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nities of the Conclave, especially as to shortening at their own discretion the time which ought, according to rule, to elapse between the death of the Pope and the election. Novaes, in his life of Pius VL, declares that a chamberlain of Monsignore Carracciolo, who was Master of the Chamber to the Pope, carried this Bull secretly to the cardinals who were at Naples, at Venice, and in other cities near at hand. And it is probable that Nbvaes is right. But other writers maintain that this Bull was prepared in Eome before the Pope was compelled to leave it, which was on the 11th of February, 1798, and that Cardinal Albani, the Dean of the Sacred College, determined with such of the cardinals as were accessible that they should meet at Venice, at the same time communicating this arrangement to all the Catholic European sovereigns. The precedent is one which probably will not have escaped the attention of some of those who are not Catholic sovereigns, in view of the next papal election, which cannot be far off, although, as far as can be judged from the present aspect of affairs, there seems little possibility of doubting that the Conclave will be held and the future Pontiff elected in exact and scrupulously regular conformity with precedent.


Three Canonical modes of election.—Scrutiny and "Accessit."—Entry of the Cardinals into Chapel for the scrutiny.—Vestments.—Mode of preparing the Sistine Chapel for the scrutiny.f—The Seats of the Cardinals at the Scrutiny.—The "Sfumata."—How the day passes in Conclave.—The bringing of the Cardinals' dinners.—Cardinals heads of Monastic Orders.—Close of the day in Conclave.

Of the three modes of election recognised as regular and canonical in Conclave, that by "adoration," "inspiration," or "acclamation," and that by "compromise," have been sufficiently explained in former chapters. It remains to give an account of the election by "scrutiny" and "accessit," which may be considered as the method practised at the present day. These two terms do not signify two different modes of performing the election, but two portions of the same method of arriving at a result, as will be seen from what follows.

The afternoon of the first day, after the processional entry of the cardinals into Conclave, having been occupied with visits and adieux, as has been described, and the "Extra Omnes" having been pronounced at the third ringing of the bell, their Eminences take possession of the cells which chance has assigned to them, and retire for the night. The next morning at eight o'clock the junior master of the ceremonies rings a bell at the door of each cell, and a second time half an hour later. At nine he rings a third time, adding this time to his bell the call, " In Capellam, Domini !"—" To chapel, my lords!" Then the cardinals, clad in cassock, band, rochet, cape, and croccia,* and with their scarlet berrette, and attended by their conclavists, proceed to the Paoline Chapel, where mass is celebrated by the Dean of the College, and the communion is administered to them. The croccia is on this occasion taken off in chapel before communicating, and a white stole assumed in place of it, which is to be handed to them by the master of the ceremonies. The cardinals belonging to the monastic orders do not assume the rochet, except the heads of certain orders who have the privilege of wearing it. Whole pages might be filled with uiinutire of this sort, all regulated in the most precise manner. The above have been given as a specimen of the infinitely numerous and infinitesimally small regulations with which the whole of the procedure—as well indeed as every other portion of Eoman Court life—is surrounded!

After the service in the chapel their Eminences retire to their cells to breakfast; after which they go, accompanied by their conclavists, to the Sistine Chapel, without their rochets, to proceed to the first scrutiny. One of the conclavists at the door of the chapel hands to his cardinal a closed desk or box containing the ruled and prepared registers for the day's voting, the schedules printed and prepared (as will be presently described) for giving the votes, the cardinal's seal and

* A garment specially -worn in Conclave. It is a long mantle of serge or merino from the nook to the feet, open in front, and with a train behind. Tho latter is tied up in a knot, only loosened when the wearer is receiving the Eucharist.

materials for sealing, and writing requisites. The conclavists then retire and the doors of the chapel are closed. Their Eminences, it is expressly provided, may recite their breviary during the scrutiny, or read any book, if they like that better.

The chapel is divided, as visitors to Eome will no doubt remember, into two halves by a balustrade, the inner portion, or that nearest to the altar, being called, as in other churches, the presbytery. The entire floor of this is raised to a level with the dais, on which ordinarily is placed the Pontiff's seat, on this occasion removed. The altar alone remains, with its crucifix and six candles, which are always lighted during the whole time of the scrutiny. All round the walls of the presbytery thus prepared are erected a number of "thrones" (for they are all sovereigns during the vacancy of the see), equal to that of the members of the College. Each has a baldaquin, or canopy, over it, which, as well as all the other drapery attached to it, is of green for those cardinals not created by the last Pope, and of purple for his "creatures." These canopies are so arranged that they can be removed by pulling a rope at a minute's notice, and they are all let down the instant the new Pope is chosen, with the exception of that one above the seat he has occupied. Under the baldaquin, and in front of each seat, is a table covered with drapery of similar colour, in front of which is written the name of each cardinal, and below the name his coat-of-arms. On the table there is what we should call a blotting book, which is to be, as we are told, of black leather ornamented with lines of gold. The Dean of the Sacred College sits under the first baldaquin on the gospel side of the altar. All the rest follow, the bishops, priests, and deacons, in the order of their creation, so that the junior occupies the baldaquin nearest to the altar on the epistle side. In the middle of the floor are six little tables, similarly furnished with everything necessary to the business in hand. These are for the use of any cardinal who, fearing that he may be overlooked by his neighbour when writing his voting paper, may prefer to do it in the open space, where overlooking is impossible.

In front of the altar is a large table covered with red serge, with the following objects on it: a number of papers folded, wafers, sealing-wax, four candles ready for lighting, a box with flint,' steel, and matches, a quantity of red and another parcel of purple cord for filing the schedules on, and a box of needles for the same purpose. There is also a tablet of walnut wood with seventy holes in it, answering to the number of cardinals when the College is full, together with a purple bag containing as many balls of wood as there are cardinals, with the name of a cardinal on each of them. From this bag, every morning and every afternoon, are drawn by lot by the hand of the junior cardinal deacon the three scrutators, and three cardinals to attend the invalids and take their votes in their cells if there are any invalids in the Conclave, as is almost certain to be the case. And the balls, with the names of the six cardinals thus drawn by lot, are placed in the respective holes in the tablet above mentioned, and are allowed to remain there during the entire time of each

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