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his subject. Of Tronjem cexceedingly pd, before we changed
Drontheim and Dronton, bestowed upon this city by the Irish, who, from their intercourse with Norway, first gave rise to those appellations. It is not a more low and vulgar barbarism to write Lunnun instead of London, than it is to substitute Drontheim, or Dronton, in lieu of Tronyem.
Now as names of places should not be arbitrarily changed (when we opened Mr. Barrow's book, and before we arrived at this explanation, we were exceedingly puzzled about what or where the city of Tronyem could be)—we shall offer a few words on this subject. We begin by observing, that the mere rule of sound is wholly inadmissible. Why do Mr. Barrow and Dr. Clarke both write Antwerp, Copenhagen, Munich, Vienna, Naples? --and why do they not write Calay and Bordo, for Calais and Bordeaux ?-or, in England, Sapsworth, Uxeter, and Cissiter, for Sawbridgeworth, Uttoxeter, and Cirencester? Why does Dr. Clarke lay on the Irish the blame of giving this town the nick-name of Drontheim? We find, in La Martinière's great French Dictionary, the name written Drontheim; it is so in D’Anville's great Atlas ; so in Malte Brun's more recent maps. It is so in every English work we have seen : and what is, under all the circumstances, very curious, it is given in Mr. Barrow's own map, with superabundant accuracy, by two names, and neither of them that which he contends for. His book calls it, as we see, Tronyem, but his map has TRONDHJEM or DRONTHEIM. But what is conclusive on the subject,-in the great official map published at Stockholm, in 1826, it is Drontheim-so that the mistake, at worst, is of ei instead of ie. And Dr. Clarke's allusion to the vulgarism of Lunnun for London is still more unlucky; for Lunnun is an attempt at expressing the popular pronunciation, in contradistinction to the correct orthography, which is the very principle that he is advocating.
The object of greatest curiosity is the cathedral, or rather the remains of the ancient Gothic cathedral, which dates its origin from the eleventh century. Having suffered by fire about one hundred years ago, and since that time frequently undergone repairs, very little remains of the original structure; but that part which is kept up for the purposes of religious worship is not an unsightly building, and is preserved in good repair and neat order; and sufficient is left to show that the architecture was by no means wanting in good taste and execution. The part where the altar now stands is of ancient date; and some of the iron doors still remaining are curiously wrought.
As we happened to be at Tronyem on the Sabbath, we attended cathedral service, and heard a good deal of singing and chanting, but certainly not of the best. The priest, who was a little, old man, delivered a sermon extempore, which occupied about an hour: he had not even a note-book before him, yet spoke with great fluency, and very
emphatically. He never once looked up, but kept his eyes closed during the whole period of his preaching. The ladies were arranged on one side of the cathedral, and the gentlemen on the other.'
Besides this cathedral, there are three other churches, all of them plain structures. The other public buildings are—an hospital for the aged and infirm, a workhouse, or house of industry, a public library and museum, and a public grammar-school : there are, besides, other schools on the Lancasterian plan; nor can it be said that literature is neglected, particularly that which relates to the history and antiquities of Norway. Most of the lower class can read and write, and a Bible and Psalter may be found in every house. But we were not prepared to meet, in this northern city, in the latitude of 63° N., so many of the more respectable part of the inhabitants well acquainted with, and conversant in, the English language; and still less could we have expected to find how well-informed they were in regard to passing events in England, in which they appeared to take a more than common interest: they knew perfectly well who had spoken on such and such a question in the House of Commons, and which side he took in the debate. Both here and in Bergen, everything that relates to England seemed to create a deep interest.'-—p. 340.
So it used to be everywhere on the Continent; but the interest attached to our country is now manifestly much diminished, even in Germany, where it was wont to be the liveliest. A friend of ours who spent two or three months in the Rhenish provinces last summer, says, nothing struck him as more remarkable, that whereas, in former days, every newspaper was half-filled with details of English news, a week or two would now pass without any allusion to our national existence. All was France-or Russia.
From Dronthiem (for so we shall persist in writing it) our travellers returned to Christiania, and thence, by the route they had before twice taken, by Copenhagen and Hamburgh, to London; where they arrived on the 17th of August, after an absence of about six weeks, in which they appear to have seen as much variety and novelty of men, manners, and natural feature, as it is perhaps possible to condense into so short a space of time.
Though Mr. Barrow makes many sensible observations, and gives some curious statistical facts, his little volume does not pretend to be an authority on such high matters; but as an easy, natural, and unaffected account of people and scenery little known but very interesting—it will be read with pleasure by those who have no opportunity or desire of personally visiting such remote -scenes; and it cannot fail of being exceedingly useful to any travellers who may be tempted to pursue the same route.
Art. IX.-Journal of Three Voyages along the Coast of China,
in 1831, 1832, and 1833; with Notices of Siam, Corea, and
the Loo-Choo Islands. By Charles Gutzlaff. London. 12mo. · 1834. TN this little unpretending volume of the honest German, there
is abundance of new and curious matter, which, in the hands of one of our modern travellers, would most probably have swollen out into the size and shape of a portly quarto. But Mr. Gutzlaff is as entirely free from the art of amplification, material or rhetorical, as he is from the ambition of fine writing: avoiding all learned disquisitions and elaborate descriptions, he contents himself with plain and simple statements of facts and occurrences, and with brief details of his conversations and intercourse with the people he visited, and among whom he occasionally resided. His extraordinary aptitude for acquiring not merely a knowledge of most of the ultra-Gangetic languages, but also of their various dialects, enabled him to converse freely with all descriptions of persons, from the highest to the lowest ranks; to the former of whom, some proficiency in the healing art gave him a more ready access. Like to those well-intentioned men, who feel it a paramount duty to abandon their country and connexions, as voluntary exiles into foreign lands, to instruct the heathen in the principles and precepts of the Christian religion, Gutzlaff never suffered worldly matters to interfere with this duty, which he considered the great and primary object of his life; yet he appears to have been less scrupulous than some of his religious brethren in the means he employed to accomplish his ends. The Rev. W. Ellis, the author of the well-known Polynesian Researches, informs us that
Mr. Gutzlaff is a native of Stettin, in Prussia. In early life he gave indications of a spirit of adventurous enterprise, which was the means of procuring royal favour and patronage, which opened before him the fairest prospects in his native land; but these were to him Jess attractive than the privilege of preaching Christ to the heathen. Before proceeding to his distant field of labour, he visited England, became acquainted with many friends and supporters of missions, and among them Dr. Morrison, then on a visit to his native land, and displayed the most commendable diligence in seeking information likely to be useful in his future labours. The great Head of the Church appears to have endowed him with qualifications peculiarly suited to the important work to which his life is devoted. To a good constitution, and a frame capable of enduring great privations and fatigue, he unites a readiness in the acquisition of languages, a frankness of manner, and a freedom in communicating with the people, a facility
in accommodating himself to his circumstances, blending so much of .. what appeared natural to the Chinese, with what was entirely new,
that, while they hailed him in some parts of the coast as “ the child of the Western ocean,” they professed to recognise him as a descendant of one of their countrymen, who had moved with the tide of emigration to some distant settlement.'— Introduction, pp. lxxxiii., lxxxiv.
Mr. Gutzlaff left Singapore for Siam in the year 1828, and having passed six months there, returned to the former place, where he united himself in marriage with Miss Newell, who liad been employed under the London Missionary Society in the superintendence of female schools. This lady appears to have s been a second Mrs. Judson, and in all respects suited to be the
companion of the joys and toils inseparable from the life of a missionary. In the year 1830, she accompanied him to Siam, where she entered cordially and successfully into all his pleasant pursuits- studying the languages of the people around them, administering to the sick, translating the Scriptures, and teaching both the rich and poor who came for instruction. But in the course of one short twelvemonth, death removed this amiable woman from the side of her afflicted husband. The great loss he had sustained in the death of his beloved partner, a severe illness, and other circumstances, made him anxious to proceed on an intended voyage along the coast of China.
• The churches (says Mr. Ellis) of Christendom are under lasting obligations to this devoted missionary, for the exertions he has made to enter the empire of China, and to facilitate the more direct and extended communication of the gospel to its inhabitants. The enterprise was perilous in the highest degree ;—danger, not imaginary, but actual and imminent, threatened: he embarked alone, amidst coldblooded, treacherous barbarians; he went, emphatically, with his life in his hand ;—but his aim was noble; his object, in its magnitude and importance, was worthy of the risk; and its results will only be fully realized in eternity. No Christian will read the account of his feelings and views, when entering and pursuing his first voyage, without becoming sensible of the efficacy and the value of the motives which could impel him onward in such a career, and the principles which could support him amidst the trials it imposed.' - Introduction, p. lxxxvii.
A trade to a considerable extent is carried on in Chinese junks, of about three hundred tons' burden, between the coast of China and Siam, owned chiefly by Chinese residents at the latter place. In one of these junks, Mr. Gutzlaff took a passage, being the first European, we believe, that ever embarked in such a machine; and the account he gives of the internal management and arrangement of these · ancient craft of the Celestial Empire' is so novel and interesting, that we insert the whole :
• Chinese vessels have generally a captain, who might more properly be styled a supercargo. Whether the owner or not, he has
charge of the whole of the cargo, buys and sells as circumstances rem quire; but has no command whatever over the sailing of the ship. This is the business of the ho-chang, or pilot. During the whole voyage, to observe the shores and promontories are the principal objects which occupy his attention, day and night. He sits steadily on the side of the ship, and sleeps when standing, just as it suits his convenience. Though he has, nominally, the command over the sailors, yet they obey him only when they find it agreeable to their own wishes; and they scold and brave him, just as if he belonged to their own company. Next to the pilot (or mate) is the to-kung (helmsman), who manages the sailing of the ship: there are a few men under his immediate command. There are, besides, two clerks; one to keep the accounts, and the other to superintend the cargo that is put on board. Also, a comprador, to purchase provisions; and a heang-kung, or priest, who attends the idols, and burns, every morn. ing, a certain quantity of incense, and of gold and silver paper. The sailors are divided into two classes : a few, called tow-muh, or head men, have charge of the anchor, sails, &c.; and the rest, called ho-ke, or comrades, perform the menial work, such as pulling ropes, and heaving the anchor. A cook and some barbers make up the remainder of the crew.
* All these personages, except the second class of sailors, have cabins; long, narrow holes, in which one may stretch oneself-but cannot stand erect. If any person wishes to go as a passenger, he must apply to the tow-muh, in order to hire one of their cabins, which they let on such conditions as they please. In fact the sailors exercise full control over the vessel, and oppose every measure which they think may prove injurious to their own interest; so that even the captain and pilot are frequently obliged, when wearied out with their insolent behaviour, to crave their kind assistance, and to request them to show a better temper.
The several individuals of the crew form one whole, whose prin. cipal object in going to sea is trade, the working of the junk being only a secondary object. Every one is a shareholder, having the liberty of putting a certain quantity of goods on board ; with which he trades, wheresoever the vessel may touch, caring very little about how soon she may arrive at the port of destination.
.. The common sailors receive from the captain nothing but dry rice, and have to provide for themselves their other fare, which is usually very slender. These sailors are not, usually, men who have been trained up to their occupation ; but wretches, who were obliged to flee from their homes; and they frequently engage for a voyage before they have ever been on board a junk. All of them, however stupid, are commanders ; and if anything of importance is to be done, they will bawl out their commands to each other, till all is utter confusion, There is no subordination, no cleanliness, no mutual regard or interest.'—pp. 54-57. Though the Chinese are in possession of their own original