

was promptly ordered up, and was Shields, however, pushed up the soon hotly engaged with the PennSouth Fork of the Shenandoah, on sylvania Bucktails, whose commanthe other side of Massanutten Moun- der, Lt. Col. Kane, was wounded and tain, expecting to head Jackson at taken prisoner. The Rebel loss in some point farther south ; while Fre- this affair was numerically less than mont followed him directly down the ours, being but 20 killed and 50 North Fork, by Woodstock and wounded; but among the killed was Mount Jackson, to Harrisonburg. Ashby himself, whose loss was at The advance of each was greatly em- least equal to that of a regiment. barrassed by the many streams which Always fighting at the head of his make their way down from the moun- men, with the most reckless self-extains into either branch of the She- posure, his fate was merely a quesnandoah, and which were now swollen tion of time. For outpost and skirto raging torrents by the incessant mishing service, he left no equal rains; Jackson of course burning or behind him in either army. breaking down the bridges as he Being now within a few miles of passed them, and sending cavalry Port Republic, where his trains and across to destroy the more importart artillery must be taken over a

*9 May 25.

he had not met him at all. I told him he had 11 Gen. McDowell in his testimony aforesaid,

started to go out and he said he must have lost

his way. Without stopping to see what had blames Gen. Ord, commanding one of his divi becomo of him, I took Bayard's cavalry brigade, sions, for lack of energy in pushing it on from the only one ready to move, and sent it forward Front Royal to Strasburg, and adds, that he sent by the direct road to Strasburg. I then went forward Gen Shields from Front Royal with to see where Gen. Shields was, and found him express orders “to go on the direct road to

over on the road toward Winchester. He had

sent his troops on that road, instead of on the Strasburg, and not cross the North Fork of the

one I had ordered him to send them on. He Shenandoah until near that place.” He adds: | said that he had received information from his " After some time in getting Ord's, or rather

aid-de-camp that Jackson had fallen back, and Ricketts's, division together, I started out to the

lie had sent his troops this way. When I got front. I met one of Gen. Shields's aids-deup there, they were coming in. Well, it was camp coming in from Front Royal, and asked him too late to get ahead of Jackson then." how far out he had met Gon. Shields. He said | 73 June 5.

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