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FARRAGUT BEFORE VICKSBURG.
101 fices." The city having been com- but, as the Confederates had not ocpletely occupied, and the National cupied it as a military post, it was authority rëestablished, Gen. Butler | left unmolested. caused Mumford to be arrested, tried, The advance of our squadron, unand, he being convicted and sen- der Commander S. P. Lee, encountenced to death by hanging, that sen- tered no opposition until it reached tence was duly executed,” in the face Vicksburg, whence a summons to of all New Orleans anxiously looking surrender was answered with deon, and in defiance of the confident fiance. Our force was inadequate prediction of the Rebels that Butler to attack until the arrival, a few days would not dare to do it. They did | later, of Capt. Farragut, accompanot dare; he did. And his hold on nied by 4,000 soldiers under Gen. the city was firmer and safer from Thomas Williams. Vicksburg is that moment.
naturally so strong, and was so firmly About the same time," he pardon- held, that it was not until after still ed and set at liberty six humbler further rëenforcements had come up, Rebels, who, having been captured including Commander Porter's morand paroled at the surrender of the tar fleet, that a bombardment was forts, liad been induced secretly to opened.” Not much impression was rëenlist in the Rebel service, conspir- made on the elevated and formidaing to force or evade our pickets and ble Rebel batteries by our fire; but, hasten to join Beauregard's army in at 3 A. M. of the 28th, Capt. FarraMississippi. Their guilt was undoubt- gut, in the Hartford, with six moro ed; their crime one that military law of his vessels, passed Vicksburg tristernly punishes with death. umphantly, with a total loss of 15
killed and 30 wounded, and exchanyThe occupation of New Orleans, ed cheers above with Capt. Davis's its defenses and approaches, having fleet of mortar and gun-boats, which been completed and assured, Com- had fought their way down from Cairo. mander Porter, with a part of our Still, our forces were not strong fleet, returned to Ship Island; a part enough for assault, and the bombardwas stationed near New Orleans to ment remained ineffective; while assist in its defense; and the residue, Gen. Williams, who, on his way up under Capt. Craven, steamed up the from Baton Rouge, had been fired river to extend our sway in that di- on from Grand Gulf, and had burnrection. Baton Rouge, the State ed that village in retaliation, was capital, was captured without resist- losing men daily by sickness, which ance. The Mayor refusing to sur- ultimately reduced his effective force render, Commander Palmer, of the by more than half. He had underIroquois, landed and took possession taken to cut a canal, or water-course, of the U.S. Arsenal. Capt. Farra- across the peninsula opposite Vicksgut arrived soon afterward, and took burg, and had gathered some 1,200 measures to render our possession negroes from the adjacent plantapermanent. Natchez was in like tions to assist in the work; but it manner given up to the Iroquois ;" | did not succeed. The soil to be ex
* June 7. May 31, 26 May 7. ?May 12. 3 May 18. 90 Night of June 26.
orsted tiel The Richis effo
cavated was an exceedingly tenacious | the afternoon" prior to its occurrence, clay, in good part covered with warned his subordinates to be ready large trees. The strong current ob- and watchful, so as not to be surstinately kept to the old channel, prised next morning. The Rebels and could not be attracted to the had been assured by their spies that right bank. An expedition, started our men were mostly sick in hospito go up the Yazoo, having unex- tal, which was measurably true ; but pectedly encountered, near the mouth regiments that numbered but 150 on of that river, and been worsted by, parade, counted 500 on the battle the Rebel ram Arkansas," Capt. Far-field. ragut, having no prospect of further The Rebel force had been organusefulness above, determined to re- ized for this effort at Tangipahoa, 60 pass the frowning batteries, cutting miles north-eastward, and 78 N. N.W. out and destroying the Arkansas by of New Orleans. It consisted of 13 the way. He succeeded in running regiments, and must have consideraby Vicksburg with little loss; but bly outnumbered ours, which was his designs upon the Arkansas were composed of nine thinned regiments baffled by darkness. A few days in all. Each side, in its account of later, Commander Porter, with the the action, made its own force 2,500, iron-clad Essex, and Lt.-Col. Ellet, and that of its adversary twice or with the ram Queen of the West, thrice as great. The Rebels were made o another attempt to cut out commanded in chief by Maj.-Gen. the Arkansas, which was likewise John C. Breckinridge, with Brig.defeated.
Gen. Daniel Ruggles” leading their The village of Donaldsonville, left wing, and Brig.-Gen. Charles which had the bad habit of firing Clarke their right. The attack was upon our weaker steamers, as they made at daylight," simultaneously passed up or down the river, was and vigorously, by the entire Rebel bombarded therefor by Capt. Farra- force, on the two roads which lead gut, and partially destroyed. As the from the south-west into Baton river was now falling fast, threaten- Rouge; and, as but three of our ing to greatly impair the efficiency regiments—the 14th Maine, 21st Inof our fleet, the siege of Vicksburg diana, and 6th Wisconsin-were imwas abandoned, under instructions mediately engaged, these were soon from Washington, and Capt. Farra- compelled to fall back, barely saving gut dropped down the river, reaching their batteries, whereof two were for New Orleans on the 28th, with the a few moments in the hands of the greater part of his fleet.
Rebels. A dense fog precluded a Gen. Williams, with his soldiers, clear comprehension on our side of debarked on the way at Baton Rouge; the position, and caused the 7th Verhe resuming command of that post. mont to fire into the 21st Indiana, Rumors of a meditated attack in mistaking it for a Rebel regiment, force by the enemy were soon cur- Our lines were formed nearly two rent; and hence the General had, on miles back from the river, where our 30 July 15. " See page 58. 59 July 22. From Massachusetts; formerly Lt. Col. of * Aug. 4.
I the 5th Regular Infantry. 30 Aug. 5.
BRECKINRIDGE ATTACKS BATON ROUGE. 103 gunboats could give them little sup- | Vicksburg," she had steamed leisurely port; but, as the famous Rebel ram down the river until within 15 miles Arkansas, hitherto so successful, was of Baton Rouge, where her starboard counted on as a part of the attacking engine broke down; and it had been force, supported by two improvised but partially repaired when the sound gunboats, and as our front was wood- of his guns announced to her the ed, with a cross-road and open fields opening of Breckinridge's attack. just beyond it, Gen. Williams may Coming down to within five miles fairly be supposed to have understood of the city, she was cleared for achis business. The battle raged fierce- tion; when her engine again broke ly for two hours, during which the down, and she drifted ashore on the Rebel right was advanced across the right bank of the river. Her tenders, lateral road, driving back the 14th the Music and the Webb, were of no Maine, pillaging and burning its account without her; and now her camp; and, while four successive as- strong armament of six 8-inch and saults were unsuccessfully made on four 50-pound guns, with 180 men, our front, Gen. Clarke made a reso- could not be brought into action; and lute effort to flank our left and estab our gunboats, the Kineo and Katahlish himself in its rear. Gen. Wil din below, and Essex, Cayuga, and liams, anticipating this movement, Sumter above Baton Rouge, were had placed a battery, supported by enabled to devote their attention to two regiments, to resist it; and the the Rebels on land; firing over the Rebels were repulsed with considera- heads of our soldiers at the enemy, ble loss. Meanwhile, the 21st Indi- nearly two miles distant. It is not ana, posted at the crossing of the probable that their shells did any roads—whose Colonel, suffering from great harm to the Rebels, and they wounds previously received, had twice certainly annoyed and imperiled our essayed to join it, and each time fallen own men; but they served Breckinfrom his horse-had lost its Lt.-Col., ridge as an excuse for ordering a reKeith, Maj. Hayes, and Adj. Latham treat, which a part of his men had -the two former severely wounded, already begun. By 10 A.M., his forces the latter killed when Gen. Wil were all on the back track, having liams, seeing Latham fall, exclaimed, lost some 300 to 400 men, including “ Indianians! your field-officers are Gen. Clarke, mortally wounded and all killed : I will lead you !” and was left a prisoner; Cols. Allen, Boyd, that moment shot through the breast and Jones, of Louisiana ; Cols. A. P. and fell dead; the command devolv- Thompson and T. II. Hunt, of Kening on Col. T. W. Cahill, 9th Con- tucky; Col. J. W. Robertson, of Alanecticut.
bama, and other valuable officers. But the battle was already won. On our side, beside Gen. Williams, The Rebel attack had exhausted its and the entire staff of the 21st Indivitality without achieving any deci-ana, we lost Col. Roberts, of the 7th ded success; while the Arkansas, from Vermont; Maj. Bickmore and Adj. which so much had been expected, Metcalfe, of the 14th Mainc; Capt. had failed to come to time. Leaving Eugene Kelty, 30th Massachusetts, and from 200 to 300 others. We cure ice for our sick sailors, and was took about 100 prisoners, half of unexpectedly attacked by some 200 them wounded. Neither party had armed civilians, who killed or more cannon at the close than at the wounded 7 of her crew. Porter beginning of the battle; but the Reb- thereupon opened fire on the town, els boasted that they had destroyed bombarding it for an hour, and setFederal munitions and camp equi- ting a number of its houses on fire, page of very considerable value. when the Mayor surrendered. On
38 At 2 A. I., Aug. 3.
Next morning, Commander Por- her way down the river, the Essex ter, with the Essex, 7 guns and 40 had a smart engagement with the men, accompanied by the Cayuga rising batteries at Port Hudson.** and Sumter, moved up in quest of Gen. Butler's preparations having the Arkansas, whose two consorts rendered the retaking of New Orhad already fled up the river. The leans hopeless, the meditated attack ram at first made for the Essex, in on it was abandoned, and the forces tending to run her down; but her collected for that purpose transferred remaining engine soon gave out, and to other service. An incursion into she was headed toward the river the rich district known as Lafourche, bank, the Essex pursuing and shelling lying south-west of New Orleans, her; the Arkansas replying feebly between that city and the Gulf, was from her stern. When the Essex had thereupon projected, and Generalapproached within 400 yards, Lt. late Lieut.-Weitzel, was sent with Stevens, of the ram, set hier on fire a brigade of infantry and the requisite and abandoned her, escaping with artillery and cavalry, to rëestablish his crew to the shore. The Essex there the authority of the Union. continued to shell her for an hour; This was a section of great wealth : when her magazine was fired and she its industry being devoted mainly to blew up.
the production of sugar from cane, Commander Porter, having re- its population more than half slaves; mained at Baton Rouge until it was and its Whites, being entirely slaveevacuated by our troops— who were holders and their dependents, had ere concentrated to repel a threatened this been brouglit to at least a semattack on New Orleans-returned up blance of unanimity in support of the river" to reconnoiter Rebel bat- the Rebel cause; but their military teries that were said to be in progress strength, always moderate, had in at Port Hudson. Ascending thence good part been drafted away for serto coal at Bayou Sara, his boat's vice elsewhere; so that Gen. Weitzel, crew was there fired upon by guerril. with little difficulty and great expelas, whereupon some buildings were dition, made himself master of the burned in retaliation; and, the fir- entire region," after two or three ing being repeated a few days after collisions, in which he sustained little ward, the remaining structures were loss. But the wealthy Whites genin like manner destroyed. A boat's erally fled from their homes at his crew from the Essex was sent ashore, approach ; while the negroes, joyfulsome days later, at Natchez, to pro- | ly hailing him as their liberator, 37 August 23.
9 Sept. 7.
30 Oct. 22–29.
BUTLER SUPERSEDED BY BANKS.
105 speedily filled his camps with crowds | city, there were not a hundred persons of men, women, and children, desti- in Louisiana outside of our army and tute of food, and fearing to go outside fleet who would have dared take the of his lines lest they should be re- oath, however willing to do so. duced again to Slavery. Gen. But- Toward the end of November, Gen. ler, after anxious consideration, felt Butler's spies brought him informaobliged to subject the whole district tion from the nearest Rebel camps to sequestration, in order to secure that he had been superseded in his the cutting and grinding of the cane, command, and that Gen. N. P. Banks so as to save the remaining inhabit either was or soon would be on his ants from death by famine. Maj. way to relieve him. Some days beBell, Lt.-Col. Kinsman, and Capt. fore information of the purposed Fuller, were appointed a commission, change reached our side, Secessionists who were to take charge of all per- in New Orleans were offering to bet sonal property, and either apply it to a hundred to ten that Gen. Butler the use of the army or transport it to would be recalled before New Year's. New Orleans and there sell it to the The fact was known to Jefferson highest bidders, dispensing to loyal Davis before it was to Gen. Banks citizens and neutral foreigners their long before it was communicated just share of the proceeds, and ap- from Washington to Gen. Butler. plying the residue to the uses of the It is probable that the French MinFederal service in this military de- ister, whose Government had not partment. Thus were the negroes been pleased with Gen. Butler's employed, paid, and subsisted, the management in New Orleans, was crops saved, and a large sum turned the immediate source of Rebel assurover to the support of our armies, ance on this point. Gen. Banks's while the number of White loyalists assignment to the Department of the in Lafourche was rapidly and largely Gulf is dated November 9th, but was increased. Two Congressional dis- not made known to him till some tricts having thus been recovered, weeks afterward. Messrs. Benjamin F. Flanders and Gen. Banks reached New Orleans Michael Hahn were elected" there Dec. 14th, was received with every from to the Federal House of Repre- honor, and on the 16th formally assentatives: the former receiving 2,370 sumed the high trust to which he votes, to 173 for others, and the lat- had been appointed. On the 23d, ter 2,581, which was 144 more than Gen. Butler took personal leave of were cast against him. The voting his many friends, and next day issued was confined to electors under the his farewell address to the people of laws of Louisiana who had taken New Orleans; leaving for New York, the Federal oath of allegiance since via Havana, by that day's boat. He the repossession of New Orleans; was not then aware that he had been and the aggregate poll in that city honored, the day previous, by a prooutnumbered, it was stated, its total clamation from Jefferson Davis, devote for Secession by about 1,000. claring him a felon, outlaw, and When Gen. Butler first reached that common enemy of mankind, and
* Early in December.