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nominate some more worthy person "—a little bit of hypocritical comedy which the Jesuit deems necessary to the due exaltation of his subject. But the Pope, who was virtually making him not only a cardinal, but his own successor next but one—Innocent XII. (ob. 1700) having reigned nine years in the interim—told him that he had made many changes in the list of those whom he purposed to elevate to the purple, but that he had never once thought of omitting his name.

CHAPTER III.

Ceremonial connected with the Creation of Cardinals.—Practice in the -Earliest Ages.—Consultation of the College on the Subject.—Modern Practice. — Communication of his Creation to the new Cardinal.— His customary Duties thereupon.—Costume.—New Cardinal's Visit to the Vatican.—Patronage.—Ceremonial at tho Apostolic Palace.— Speeches on the Occasion.—The "Beretta."—The new Cardinal's Reception.—Shutting and Opening of the new Cardinal's Mouth.— Cardinalitial Eing.—Fees.—Ages at which Cardinals have been made.—Anecdotes of Odet de Coligny, the Heretic Cardinal.—Laws restricting Popes a Dead Letter.

It would occupy too much time and space to attempt to give a complete account of the ceremonies attendant on the creation of the members of the Sacred College. But as these ceremonies, both the strictly ecclesiastical portion of them and the social accompaniments of them, were for three or four hundred years, and up to the time of the recent revolution, which put an end to the temporal power of the Papacy, a prominent and leading feature in the routine of practices which constituted the life of the Apostolic "Curia," and in the social life of Home, it is necessary to say a few words upon the subject. For unless the ecclesiastical and social dignity and position of a cardinal, and the sort of place he fills, or rather filled, in the eyes of the Eoman world, be clearly understood, the meaning and significance of a Conclave will not be rightly apprehended.

In the earlier ages of the Church the ceremonial observed in the creation of a cardinal was not only much more simple than it became at a subsequent period, which might have been expected, but it indicates also that there was in those days a very much greater reality in the theory which represents the Sacred College as an assisting and, to a certain degree, controlling Council established for the guidance of the Iloly Father. And this, too, indeed, might be expected to have been the case by those who have paid any attention to the progress of Church history.

The creation of cardinals . in the earlier centuries usually took place on the first Wednesday of the "Quattro Tempora" or fast, with which each of the quarters of the year began; and the first act of the creation took place mostly at Santa Maria Maggiore. There after the Introit and Collect of the Mass had been said, a reader ascended the pulpit, and turning towards the people, said in a loud voice, "Cognoscat caritas vestra quia (N. N.) de titulo (IT. N.) advocator in ordine diaconatus ad diaconiam (N. N.) et (N. N.) diaconus de titulo (N. N.) advocator in ordine presbyteri ad titulum (N. N.). Si quis habit adversus hos viros aliquam querelam exeat confidentur propter Deum et secundum Deum, et dicat." * If any objection was stated, inquiry was made; and if it was found to be well founded, a different person was raised to the cardinalate. On the following Friday the

* " Be it known to your charitable consideration that N. N., of the title of N.N., is called in the order of deacons to thedeaconryof N.N.,andN.N., doucon of the title N. N., ia called in the order of priests to the title N. N. If any man hath any complaint against these men, let him step forth -with confidence, in behalf of God, and according to God's Word, and tell the same."

same thing was repeated in the church of the Twelve Apostles. The next day, the Saturday, at the mass at St. Peter's, after the Introit and the Collect, the Pontiff, turning to the people, pronounced these words: 11 Auxiliante Domine Deo, et Salvatore nostro Jesu Christo eligimus in ordinem Diaconi (N. N.) de titulo (N. N.) ad diaconiam (N. N.) et (N. N.) Diaconum di titulo (N. N.) in ordine Presbyteratus ad titulum (N. N.). Si quis autem habet aliquid contra hos viros, pro Deo et propter Deum exeat et dicat. Verumtamen memor vit conditionis su«."* Then there was a pause for a short period, and if nobody came forward with any objection, the Pope proceeded to celebrate mass, and then declared the promotion of the persons named to the cardinalate, and gave them the scarlet hat then and there.

At a somewhat later period the Pope asked of the Sacred College assembled in secret Consistory whether in their opinion there should be a creation of cardinals, and of how many. Then on receiving an affirmative reply to the first question, he pronounced the words: "Nos sequimur consilium dicentium quod fiant." f Then according to the tenor of the replies to the second question, he said: "Nos sequimur consilium dicentium quod fiant,"—such or such a number. He then requested the members of the College to give the choice of persons their best consideration, and so dismissed the meeting. A second Consistory was held on the following Friday, and the first thing done was the deputing

* "Let him however be mindful of his own condition." A hint not to speak lightly or presumingly.

t "We follow the advice of those who say that there should be a creation."

by the Pope of two cardinals to go to the residence of all those who were too infirm to attend the Consistory, and collect their votes as to the persons to be promoted. When the deputation returned the Pope said: "Portetur nuda cathedra!"* Thereupon all the cardinals rose and ranged themselves against the wall of the hall so as to be out of ear-shot of the Pope's seat. The chair was placed at the Pontiff's right hand, and the Dean of the Sacred College seated himself in it. The Pope then in a low voice told him whom he thought of creating, and concluded with "Quid vobis videtur?" j- One by one in order of seniority the whole College was thus consulted. When this was completed the Pope said aloud: "Deo gratias, habemus de personis creandis concordiam omnium fratrum," or "quasi omnium," or "majoris partis," X as the case might be. And then the Pontiff at once proclaimed the new dignitaries with the following formula: "Auctoritate Dei omnipotentis, sanctorum Apostolomm Petri et Pauli, et nostrS, creamus Sanctse Eomanse Ecclesia3 cardinales presbyteros quidem (E. N.), diaconos vero (N. N.), cum dispensationibus derogationibus et clausulis necessariis et opportunis.'' &c On the following Saturday a public Consistory was held, at which the Pope addressed a hortatory allocution to the new cardinals, placed the hat on their heads, and kept them to dine with him. Soon, however, we find all semblance of consulting the Sacred College dropped; and long before the intricate mass of rules for the ceremonial at present

* "Let an empty chair be brought." t " What do you thin*- of it?"

j "Thanks be to God, we have the consent of all our brethren," or " of nearly all of them," or " of the majority."

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