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success had been snatched so far only by a bold stroke; and to confirm the adverse party in disorganisation, the conclavists were employed to make the fact of Cervini's election known at once in the city, with the view of eliciting popular demonstrations that might effectually suppress any awakening tendency to opposition. For what had occurred, though of unmistakable force, was yet quite informal, and before the acclaimed Cervini could legitimately call himself Pope, it was still necessary to go through certain elaborate and punctiliously enjoined formalities.'"

The above passage, which is marked as a quotation, contains of course a statement of Mr. Cartwright's own views, and not the substance of any information given by the conclavist. And the view expressed in them is an entirely erroneous one. After the acclamation described, one thing, and one thing only, was needed to make the election complete, final, irrevocable, and canonical—the acceptance of the individual so acclaimed. Mr. Cartwright seems to fall into the same error when at another page of his usually accurate book (p. 152, note) he says, after citing the names of sundry Popes, whom the ecclesiastical writers consider to have been elected by "inspiration," "acclamation," or (more properly) "adoration," among whom Marcellus II. figures, "this list confounds acclamation, such as might follow discussion, with the little shout of miraculously spontaneous unanimity exacted by canonical prescriptions for an election by inspiration." The list rightly and properly " confounds" acclamation with inspiration. The two words in Conclave language mean the same thing; but the term "adoration," still meaning the same process and the same thing is preferred by the best authorities. It is quite true that such a spontaneous unanimity as the canons contemplate for an election of this sort would be, not "little short of," but clearly "miraculous," and the Church considers it as such. It is quite true, further, that an unanimous acclamation or adoration following and produced by discussion and planned arrangement is a very different thing, and need have nothing at all miraculous about it. But it would seem to argue an ingenuousness, which a small amount of ecclesiastical reading would, it might be thought, dissipate for ever, to suppose that, because a plotted acclamation can, in truth, have none of the essential characteristics and qualities contemplated by the canons as constituting the real meaning and virtue of an election by adoration, therefore an election brought about by such planned and plotted acclamation cannot be the same thimg as that intended by the "inspiration" recognised by the Church. Of course there never was an election made by sudden and spontaneous unanimity of choice. That is the theory of what might conceivably be. The practice has always been to bring about these supposititious sudden impulses by previous plotting. It is true that unanimity is necessary to the validity of the process; and it may at first sight seem to the uninitiated that if the members of the College in Conclave are or have after discussion become unanimous in their choice, there can be no need for plotting, and it can matter little by what process the votes of the electors are expressed. But the expression of such a notion

would cause a smile of a very significant character to be visible in the eyes at least of every old conclavist. The proper and skilful management of the vote by adoration was one of the most delicate, subtle, and difficult portions of the science of a conclavist; and an explanation of the methods in which it was worked, and of the nature of the dangers and difficulties which surrounded it, will be found at a subsequent page, where the doings of the Conclave which elected Paul V. are described at length. The necessity of a further and more orderly process in the case of Marcellus, whom nevertheless the Church has always considered to have been one of the Popes elected by "adoration," was doubtless occasioned, not by any fear that the validity of the election by adoration might be endangered by the fact that it was planned and not spontaneous, but by doubts respecting the unanimity of it.

Mr. Cartwright proceeds: "In the heat of the moment the proposal was indeed heard to hoist Cervini without more ado into the Papal chair, and to proceed forthwith to the act of adoration; but Medici, though a warm supporter, interfered, and drew attention to the necessity for observing carefully in this case every enjoined prescription, as a safeguard against later challenge of the election. At this admonition the cardinals calmed their excitement, and relapsing into a proper air of gravity, proceeded to their seats, while the conclavists were ordered out of the chapel. 'I alone went behind the altar,' writes the anonymous conclavist, 'when the others were being driven out, and after the door had been closed came back again and put myself behind the Pope's chair, without anything being said to mc, though I had been perceived by cardinals; and so, all of them being seated, the Cardinal of Naples (Caraffa), as Dean, stood up and gave his vote vivA voce for the Cardinal of Santa Croce; and in the same manner did the others give their votes, a secretary writing down each like a notary, when, just as they had finished, the Ave Maria sounded, which having been repeated by all, as if in thanks to God for the consummation of the election, the Pope rose and made a little Latin speech, thanking the College for its choice, and expressing his resolve, though conscious of unworthiness and insufficiency for such a charge, to do his duty, with an engagement to attend to no private interest, but only to the good of all, and several other words very much to the point, and of great gravity. Hereupon the Cardinal of Naples as Dean got up and said, that, in observance of the ancient rules, a ballot should be taken the following morning, with the voting papers open, in order that his Holiness might see the good affection of all towards him, and this without prejudice of the present election, which was approved by all, who unanimously would have the Pope speak the words, "Acceptamus sine prejudicio preesentis electionis." After this all the cardinals kissed the Pope; and, the doors having been opened, I was the first who kissed his feet, which he would not have me do, saying that it would have been better next day. Nevertheless I did kiss them, and then all left the chapel, attending the Pope to his cell, which he found so thoroughly gutted by the conclavists that he was forced to betake himself into that of the Cardinal of Montepulciano, when he at once resolved on getting crowned next day in St. Peter's. While all this noise was going on, the gates of the Conclave were forced and a mob entered, so that, but for Messer Antonio Cornia,* the whole Conclave had a chance of being gutted. As soon as he had come in measures of precaution were, however, taken for everything, and no one entered more but a few prelates, who came to kiss the feet of his Holiness. All that night long one slept but badly from the sound and noise made by those who were removing their goods out of the Conclave. Next morning, Wednesday, the 10th, the Pope and cardinals entered the chapel an hour before day, according to the regulations; and mass having been read by the Sacristan, all gave their votes open in behalf of the Cardinal of Santa Croce, who, not to vote for himself, gave his vote for the Cardinal of Naples. After this he was adored by all; and Cardinal Pisani, as senior deacon, went, according to custom, to a window, and said to the people, 'Papam habemus'—his name being Marcellus II., which he bore before, and would by no means change."

Marcellus II. reigned twenty-three days only! Men applied to him the words of Virgil with reference to another Marcellus, and said that earth not being worthy of him, Heaven had but shown him for a moment to the world! How infinite might not the consequences have been had it been otherwise? He came exactly at the moment when such a man in Peter's seat was most wanted, and when the consequences of its occupation by such an one might have been most momentous. Look

* The "Custode" of the Conclave.

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