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he can control the succession to the empire. He can legitimatize by bis word, and nominate his own successor, as his partiality nay dictate. The Emperor of Russia is less restrained than the Master of Constantinople. The Sultan is kept within certain limits by a written law, received as he professes to believe from heaven, engraven on the minds of his subjects, and inseparably interwoven with their religion and their rights. Nothing of this kind exists in Russia : she has had her Sterlitz, as Constantinople has her Janissaries, but she has been able to subdue and extirpate them. She has had her intrigues of the palace, but a directing senate has less influence than a body of Ulemas. As yet civilisation is unknown in Russia, except in the higher classes; the numerous intermediate ranks which exist in other countries have no place in Russia ; with her the third-estate is yet unborn; the manners of the great mass of the nation are barbarous and rude; and it is far from certain that if the Sarmatian blood could be proved to flow uncorrupted in the veins of one of their princes, he would not on that account be their favorite, as being more likely to resemble themselves. In Russia there is no such thing as public opinion ; no legal proclamations, no rights of the people; there oriental despotism wills and acts in all its rigor, and the soldiers, mere machines of servility, hang like a heavy load on the liberties of the inhabitants, as well as on those of other countries. Such is the government of Russia in that point of view in which it is the intent of the present essay to consider it, that is the influence it must inevitably have on its power, the effect of which will be felt throughout Europe, to the liberties of which it is evident it cannot be friendly, but must from the very nature of its principles be opposed. This has been sufficiently manifested at Troppau, at Laybach, and at Verona. At those places nothing was disguised, and the language held in them has drawn severe recriminations from England, and, like Janus, opened the gates of war.

SUMMARY England and Russia are the two preponderating powers in Europe. They exercise over this quarter of the globe a protectorate that no part of it can decline. Both are secure from attack at home.

1 The Brussels papers of May, 1824, give a list of the Russian navy, of the correctness of which we are not able to judge; but if it be not greatly overrated, it would appear that Russia is silently and quietly becoming a naval power of no small magnitude. She is said to possess not less than 70 ships of the line, 18 frigates, 26 cutters, 7 brigs, 54 schooners, 20 gallies, 25 floating batteries, 12 gunboats, and 143 other armed vessels, inaking a grand total of not less than “ four hundred and sixty four” sail, carrying 5,000 guos; and manned with 33,000 sailors, 9,000 marines, and 5,000 artillery, or upwards of “ twenty thousand more” than the number kept on foot by this country since the reductions in our military and naval forces have taken place.

The population of England cannot increase in such a proportion as to render it formidable to Europe.

That of Russia may in time overwhelm Europe altogether.
England can deprive her enemies of a portion of their wealth.
Russia can deprive them of existence itself.
England cannot act on the continent singly, or directly.

Russia presses close on it in many points, and cannot herself be pressed on in any; scarcely would a coalition be enabled to resist her.

England is vulnerable in her commerce, and the wide diffusion of it requires her to keep a watchful eye and jealous interference in the arrangements of other states.

Russia has no exterior commerce which can expose her to any considerable loss, and consequently she is free from the checks to which England is subjected.

The chief aim of England in all her policy is to oppose any attempts in one continental power to domineer over or intrench on another. Her office is to guard the political liberties of Europe.

Russia, on the contrary, is a domineering power, and the natu- : ral foe of European liberty.

England is organised in her political constitution by regular rules.

Russia by those of Asiatic despotism.

England acknowleges principles and institutions calculated to form a fixed system, to enforce obedience to it, and to recall the erring steps of government when it may wander from it.

Russia is governed by the will of an individual liable to caprice or error, from the very nature of humanity, yet placed entirely out of the reach of remonstrance or restraint.

England is from the very essence of her constitution the natural protectress of the liberties of the human race; were they banished from all the earth besides, they would yet be found again in England.

Russia does not know the meaning of such a word as liberty ; and he who should offer to teach her it might study it at his leisure in Siberia, the only asylum Russia has as yet been able to find for its partisans.

You have now, inhabitants of Europe, all the merits of this great cause brought immediately before your eyes. I am only the relator of them. I have neither received, nor do I expect to receive any thing from either of the parties principally concerned in its discussion; I have but one interest, and that is in Europe at Jarge. It is no longer in her power to rid herself of the influences

VOL. XXV. Pam. NO. L. 2 N

mies of the Northa bit being converterat any price, the mber this

of Russia or of England : the only privilege that remains to her is to choose between them. Think then, Europeans, what you are about to do : for the choice you make is not to be played with, to be altered, revoked, or resumed. It is a yoke that you are going to take on yourselves, and a yoke that will remain. Remember this, for on it your destinies hang. Prevent, at any price, the centre of the country you inhabit being converted into a high road for the armies of the North to march through towards the South of Europe.

Take care that in mad impetuosity you do not rush on snares and pitfalls dug by the hands that wave you forward. Recollect how Rome protected the liberties of Greece, and turned into lamentations the mad rejoicings her feigned disinterestedness at first in. spired. Nourish no hatred, but neither for an instant lose sight of forethought and vigilance. Above all, limit not your views to the narrow span of the present. Think of your posterity ; freedom is its rightful inheritance : think of the liberties of the whole human race. A grand question is agitating the decision of the place which man ought to hold in the chain of social order and intellectual being. It is from you, inhabitants of Europe, that he is to receive his destination; to you it will be owing whether he fulfils or fails in that which was originally assigned him by the Creator.

Sacra suosque tibi commendat Troja penates.

A BRIEF SKETCH

OF

THE PROGRESS OF OPINION

ON THE SUBJECT OF

CONTAGION;

WITH SOME REMARKS ON

QUARANTIN E.

BY WILLIAM MACMICHAEL, M.D., F.R.S.'

FELLOW OF THE ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS; PHYSICIAN EXTRAORDINARY TO H.R.H. THE DUKE OF YORK, &c. &c. &c. .

LONDON:-1825.

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As the Laws of Quarantine are again under the consideration of Parliament, it is of importance to ask what are the additional facts that have thrown new light on the subject of contagion, and rigorously to examine the grounds on which the alterations of the law are proposed. It is asserted that neither the Plague nor Typus fever are contagious; nay, even that the Plague constantly exists in London, for that Typhus fever is often attended here with buboes and carbuncles : in short, that the two diseases are different degrees only of the same fever, and that both are occasioned by the malignant influence of the atmosphere. False as these assertions are, they have not even the merit of novelty to recommend them. More than a hundred years ago one of the best medical writers on the Plague expresses himself in the following words-speaking of the causes which spread that disease, he says, “ This is done by contagion. Those who are strangers to the full power of this, that is, those who do not understand how subtile it is, and how widely the distemper may be spread by infection, ascribe the rise of it wholly to the malignant quality of the air, in all places wherever it happens; and on the other hand, some have thought that the consideration of the infectious nature of the disease must exclude all regard to the influence of the air ; whereas the contagion accompanying the disease, and the disposition of the air to promote the contagion, ought equally to be considered; both being necessary to give the distemper full force.” -Dr. Mead on the Plague, p. 41. .

Again, when describing the circumstances which attended the introduction of the Plague into Marseilles, he observęs, “ Possibly there might be some fever of extraordinary malignity in Marseilles, such as is commonly called Pestilential, before the arrival of these goods. But no such fever has any indisputable right to the title of Pestilence, as I have before shown-on the contrary, these two, the real Pestilence and such Pestilential Fevers, must carefully be distinguished, if we design to avoid all mistake in reasoning on these subjects. Some such fever of uncommon malignity, I say,

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