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athwart the constant trade wind, the northeast side of each island has abundant rainfall and a somewhat lower average temperature than the opposite or leeward side, where irrigation is usually necessary to produce a crop. The Territory as a whole possesses, as a consequence, one of the most equable but topographically one of the most varied climates in the world.

The contour of each island is affected by the rainfall, the windward mountain slopes being gullied by deep ravines, which hinder road building and centralized industrial development, while the dry side sometimes slopes off into broad and semiarid plains, where successful farming depends upon costly irrigation plants and intensive and highly capitalized agriculture.

The Territory possesses no mineral or fuel deposits, and this, together with its remoteness from markets, prevents diversified industries. A small amount of subsistence farming, followed principally by natives and orientals, and the production of staple export crops, like sugar, have hitherto been the principal occupations of the people.

POPULATION OF HAWAII, BY RACE. Less than two centuries ago the natives of Hawaii are supposed to have numbered nearly treble the present total population of the Territory. Though a race of fine physique, they have dwindled away with such startling rapidity that they now form but a small fraction of the present lessened number of inhabitants. Except for political barriers, Mongolians would naturally have supplanted the Polynesians in occupation of the archipelago. Intercourse with China began early in the last century, and the people of the Mongolian race thereafter played an important part in the industrial and commercial history of Hawaii. They introduced, or were pioneers in, the manufacture of cane sugar, which later became the leading industry of the country. They also made possible the second most important branch of agriculture—the cultivation of rice. About 30 years ago Japanese commenced to immigrate in numbers, and as political restrictions have only recently been placed in their way, they now constitute the largest element in the population of the Territory. Of the Caucasian nationalities the Portuguese are most numerous, their migration beginning about the same time as that of the Japanese. Other Europeans and Americans began to settle in Hawaii, as missionaries and traders, soon after its discovery and, though their numbers have increased slowly, their control of industry, and more recently of the government, has given them effective possession of the country. The growing Part-Hawaiian element is affiliated in language, customs, and political status with the white race and forms a link between that race and those of pure Hawaiian blood.

Relations among these different nationalities are normally amicable. Race riots never

Intermarriage among the colored races and between some of those races and the whites is not uncommon. Men of different color, as Portuguese and Japanese, or Americans and Hawaiians, form business partnerships. White and Hawaiian mechanics work side by side in shops and on buildings. Children of all races associate together in the public schools.

occur.

The following tables show the total population, by race, for each census since 1853, and also the percentage of the total population belonging to each of the races given. The greater detail of race classification in the census of 1910 permits a subdivision of the PartHawaiians and of the Caucasians into subgroups.

POPULATION AT CENSUS PERIODS FROM 1853 TO 1910, BY RACE. [The data for population from 1853 to 1896, inclusive, have been taken from the Hawaiian Annual for 1901,

and those for 1900 and 1910 from the records of the Census.)

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1 These figures are necessary to make the totals given, but they do not agree with details as found in the Hawaiian Annual.

The preponderance of Asiatics is even more marked in the census figures showing sex. As will be seen from the following table, out of a population of 106,369 males, the native and foreign-born Asiatic element taken together represent 69,804, or 65.6 per cent of the total male population: POPULATION IN 1900 AND IN 1910, BY AGE, GROUPS, SEX, AND COLOR OR RACE.

[Data furnished by the Bureau of the Census, 1911.)

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26,762 | 22,096 | 48,858 | 79,607 | 25,536 | 105, 143 | 106,369

47,632

154,001

POPULATION IN 1900 AND IN 1910, BY AGE, GROUPS, SEX, AND COLOR OR RACE-Con.

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THE INDUSTRIES OF HAWAII. The principal occupations of the people of Hawaii are shown in the following table, which states the number engaged in each trade or employment, by color or race, in 1900. It is to be regretted that similar data for 1910 are not available at the present writing. NUMBER OF MALES 10 YEARS OF AGE AND OVER ENGAGED IN GAINFUL OCCUPA

TIONS, 1900.

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1 The word “white," as used in this table, includes not only Caucasians but also Hawaiians, PartHawaiians, and South Sea Islanders.

NUMBER OF MALES 10 YEARS OF AGE AND OVER ENGAGED IN GAINFUL OCCUPA

TIONS, 1900-Concluded.

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The following table shows the principal manufacturing industries of the Territory, grouped by value of product, and the growth of these industries since 1900:

PRINCIPAL MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES, GROUPED BY VALUE OF PRODUCT,

SHOWING GROWTH SINCE 1900.
[Figures for 1910 furnished by Bureau of the Census.]

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Boot and shoe shops.
Bread and other bakery products..
Carriages and wagons
Coffee and spice, roasting and grinding.
Coffee, cleaning and polishing
Food preparations.
Ice, manufactured...
Lumber and timber products.
Mineral and soda waters.
Printing and publishing.
Rice, cleaning and polishing.
Saddlery and harness.
Sugar and molasses.

Total, specified industries..
Other industries not specified..

All industries..

$47.000

10,000 106,000 38,000 95,000 62,000 56,000 91,000 89.000 200,000 664,000

78,000 19, 255,000

$126,000
314,000
116,000

50.000
297,000
341,000
107.000
281.000
191.000

135,000 2, 239,000

49.000 35.950,000

168.1 3.310.0

9. 4 31.6 212. 6 450.0

91.1 208.8 118. 0 117.5 237.2 137. 2

86.7

1 16. 7
222. 2

25. O
106.7
214.3
270.0

80.5 114.3

4. 5

22 37 74

6 46

10
41

7
44

182
40

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222

23.351.000

500

47, 404,000

103. 0

125. 2

1 Decrease.

It will be seen that between 1900 and 1910 there has been an increase of 125 per cent in the number of manufacturing establishments in the islands and of 103 per cent, or over $24,000,000, in the value of their products. Of this increase over $16,500,000 was in a single industry-sugar and molasses.

The following table shows the number of principal manufacturing establishments in specified industries, classified according to the race of the proprietors:

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NUMBER OF PRINCIPAL MANUFACTURING ESTABLISHMENTS, BY INDUSTRY AND

BY RACE OF PROPRIETORS.

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The above figures show a large percentage of the establishments in the hands of Chinese and Japanese owners, but this is not of especial significance, inasmuch as most of the establishments in the hands of Orientals are small in number of employees and value of product. The Chinese, perhaps more extensively than the Japanese, manufacture for a trade outside their own race.

In recent years there has been a tendency toward a diversification of industry and occupations in Hawaii, and toward the subdivision of land for cultivation. The former tendency is confirmed by the relatively faster growth of Honolulu, as compared with the rural districts of the islands, in population.

POPULATION OF HONOLULU AND OF HAWAII COMPARED, 1900, 1910.

Year.

Hawaii.

District of Hono

lulu.

1900
1910

154,001
191, 909

39, 306
52,000

Per cent or increase 1910 over 1900

24.6

32.3

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