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business they were engaged in, and thus gain a little time, which he might be able to put to profit. The young intruders began joking and talking on all sorts of irrelevant matters. But the veterans with whom they had to deal were not to be beaten in that manner. Visconti, Sforza, and Sfondrato turned away together for a moment, and having rapidly decided on their course returned to the general circle; when Visconti, addressing Pio and San Cesareo, said plainly that they were there for the purpose of formally agreeing to the exclusion of Cardinal San Clemente, and that if it pleased their Eminences to remain they would at all events serve as witnesses of the declaration about to be made. He then proceeded to declare, in his own name and in that of all their friends, that they bound themselves together not to elect San Clemente. He rehearsed the names of the allies agreeing in this resolution one by one. When he named Montalto, San Cesareo interrupted him, saying, "Nay, his Eminence of Montalto is present; let him speak for himself!" "No, no!" returned Montalto, smiling; "let Visconti be spokesman; I ratify all he says!" Cardinal Este, when Visconti came to his name, added, " I confirm it; and only wish that I had a dozen votes to make the exclusion more overwhelming.'' "And now," said Visconti, when he had finished, "we may go to bed!" "Ah, we may!" exclaimed. Sfondrato, turning to leave the cell; "and your Eminences," he added, looking towards Pio and San Cesareo with a laugh as he went, "may now go and elect a Pope, if you can!"



Continuation of the Conclave that elected Paul V. — Aldobrandino determines to elect Cardinal Tosco.—Points for and against hirn. —Attempt to elect Tosco by " Adoration."—Montalto's Indecision. —Eemarkable Scene in the Cell of Cardinal Acquaviva.—Conference between Aldobrandino and Montalto. — Tho Latter unwillingly agrees to the Election of Tosco, which appears all but certain.— Suspense of Tosco.—Eemarkable Step taken by Baronius.—Ho alone by the Ascendancy of his Character prevents the Election of Tosco.—Baronius himself nearly elected.—The "Sala Eegia " in the Vatican. —Party Tactics thrown into Confusion.—Tosco's Disappointment.—Extraordinary Scene in the Sala Eegia and the Sistino and Paoline Chapels.—Borghese at length proposed by common Accord, and elected as Paul Y.

Bitter was Aldobrandino's anger and mortification when his two emissaries returned and made their report. He immediately collected all his own adherents, among whom might now be counted most of the French and Spanish supporters, to consider what was next to be done. The first measure determined on was to proceed to an exclusion of Cardinal Saoli, yet more solemn and formal than that pronounced by their adversaries against San Clemente—a step which would seem to have been prompted entirely by pique and anger, as the election of Saoli had already entirely failed, and there does not appear any indication that the allies had any thought of bringing him forward again. The meeting, however, to the number of twenty-two, decreed the exclusion; and then, having taken the precaution of causing the door and outside of the cell to be so guarded by their conclavists that there was no danger that a trick should be played them, such as they had played on the meeting for the exclusion of San Clemente, they bound themselves by an agreement to give their votes unanimously to any one of those then present whom Aldobrandino might designate.

It was further determined that the whole strength of the party should be exerted to elect Cardinal Tosco, this time in earnest, and not as a blind to other designs. This was a candidature that seemed to offer much more chances of success than any other which had yet been tried. Tosco was not objected to by the representatives in the Conclave of either Spain or France. It was known that his election would be agreeable both to the Grand Duke of Tuscany and to the Duke of Savoy. He was, moreover, by no means objectionable to many of the party of the allies. The Cardinals D'Este and Sfondrato were both favourable to him; and even Montalto had promised the Grand Duke that he would give Tosco his support if he should be unable to elect any one of his own party. In short, says the conclavist, it seemed as if he had no opposing influences against him, save those of a few scrupulous consciences—especially Baronius and one or two of his friends—who objected to him that he was licentious in his conversation and negligent of his pastoral duties, so much so that, having been for many years Bishop of Tivoli, he had never once been near his see. But, as the conclavist remarks, such objections were nothing against so large an amount of favour.

Montalto, however, was by no means willing to concur at once in Tosco's election. He still nourished hopes of electing some one of his own special adherents. He did not, however, wish to take any step towards a formal exclusion of Tosco, and contented himself, therefore, with exacting a promise from the cardinals of his party that they would do nothing towards his election before the expiration of a delay of ten days, thinking that this would give him time to try the chances of his own special friends.

Having obtained this, Montalto had gone to bed on the night of the 15th, tranquil on the subject of Tosco's candidature, when he was suddenly waked by the noise of Aldobrandino, accompanied by all his adherents and the Spanish and French parties, coming into the corridor, where he was urging them to hurry Tosco at once into the chapel, and try for an election by "Adoration." In this conjuncture, those of the allies who were favourable to Tosco hurried to Montalto to press on him the immediate necessity of resolving on a line of action. There was great probability that the "Adoration" might succeed; and, in that case, would it be worth while for them to risk showing hostility to one so likely to be Pope merely to oppose an election, to which after all they had no strong dislike? The allies were gathered in the cell of Acquaviva, says the conclavist, in great trepidation, urgently pressing Montalto to come to a decision. He complained bitterly that they were breaking their engagement to do nothing in the matter of Tosco for ten days. In vain they pointed out to him that there was no hope of his making a Pope from among his own special adherents; that they were still willing to follow his lead; but that by their present position of indecision at so critical a moment they were only risking the election of a Pope in spite of them, when it was in their power, without any sacrifice of principle, by yielding gracefully, to take their share in the election, and by so doing make the future Pontiff their friend instead of their enemy. Those, however, who thus argued were the members of the party who had themselves no hope of or pretensions to the Papacy. The three or four among the party of the allies who each hoped that he might be the man stood by, in the words of the narrator, in icy silence, while the others were thus warmly urging Montalto, and by their reserved and cold demeanour increased the irresolution of his naturally slow and hesitating disposition. At length the urgency of the case, and the approaching voices of the crowd accompanying Aldobrandino, who seemed on the point of proceeding to the chapel to perform the "Adoration," produced symptoms of a mutiny among some of the followers of Montalto. What was the use, they said, of talking about ten days, even if there were any prospect of doing anything at the end of them, when the Pope would be made there and then before their eyes in ten minutes. They should yield to necessity, they said, and join in an act they were unable to prevent. They could still have prevented it, if every man of them had stood firm, and if each of them could have trusted all the rest. But this was just what was impossible to them. And the smallest defection was fatal; for only a voice or

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