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Greek, to relish or to reason upon. For the executed upon the image. In a more civilized same reason we never can be aware of the ful-age this statue was exposed to an actual operaness of some of the finest passages of Shakspeare tion: for the French,' who acted the Brutus of ("To be or not to be, for instance), from the Voltaire in the Coliseum, resolved that their habit of having them hammered into us at eight Cæsar should fall at the base of that Pompey, years old, as an exercise, not of mind but of which was supposed to have been sprinkled with memory: 80 that when we are old enough to the blood of the original dictator. The nine foot enjoy them, the taste is gone, and the appetite hero was therefore removed to the Arena of the palled. In some parts of the Continent young amphitheatre, and to facilitate its transport sufpersons are taught from more common authors, fered the temporary amputation of its right arm. and do not read the best classics till their ma- | The republican tragedians had to plead that the turity. certainly do not speak on this point arm was a restoration: but their accusers do from any pique or aversion towards the place pot believe that the integrity of the statue would of my education. I was not a slow, though an have protected it. The love of finding every idle boy; and I believe no one could, or can coincidence has discovered the true Cæsarean be more attached to Harrow than I have always ichor in a stain near the right knee; but colder been, and with reason ;-a part of the time pass- criticism has rejected not only the blood but ed there was the happiest of my life; and my the portrait, and assigned the globe of power preceptor (the Rev. Dr. Joseph rury) was the rather to the first of the emperors than to the best and worthiest friend I ever possessed, whose last of the republican masters of Rome. Winkelwarnings I have remembered but too well-though mann is loth to allow an heroic statue of a Rotoo lat e-when I have erred, and whose coun- man citizen, but the Grimani Agrippa, a cotemsels ! have but followed when I have done well porary almost, is heroic; and naked Roman fior wisely. If ever this impeefect record of my gures were only very rare, not absolutely forbidfeelings towards him should reach his eyes, let den. The face accords much better with the it remind him of one who never thinks of him “hominem integrum et castum et gravem," than but with gratitude and veneration-of one who with any of the busts of Augustiis, and is too would more gladly boast of having been his pu- stern for him who was beautiful, says Suetonius, pil, it, by more closely following his injunctions, at all periods of his life. The pretended likeness he could reflect any honour upon his instructor. to Alexander the Great cannot be discerned, but

the traits resemble the medal of Pompey, The The trebly hundred triumphs ! [p. 46. St. 82. objectionable globe may not have been an ill

Orosius gives three hundred and twenty for applied flattery to him who found Asia Minor the number of triumphs. He is followed by the boundary, and left it the centre of the RoPanvinius; and Panvinius by Gibbon and the man empire. It seems that Winkelmann has modern writers.

made a inistake in thinking that no proof of the

identity of this statue, with that which receivOh thou, whose chariot rolld on Fortune's wheel. ed the bloody sacrifice, can be derived from the

(p. 46. St. 83. spot where it was discovered. Flaminius Vacca Certainly were it not for these two traits in says sotto una cantina, and this cantina is known the life of Sylla, alluded to in this stanza, we to have been in the Vicolo de Leutari near the should regard him as a monster unredeemed by Cancellaria, a position corresponding exactly to any admirable quality. The atonement of his that of the Janus before the basilica of Pomvolantary resignation of empire may perhaps pey's theatre, to which Augustus transferred the be accepted by us, as it seems to have satisfied statue after the curia was either burnt or taken the Romaus, who if they had not respected must down. Part of the Pompeian shade, *) the porhave destroyed him. There could be no mean, tico, existed in the beginning of the XVth cenno division of opinion; they must have all tury, and the atrium was still called Satrum. thought, like Eucrates, that what had appeared So says Blondus. At all events, so imposing is ambition was a love of glory, and that what the stern majesty of the statue, and so memorhad been mistaken for pride was a real gran- able is the siory, that the play of the imagindeur of soul. *)

ation leaves no room for the exercise of the

judgment, and the fiction, if a fiction it is, opeAnd laid him with the earth. preceding clay. on the spectator with an effect not less

(p. 46. St. 86. powerful than truth. On the third of September Cromwell gained the victory of Dunbar; a year afterwards he And thou, the thunder-stricken nurse of Rome ! obtained "hig crowning mercy" of Worcester ;

[p. 46. St. 88. and a few years after, on the same day, which Ancient Rome, like modern Sienna, abounded he had ever esteemed the most fortunate for most probably with images of the foster-mother him, died.

of her founder; but there were two she-wolves

of whom history makes particular mention. One! And thou, dread statue ! yet eristent in of these, of brass in ancient work, was seen by The austerest form of naked majesty. Dionysius at the temple of Romulus under the

(p. 46. St. 87. Palatine, and is universally believed to be that The projected division of the Spada Pompey mentioned by the Latin historian, as having been has already been recorded by the historian of made from the money collected by a fine on the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. Mr. usurers, and as standing under the Ruminal figGibbon found in the memorials of Flaminius tree. **) The other was that which Cicero *** Vacca, and it may be added to his mention of it that Pope Julius III. gave the contending owners five hundred crowns for the statue; and *) “Tu modo Pompeia lenta spatiare sub presented it to Cardinal Capo di Ferro, who had

umbra." Ovid de Arte Amandi. prevented the judgment of Solomon from being **) Ad ficum Ruminalem simulacra infantium

conditorum urbis sub uberibus lupa posuerunt.

Liv. x. 69. This was in the year U. c. 455, or 457. “Seigneur, vous changez toutes mes idées ***) “Tum statua Nattæ, tum simulacra Deode la façon dont je vous vois agir. Je croyais rum, Romulusque et Remus cum altrice bellua que vous aviez de l'ambition, mais ancun vi fulminis icti conciderunt." De Divinat. 11. 20. amour pour la gloire : je voyais bien que votre “Tactus est ille etiam qui hanc urbem condiáme était haute; mais je ne soupçonnais pas dit Romulus, quem inauratum in Capitolio qu'elle fut grande." MONTESQUIEU, Dial de parvum atque lactantem, uberibus lupinis inSylla et d'Eucrate.

hiantem fuisse meministis." In Catilin. 111. 8.


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has celebrated both in prose and verse, and alluding, as the Abate has made him, to the which the historian Dion also records as having force of the blow, or the firmness with which is suffered the same accident as is alluded to by had been fixed. The whole strength, therefore, the orator. The question agitated by the anti- of the Abate's argument hangs upon the past quaries is, whether the wolf now in the conser- tense ; which, however, may be somewhat dimivator's palace is that of Livy and Dionysius, or nished by remarking that the phrase only showe that of Cicero, or whether it is neither one or that the statue was not then standing in its the other. The earlier_writers differ as much former position. Winkelmana has observed, that as the modern: Lucius Faunus *) says, that it the present twins are modern ; and it is equally is the one alluded to by both, which is impos- clear that there are marks of gilding on the sible, and also by Virgil, which may be. Ful- wolf, which might therefore be supposed to make vius Ursinus calls it the wolf of Dionysius, and part of the ancient group. It is known that the Marlianus talks of it as the one mentioned by sacred images of the Capitol were not destroyed Cicero. To him Rycquius tremblingly assents. **) when injured by time or accident, but were put Nardini is inclined to suppose it may be one of into certain underground depositaries called the many wolves preserved in ancient Rome : favissa. It may be thought possible that the but of the two rather bends to the Ciceronian wolf had been 80 deposited, and had been restatue. Montfaucon ***) mentions it as a point placed in some conspicuous situation when the without doubt. of the latter writers the deci- Capitol was rebuilt by Vespasian. Rycquius, sive Winkelmann proclaims it as having been without mentioning his authority, tells that is found at the church of Saint Theodore, where, was transferred from the Comitium to the Laor near where, was the temple of Romulus, and teran, and thence brought to the Capitol. If it consequently makes it the wolf of Dionysius. was found near the arch of Severus, it may have His authority is Lucius Faunus, who, however, been one of the images which Orosius says sera only says that it was placed, not found, at the thrown down in the Forum by lightning when Ficus Ruminalis by the Comitium, by which he Alaric took the city. That it is of very high does not seem to allude to the church of Saint antiquity the workmanship is a decisive proof; Theodore. Rycquius was the first to make the and that circumstance induced Winkelmann to mistake, and Winkelmann followed Rycquius. believe it the wolf of Dionysius. The Capitoline

Flaminius Vacca tells quite a different story, wolf, however, may have been of the same early and says he had heard the wolf with the twins date as that at the temple of Romulus. Lactan was found near the arch of Septimius Severus. tius *) asserts that in his time the Romans worThe commentator on Winkelmann is of the same shipped a wolf; and it is known that the Luperopinion with that learned person, and is incens-calia held out to a very late period ") after ed at Nardini for not having remarked that every other observance of the aucient saperstiCicero, in speaking of the wolf struck with light-tion had totally expired. This may account for ning in the Capitol, makes use of the past tense. the preservation of the ancient image longer But, with the Abate's leave, Nardini does not than the other early symbols of Paganism. positively assert the statue to be that mentioned It may be permitted, however, to remark that by Cicero, and, if he had, the assumption would the wolf was a Roman symbol, but that the not perbaps have been so exceedingly indiscreet. worship of that symbol is an inference drawn The Abate himself is obliged to own that there by the zeal of Lactantius. The early Christian are marks very like the scathing of lightning in writers are not to be trusted in the charges the hinder legs of the present wolf; and, to get which they make against the Pagans. Eusebius rid of this, adds, that the wolf seen by Dionysius accused the Romans to their faces of worshipmight have been also struck by lightning, or ping Simon Magus, and raising a statue to him otherwise injured.

in the island of the Tyber. The Romans had Let us examine the subject by a reference to probably never heard of such a person before, the words of Cicero. The orator in two places who came, however, to play a considerable, seems to particularize the Romulus and the though scandalous part in the church - bistory, Remus, especially the first, which his audience and has left several tokens of his aërial combat remembered to have been in the Capitol, as being with St. Peter at Rome; notwithstanding that struck with lightning. In his verses he records an inscription found in this very island of the that the twins and wolf both fell, and that the Tyber showed the Simon Magus of Eusebius to latter left behind the marks of her feet. Cicero be a certain indigenal god, called Semo Sangus does not say that the wolf was consumed: and or Fidius. Dion only mentions that it fell down, without Even when the worship of the founder of Rome

had been abandoned, it was thought expedient

to humour the habits of the good matrons of the “Hic silvestris erat Romani nominis altrix

city by sending them with their sick infants to Martia, quæ parvos Mavortis semine natos

the church of St. Theodore , as they had beforo Uberibus gravidis vitali rore rigabat, Quæ tum cum pueris flammato fulminis ictu practice is continued to this day; and the site

carried them to the temple of Romulus. The Concidit, atque avulsa pedum vestigia liquit." | of the above church seems to be thereby iden

De Consulatu, lib. 11. (lib. 1. de Divinat. c. 11.) tified with that of the temple: so that if the wolf *) "In eadem porticu ænea lupa, cujus uberi- had been really found there, as Winkelmann bus Romulus ac Remus lactantes inhiant, con- says, there would be no doubt of the present spicitur: de hac Cicero et Virgilius semper statue being that seen by Dionysius. But Fauintellexere. Livius hoc signum ab Ædilibus ex pecuniis quibus mulctati essent fæneratores positam innuit. Antea in Comitiis ad Ficum *) "Romuli nutrix Lupa honoribus est affecta Ruminalem, quo loco pueri fuerant expositi, divinis, et ferrem si animal ipsum fuisset, culocatum pro certo est."

jus figuram gerit." That is to say, he would **) “Non desunt qui hanc ipsam esse potent, rather adore a wolf than a prostitute. His quam adpinximus, quæ e comitio in Basilicam commentator has observed, that the opinion Lateranam, cum nonnullis aliis antiquitatum of Livy concerning Laurentia being figured in reliquiis, atque hinc in Capitolium postea re- this wolf was not universal. lata sit, quamvis Marlianns antiquam Capito- **) To A. D. 496. Quis credere possit, linam esse maluit a Tullio descriptam, cui ut saye Baronius, viguisse adhuc Romæ ad Gelasii in re nimis dubia, trepide adsentimur."

tempora , quæ fuere ante exordia urbis allata ***) “Lupa hodieque in capitolinis prostat in Italiam Lupercalia ? Gelasius wrote a letter ædibus, cum vestigio falminis quo ictam narrat to Andromachus, the senator, and others, to Cicero."

show that the rites should be given up.

208, in saying that it was at the Ficus Rumi- What from this barren being do we reap? palis by the Comitium, is only talking of its an- Our senses narrow, and our reason frail

. cient position as recorded by Pliny; and even

[p. 47. St. 93. if he had been remarking where it was found,

Omnes pene veteres , qui nihil cogwould not have alluded to the church of St. nosci, nihil percipi, nihil sciri posse dixerunt ; Theodore, but to a very different place, near | angastos sensus; imbecillos animos; brevia cur. which it was then thought the Ficus Ruminalis ricula vitæ ; in profundo veritatem demersam; had been, and also the Comitium; that is, the opinionibus et institutis omnia teneri : nihil verithree-columns by the church of Santa Maria tati relinqui : deinceps omnia tenebris circumfusa Liberatrice, at the corner of the Palatine looking esse dixerunt." *). The eighteen hundred years on the Forum.

which have elapsed since Cicero wrote this, have It is , in fact, a mere conjecture where the not removed any of the imperfections of humanity: tuage was actually dug up, and perhaps, on the and the complaints of the ancient philosophers whole, the marks of the gilding, and of the light- may, without injustice or affectation, be transcribed ning, are a better argument in favour of its in a poem written yesterday. being the Ciceronian wolf than any that can be adduced for the contrary opinion. At any rate, There is a stern found tower of other days. it is reasonably selected in the text of the poem

[p. 47. St. 99. as one of the most interesting relics of the an- Alluding to the tomb of Cecilia Metella, called cient city, and is certainly the figure, if not the Capo di Bove, in the Appian Way. very animal to which Virgil alludes in his beautiful verses.

-Prophetic of the doom “Geminog huic ubera circum Heaven gives ito favourites-early dcath. Ludere pendentes pueros et lambere matrem

[p. 48. St. 102. Impavidos: illam teriti cervice reflexam Ον οι θεοί Φιλουσιν αποθνήσκει νέος Mulcere alternos, et fingere corpora lingua." Το γαρ θανείν ουκ αισχρον αλλ' αισχρώς For the Roman's mind

θανείν. BAUNK, Pæta Gnomici, p. 231. Was modell’d in a less terrestrial mould.

[p. 46. St. 90. Behold the Imperial Mount ! [p. 48. St. 107 It is possible to be a very great man and to

The Palatine is one mass of ruins, particularly be still very inferior to Jalius Cæsar, the most

on the side towards the Circus Maximus. The complete character, so Lord Bacon thought, of very soil is formed of crumbled brick - work. all antiquity. Nature seems incapable of such Nothing has been told, nothing can be told, to extraordinary combinations as composed his ver- satisfy the belief of any but a Roman antiquary. gatile capacity, which was the wonder even of the Romans ihemselves. The first general-the only

There is the moral of all human tales; triumphant politician - inferior to none in elo- 'Tis but the same rehearsal of the past, quence-comparable to any in the attainments of First Freedom, and then Glory. wisdom, in an age made up of the greatest com

[p. 48. St. 108. manders, statesmen, orators and philosophers that

The author of the Life of Cicero, speaking of ever appeared in the world-an author who com- the opinion entertained of Britain by that orator posed a perfect specimen of military annals in and his cotemporary Romans, has the following his travelling-carriage - at one time in a con- eloquent passage: "From their railleries of this troversy with Cato, at another writing a treatise kind, on the barbarity and misery of our island, on punning, and collecting a set of good sayings- one cannot help reflecting on the surprising fate fighting ") and making love at the same moment, and revolutions of kingdoms, how Rome, once and willing to abandon both his empire and his the mistress of the world, the seat of arts, emmistress for a sight of the Fountains of the Nile. pire and glory, now lies sunk in sloth, ignorance Such did Julins Cæsar appear to his cotempo- and poverty, enslaved to the most cruel as well raries and to those of the subseqnent ages, who as to the most contemptible of tyrants, superstiwere the most inclined to deplore and execrate tion and religious imposture: while this remote his fatal genius.

country, anciently the jest and contempt of the But we must not be so much dazzled with his polite Romans, is become the happy seat of surpassing glory or with his magnanimous, his liberty, plenty, and letters ; flourishing in all the amiable qualities , .as to forget the decision of arts and refinements of civil life; yet running his impartial countrymen :

perhaps the same course which Rome itself had

run before it, from virtuous industry to wealth ; HE WAS JUSTLY &LAIN. **)

from wealth to luxury; from luxury to an impa

tience of discipline, and corruption of morals : *) In his tenth book, Lucan shows him sprink-till by a total degeneracy and loss of virtue, led with the blood of Pharsalia in the arms of being grown ripe for destruction, it falls a prey Cleopatra :

at last to some hardy oppressor, and, with the Sanguine Thessalicæ cladis perfusus adulter loss of liberty, losing every thing that is valuable, Admisit Venerem curis, et miscuit armis. sinks gradually again into its original barbarism.'

After feasting with his mistress, he sits up all night to converse with the Ægyptian sages,

-And apostolic statues climb and tells Achoreus,

To crush the imperial urn, whose ashes slept Spes sit mihi certa videndi


[p. 48. St. 110. Niliacos fontes, bellum civile relinquan.

The column of Trajan is surmounted by St.

Peter ; that of Aurelius by St. Paul.
Sic velut in tuta securi pace trahebant
Noctis iter medium.

Still we Trajan's name adore. (p. 49. St. 111. Immediately afterwards, he is fighting again Trajan was proverbially the best of the Roman and defending every position.

princes : **) and it would be easier to find a seSed adest defensor nbique Cæsar et hos aditus gladiis, hos ignibus arcet. in Liry's time. “Melium jure cæsum pronun

Cæca nocte carinis tiavit, etiam si regni crimine insons fuerit." İngiluit Cæsar semper feliciter unns

*) Academ. I. 13. Præcipiti cursu bellorum et tempore rapto. **) Hujus tantum memoriæ delatum est, ut,

") Jure cægns existimetur, says Suetoning neque ad nostram ætatem non aliter in Senatú after a fair estimation of his character, and principibus acclamatur, nisi, FELICIOR AUGUSTO making use of a phrase which was a formula MELIOR TRAJANO. Eutr. Vill. 5.

vereign uniting exactly the opposite characteris- of the attributes ascribed to it at present visible. tics, than one possessed of all the happy quali- | The nine Muses could hardly have stood in six ties' ascribed to this emperor. “When he mount-niches; and Juvenal certainly does not allude ed the throne," says the historian Dion, "he was to any individual cave. Nothing can be colstrong in body, he was vigorous in mind ; age lected from the satirist but that somewhere near had impaired none of his faculties; he was al- the Porta Capena was a spot in which it was together free from envy and from detraction; he supposed Numa held nightly consultations with honoured all the good and he advanced them; his nymph, and where there was a grove and a and on this account they could not be the ob- sacred fountain, and fanes once consecrated to ject of his fear, or of his hate; he never listened the Muses ; and that from this spot there was a to informers; he gave not way to his anger; he descent into the valley of Egeria, where were abstained equally from unfair exactions and un- several artificial caves. It is clear that the stajust punishments; he had rather be loved as a tues of the Muses made no part of the decoraman than honoured as a sovereign ; he was af- tion which the satirist thought misplaced in fable with his people, respectful to the senate, these caves ; for he expressly assigns other fanes and universally beloved by both; he inspired (delubra) to these divinities above the valley, none with dread but the enemies of his country." and moreover tells us, that they had been eject

ed to make room for the Jews. In fact, the Rienzi, last of Romans! (p. 49. St. 114. little temple, now called that of Bacchus, was The name and exploits of Rienzi must be fa- formerly thought to belong to the Muses, and miliar to the reader of Gibbon.

Nardini places them in a poplar-grove, which

was in his time above the valley. Egeria! sweet creation of some heart

It is probable, from the inscription and posiWhich four no mortal resting-place so fair tion, that the cave now shown may be one of

As thine ideal breast. (p. 49. St. 115. the "artificial caverne," of which, indeed, there 'The respectable authority of Flaminius Vacca is another a little way higher up the valley, would incline us to believe in the claims of the under a tuft of alder bushes: but a single grotto Egerian grotto. He assures us that he saw an of Egeria is a mere modern invention, grafted inscription in the pavement, stating that the upon the application of the epithet Egerian to fountain was that of Egeria dedicated to the these nymphea in general, and which might send nymphs. The inscription is not there at this us to look for the haunts of Numa upon the day; but Montfaucon quotes two lines *), of banks of the Thames. Ovid from a stone in the Villa Giustiniani, which Our English Juvenal was not seduced into mishe seems to think had been brought from the translation by his acquaintance with Pope : he same grotto.

carefully preserves the correct pluralThis grotto and valley were formerly frequented in summer, and particularly the first Sunday

Thence slowly winding down the vale we view in May, by the modern Romans, .who attached a

The Egerian grote; oh, how unlike the true! salubrious quality to the fountain which trickles The valley abounds with springs, and over froin an orifice at the bottom of the vault, and, these springs, which the Muses might haunt overflowing the little pools, creeps down the from their neighbouring groves, Egeria presided : matted grass into the brook below. The brook hence she was said to supply them with water; is the Ovidian Almo, whose name and qualities and she was the nymph of the grottos through are lost in the modern Aquataccio. The valley which the fountains were taught to flow. itself is called Valle di Caffarelli, from the dukes The whole of the monuments in the vicinity of that name who made over their fountain to of the Egerian valley have received names at the Pallavicini, with sixty rubbia of adjoining land. will, which have been changed at will. Venuti

There can be little doubt that this long dell is owns he can see no traces of the temples of the Egerian valley of Juvenal, and the pausing- Jove, Saturn, Juno, Venus, and Diana, which place of Umbricius, notwithstanding the general. Nardini found, or hoped to find. The mutatoity of his commentators have supposed the des- riom of Caracalla's circus, the temple of Honour cent of the satirist and his friend to have been and Virtue, the temple of Bacchus, and above into the Arician grove, where the nyinph met all, the temple of the god Rediculus, are the Hippolitus, and where she was more peculiarly antiquaries° despair. worshipped.

The circus of Caracalla depends on a medal The step from the Porta Capena to the Alban of that emperor cited by Fulvius Ursinus, of hill, fifteen miles distant, would be too consider which the reverse shows a circus, supposed, howable, unless we were to believe in the wild ever, by some to represent the Circus Maximus. conjecture of Vossius, who makes that gate tra It gives a very good idea of that place of exer. vel from its present station, where he pretends cise. The soil has been but little raised, if we it was during the reign of the Kings, as far as may judge from the small cellular structure at the Arician grove, and then makes it recede to the end of the Spina, which was probably the its old site with the shrinking city. The tufo, or chapel of the god Consus. This cell is half bepumice, which the poet prefers to marble, is the neath the soil, as it must have been in the cirsubstance composing the bank in which the grotto cos itself, for "Dionysius could not be persuaded is sunk.

to believe that this divinity was the Roman The modern topographers find in the grotto Neptune, because his altar was underground. the statue of the nyinph and nine niches for the Muscs, and a late traveller has discovered that the cave is restored to that simplicity which the *) Substitit ad veteres arcus, madidamque poet regretted had been exchanged for injudi

Capenam, cious ornament. But the headless statue is pal- Hic ubi nocturnæ Numa constituebat amica. pably rather a male than a.nymph, and has none Nunc sacri fontis nemus, et delubra locantur

Judæis quorum cophinas fænumque supellex.

Omnis enim populo mercedem pendere jussa *) in villa Justiniana exstat ingens lapis

est quadratus solidus in quo sculpta hæc duo Ovidii

Arbor, et ejectis mendicat silva Camænis. carmina sunt:

Iu vallem Egeriæ descendimus, et speluncas

Dissimiles veris : quanto præstantius esset Fgeria est quæ præbet aqnas dea grata Camænis. Ma Numæ conjux consiliumque fuit.

Numen aquæ, viridi si margine clauderet

undas Qui lapis videtur ex eodem Egeriæ fonte, aut Herba, nec ingenuum violarent marmora eins vicinia isthac comportatus.


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Yet let us ponder boldly. (p. 60. St. 127.

I see before me the Gladiator lle. “At all events," says the author of the Aca

(p: 52. St. 140. demical Questions, “I trust, whatever may be Whether the wonderful statue which suggested the fate of my own speculations, that philosophy this image be a laquearian gladiator, which in will regain that estimation which it ought to spite of Winkelmann's criticism has been stoutly possess. The free and philosophic spirit of our maintained, or whether it be a Greek herald, as nation has been the theme of admiration to the that great antiquary positively asserted *) or world. This was the proud distinction of Eng- whether it is to be thought a Spartan or barlishmen, and the luminous source of all their barian shield-bearer, according to the opinion of glory. Shall we then forget the manly and dig- his Italian editor, it must assuredly seem nified sentiments of our ancestors, to prate in copy of that masterpiece of Ctesilaus which rethe language of the mother or the nurse about presented "a wounded man dying, who perfectly our good old prejudices ? This is not the way expressed what there remained of life in him." to defend the cause of truth. It was not thus Mountfaucon and Maffei thought it the identical that our fathers maintained it in the brilliant statue; but that statue was of bronze. The glaperiods of our history. Prejudice may be trust- diator was once in the villa Ludovisi, and was ed to guard the ontworks for a short space of bought by Clement XII. The arm is an entire time while reason slumbers in the citadel : but restoration of Michael Angelo. if the latter sink into a lethargy, the former will quickly erect a standard for herself. Philo

-He, their sire, sophy, wisdom, and liberty, support each other; Butcher'd to make a Roman holiday. he who will not reason, is a bigot; he who can

[p. 52. St. 141. not, is a fool; and he who dares not, is a slave." Gladiators were of two kinds, compelled and

voluntary; and were supplied from several con

-Great Nemesis ! ditions ; from slaves sold for that purpose ; from Here, where the ancient paid thee homage long. culprits; from barbarian captives either taken

[p. 51. St. 132. in war, and, after being, led in triumph, set We read in Suetonius that Augustus, from a apart for the games, or those scized and conwarning received in a dream, counterfeited, once demned as rebels ; also from free citizens , some & year, the beggar, sitting before the gate of fighting for hire (auctorati), others from a his palace with his hand hollowed and stretched depraved ambition: at last even knights and out for charity.) A statue formerly in the Villa senators were exhibited, a disgrace of which the Borghese, and which should be now at Paris, first tyrant was naturally the first inventor. ***) represents the Emperor in that posture of sup- In the end, dwarfs, and even women, fought ; an plication. The object of this self-degradation enormity prohibited by Severus. Of these the was the appeasement of Nemesis, the perpetual most to be pitied undoubtedly were the barbaattendant on good fortune, of whose power the rian captives ; and to this species a Christian Roman conquerors were also reminded by cer- writer +) justly applies the epithet “innocent," tain symbols attached to their cars of triumph. to distinguish them from the professional glaThe syinbols were the whip and the crotalo, diators. Aurelian and Claudius supplied great which were discovered in the Nemesis of the numbers of these unfortunate victims; the one Vatican. The attitude of beggary made the above after his triumph, and the other on the pretext statue pass for that of Belisarjus: and until the of a rebellion. No war, says Lipsius, was ever criticism of Winkelmann had rectified the mis- so destructive to the haman race as these sports. take, one fiction was called in to support another. In spite of the laws of Constantine and Constans, It was the same fear of the sudden termination gladiatorial shows survived the old established of prosperity that made Amasis king of Egypt religion more than seventy years ; but they warn his friend Polycrates of Samos, that the owed their final extinction to the courage of a gode loved those whose lives were chequered Christian. In the year 404, on the kalends of with good and evil fortunes. Nemesis was sup- January , they were exhibiting the shows in the posed to lie in wait particularly for the prudent: Flavian amphitheatre before the usual immense that is, for those whose caution rendered them concourse of people. Almachius or Telemachus, accessible only to mere accidents: and her first an eastern monk, who had travelled to Rome altar was raised on the banks of the Phrygian intent on his holy purpose, rushed into the midst #sepus by Adrastas, probably the prince of that of the area, and endeavoured to separate the naine who killed the son of Crasus by mistake. combatants. The prætor Alypius, a person inHence the goddess was called Adrastea.

credibly attached io these games, gave instant The Roman Nemesis was sacred and august; orders to the gladiators to slay him; and Telethere was a temple to her in the Palatine under machus gained the crown of martyrdom, and the the name of Rhamnusia : so great indeed was the title of saint, which surely has never either propensity of the ancients to trust to the revo- before or since been awarded for a more noble jution of events, and to believe in the divinity exploit. Honorius immediately abolished the of Fortune, that in the same Palatine there was shows, which were never afterwards revived. a temple to the Fortune of the day. This is the last superstition which retains its hold over the human heart, and, from concentrating in one *) Either Polifontes, herald of Laius, killed object the credulity so natural to man, has al

by Edipus; or Cepreas, herald of Euritheus, ways appeared strongest in those unembarrassed

killed by the Athenians when he endeavoured by other articles of belief. The antiquaries have to drag the Heraclidæ from the altar of Mercy, supposed this goddess to be synonimous with for- and in whose honour they instituted annual tune and with fate : but it was in her vindictive

games, continued to the time of Hadrian; or quality that she was worshipped under the name Anthemocritus, the Athenian herald, killed of Nemesis.

by the Megarenses, who never recovered the

impiety. *) Suetonius in vit. Augusti, cap. 91. Casan- **) Vulneratum deficientem fecit in quo pogbon, in the note, refers to Plutarch's Lives of sit intelligi quantum restat animæ. Plin. Nat. Camillus and Emilius Paulus, and also to his Hist. XXXIV, 8. apophthegme, for the character of this deity. ***) Julius Cæsar, who rose by the fall of the The hollowed hand was reckoned the last aristocracy, brought Furius Leptinus and A. degree of degradation: and when the dead Calenus upon the arena. body of the præfect Rufinus was borne about + Tertullian, “certe quidem et innocentes in iriumph by the people, the indignity was gladiatores in lodum veniunt , ut voluptatio increased bs putting his hand in that position. publicæ hustia frant."

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