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a certain amount of power, which, is even greatly increased when it is applied to a corporate body. But it breaks down under the strain of the temptations to which those are exposed to whom so great a business as the election of a Pope is entrusted. Given the necessity of having a Pope, it would probably be impossible to devise a better means of getting one than that which the Church has gradually perfected. But she attempts the impossible; and her efforts to secure her aim, though they have been to a great degree successful, have resulted in an amount of false pretence, solemn sham, hypocrisy, and substitution of pompous appearance for reality, the long story of which makes the account of these Conclaves somewhat humiliating reading for the believer in human perfectibility.

INDEX.

A.

Abdication of Celestine V., 87.

Abnormal length of the reign of the
Antipope, Benedict XIII., 86.

- papal elections, 57.

Abuses of the secret system of nominat-
ing Cardinals, 25.

Accumulation of wealth by papal
families, 317-322.

Advantage of a numerous College of
Cardinals, 23.

Age of candidates for the Cardinalate,
47.

Alexander VII., character of, 337.

modified nepotism of,

338

Alexander VIII., 388. and his secretary,

afterwards Clement XI., 27, 28.
Amount of dotation permissible to a

papal nephew, 321.
Anecdote of Cardinal Altieri on the eve

of his election as Clement X., 375.
Anecdote of Cardinal de Eetz, 377. Giampietri-Caraffa

(Paul IV.), 229. Giangiacomo Medici,

brother of Pius IV., 232. Gregory XIV. and Boni-
facio Vanozzi, 26-27. an hereditary conclave

"custode," 135.

an intrusive Conclavist, 221.

Matthew Corle, the papal

physician, 86.

Nicholas IV., 85.

Nicholas V. and his mother,

144.

Paul II., 156.

Sixtus V., 260.

Anecdotes of the Conclave at the death

of Eugenius IV., 137-141. that elected

Pius II., 146-151.

Announcement of thoir creation to new

Cardinals, 35.
Antecedents of Moroni, Gregory

XIV.'s barber, 93.
Antipopes, 57.

Ascetic and bigoted character of
Michael Ghislieri, Pius V., 244.

B.

Barberini Family, downfall of tho, 324.
Behaviour of newly created Cardinals,
36.

Benedict XIV., character of, 338.

Beretta, the, 36, 43.

Berettina, the, 36, 42.

Bitter dissensions in the Sacred College

(1303), 90.
Bull of Sixtus V.,-finally regulating the

composition of the Sacred College,

18, 19.

Bulls of Gregory XV. forming the
basis of Conclave Law, 229.

Pius VI., promulgated in

1782 and 1798, 407.

Burial of Alexander VI., extraordinary,
173.

C.

Cardinal Albani in the Conclave after

the death of Clement XII., cunning

intrigues of, 385-387.
. nephew of Clement

XI., sketch of, 380.
——. de Coligny, deposition of, by

Pius IV., 50.

deacons, 21.

Cardinal's hat, the, 36, 37.

Cardinal Ludovisi during the reign of

Gregory XV., influence of, 298. Moroni accused of heresy in

1557, 251.

"Nephews," 138.

, origin of tho term, 14.

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Contests between Eugenius IV. and

his Council, 134.
Contrast between the ecclesiastical

world of the Middle Ages and that

of our day, 76.
Council of Constance, its results on the

present Papal pretensions, 130.

Pisa, the, 125.

Creation of Cardinals, ceremonial used

at the, 29. in the earlier

centuries, 30. , modern prac-
tice at the, 33. , the Saored

College formerly consulted by, the

Fope at the, 31. , the Sacred

College no longer consulted by the

Pope at the, 32.

D.

Death of Alexander VI., 172.

Alexander VII., 339.

Adrian VI., 189.

Benedict IX., 89.

Clement IX., 346.

Gregory XI., 105.

Gregory XV., 302.

Innocent VIII., 170.

Innocent X., 330.

Marcellus II., 204.

- Martin V., 133.

Paul II., 156.

Paul III., 204.

Paul V, 297.

Pius II., 154.

Pius III., 174.

Pius IV, 241.

Pius V., 259.

Sixtus IV., 164.

Olympia Maidalchini, Dino.

cent X.'s sister.in.law, from the

plague, 336.
De Brosses's Letters from Italy (1739),

378.

Decadence of the despotic power of tho
Popes, 390, 391.

Decree of Nicholas II. on Papal elec-
tions, 13.

St. Hilarius (461), 8.

St. Symmachus (499), 8.

Democratic professions of the Catholic
Church, 5.

Deposition of Cardinal de Coligny, by
Pius IV., 50.

Difference between Cardinals and Car-
dinal deacons, 21.

Different classes of Popes, 78.

Differing ecclesiastical rank of the early

cardinals, 16.
Dislike of Rome to Adrian VI., 191.
Dismay in Conclave after the election

of Pius V., 258.
Dismay of Rome at the election of

Adrian VI., 188.
Dissensions in the Sacred College, on

the accession of Charles D'Anjou to

the Italian throne, 60.
Dual Papacy, a, 127.
Duration of the Middle Ages, 75.

E.

Early method of Papal election, 7.
Early requisites for the validity of a

Papal election, 57, 58.
Eighteen different methods of Papal

election chronicled by Moroni, 10.
Election by " accessit," 409.

"acclamation," 218, 219.

"adoration," 218, 219.

compromise, first instance

of, 63.

"inspiration," 218, 219.

"scrutiny," 409.

Election of Adrian V., 83.

Adrian VI., 188.

Alexander V., 126.

Alexander VI., 171.-

Alexander VII., 334.

Benedict XII., 96.

Benedict XIV., 387.

Calistus III., 144.

Clement VI.. 96.

Clement VII., 190, 196.

Clement IX., 340.

Clement X., 376.

Eugenius IV., 133.

Giovanni XXIII., 128.

Gregory XI., 101.

Gregory XII., 126.

Gregory XV., 298.

Innocent V., 82.

Innocent VI., 97.

Innocent VIII., 168.

Innocent X., 323.

- Julius II., 178.

Julius III., 211.

Deo X., 183.

Marcellus II., 221.

- Martin V., 57, 132

Nicholas V., 141.

Paul II., 156.

Paul III., 197.

Paul IV., 228.

Paul V., 291.

Pius II., 151.

[graphic]

Election of Pius IV., 240.

Pius V., 257.

Sixtus IV., 156.

Urban V., 99.

Urban VI., 113.

Urban VIII., 311.

— Urban VI., curious intri-
gues at the, 109—117.
Emptiness of the Papal treasury at the

death of Leo X., 185.
End of the " Babylonish Captivity " at

Avignon, 105." Middlo Ages" period of

the Papacy, 198.
Eugenius IV., dying speech of, 134.
Examination of the dinner provided

for Cardinals in Conclave, 415.
Excommunication of the Colonnas by

Eugenius IV., 133.
Extravagance of Pietro Riario, Sixtus

IV.'s nephew, 161, 162.

F.

Fall of the Eastern Empiro, 142.
Fatalitv of "Celestinus" as a Papal
title,- 88.

Fifty churches after which the Cardi-
nals are designated, 20.

Final definition of the rank of Cardi-
nals, 16.

First entry of the Cardinals into chapel
during a Conclave, 410.

First Pope elected without the inter-
vention of Roman clergy and people,
56.

First "scrutiny" at a Conclavo, 411.

traces of the Sacred College, 17.

Food prescribed for Cardinals during
Conclave, 66, 67.

Gregory XTV., 260.'

and Bonifacio Vanozzi, 26,

27.

Gregory XV.'s constitutions regulating
Conclave proceedings, 299.

the twenty rules of, 401, 402,

403.

Hereditary "Custodes" of the Con-

claves, 87.
Heresy of Cardinal de Coligny, 49. Cardinal Moroni accused of,

(1557), 251.
Hypocrisy of Spondanus, the French

ecclesiastical historian, 71.

Imperial veto at the election of Paul

IV., disregard of the, 229.
Imprisonment of Cardinals by the

Perugians at the election of Hono.

rius III., 58. Cardinals by the

Romans at the election of Gregory

IX., 59.

Inaccessibility of Cardinals during

Conclave, 65.
Infirm Cardinals, method of voting

prescribed for, 422.
Innocent V.'s achievements as a

preacher, 83.
Innocent VII. repudiates the oaths

taken bv him before election, 126.
Innocent XL, 388.

Inquisition, re-establishment by Paul
IV. of the, 231.

Interregnum after the death of Cle-
ment V., long, 95.

after tho death of Inno-
cent VIII., 171.

Intrigues of the Cardinal of Rouen at
the Conclave of 1458, 146, 147.

Intrigues at tho Conclave assembled
after the death of Paul III., 206—
211.

J.

Julius III., nonentity of tho character
of, 212.

L.

Last of the French Popes, 101.

instance of election as Pope of a

Cardinal absent from Conclave, 69. instance of election of a Pope,

not a Cardinal, 69.
Later modifications of the constitutions

of Gregory X., 88.
Leo XI., 261.

Letter of Boniface I. to the Empress

Honorius, 8.
List of Popes between 1271 and 1519,

80.

"Lo Ammette al duplice amplesso,"
42.

Long papacy of Adrian I., 86.

- Pius VII., 86.

Longest Papal interregnum on record,
60.

Magnificence of Boniface VIII., 89.
Marcellus II., brief reign of, 222.
Minute ceremonial at the reception of
new Cardinals, 39, 40, 41.

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