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CONTENTS.

Fourth report of the Commissioner of Labor on Hawaii:

Page. Introduction......

673 Description of the Territory.

673-674 Population of Hawaii, by race.

674-676 Industries of Hawaii....

676-680 The sugar industry..

680-696 Centralization of the industry....

680, 681 Statistics of production ...

681-683 Field and mill employments

683, 684 Conditions of employment and wages of plantation labor..

681-689 Supervision of field work ....

689, 690 Wages of skilled plantation labor.

690-692 Plantation stores ...

692, 693 Condition of plantation labor in Hawaii.

69+696 Miscellaneous rural industries.....

696-699 Mechanical and urban occupations ..

699-702 In and cost of living of work people in Honolulu..

702-714 Immigration and settlement

715-726 The Japanese strike of 1909

726–762 Conclusion

762, 763 Analysis of tables: Cost of living in Honolulu ...

764 Retail prices of commodities ...

764, 765 Occupations, wages, hours of labor, and nationality or race of employees ..

765–768 Table I.-Membership and income of family and occupation of head of family of representative wage-earning families in Honolulu, by

769-774 Table II.-Home conditions of representative wage-earning families in Honolulu, by race....

775-780 Table III.-Income of representative wage-earning families in Honolulu, by race.

781-786 Table IV.—Expenditures of representative wage-earning families in Honolulu, by race...

786–792 Table V.-Retail prices of commodities, 1890 to 1910...

793-799 Table VI.,Occupations, rates of wages, hours of labor, and nationality or race of employees in each industry, 1910

800-913 Table VII.-Occupations, average wages and hours of labor, and

nationality or race of employees in each industry, 1900–1901, 1902,
1905, and 1910...

914-1117

race

III

OF THE

BUREAU OF LABOR.

No. 94.

WASHINGTON.

MAY, 1911.

FOURTH REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF LABOR ON

HAWAII.

INTRODUCTION. The present report on labor conditions in Hawaii is the fourth of its kind, previous reports having been published in 1901, 1902, and 1905. In 1902 and 1905 the statistics of wages and other conditions of employment, which it is the main purpose of the investigation to present, were prefaced by extended descriptions of industrial conditions in the Territory, of immigration and settlement, and of the historical background from which the present labor and racial problems of the country have developed. These descriptions and the discussions which accompanied them it would be hardly justifiable to reproduce in the current report, as the volumes in which they first appeared are easily accessible. But such points as are necessary to a clear understanding of the text matter here given are repeated in a summary form by way of introduction.

The completion of the second decennial census of the Territory will render it possible to make for the first time a comparison of social and industrial conditions for two dates from data obtained by uniform methods and containing identical items. From this may be traced the tendencies that have shaped during the past 10 years— the period since Hawaii became a Territory of the United Statesthe character of its population and the pursuits of its inhabitants. These more authoritative and general statistics will supplant in the following discussion the less certain sources of information which in previous reports afforded material for several miscellaneous text tables,

DESCRIPTION OF THE TERRITORY. The Hawaiian Islands lie about 2,000 miles southwest of San Francisco, just within the Tropics, and are reached by frequent steamers six days from the latter port. Besides a number of smaller islands, mostly uninhabited or used for grazing only, five larger islands, with a combined area of about 6,000 square miles, form the heart and nucleus of the archipelago. Four of these islands are well developed, possessing railways, telephones, automobile roads, wireless communication, and frequent local steamship service. All of the islands are of volcanic and coral origin and mountainous. Lying

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