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The number of organizations included in the study made by this report is as follows:
NUMBER AND CLASS OF WOMEN'S ORGANIZATIONS REPORTING TO THE LABOR
OFFICE IN 1908.
According to the preceding table, by far the greatest number of woman's organizations are engaged in charitable work; the 4,058 local organizations included in the preceding table include 2,150 societies of the Red Cross and 1,383 societies of the Woman's Branch of the Aid Society of Evangelical Churches.
The number of organizations is of course an imperfect indication of the extent of the women's movement in the Empire. Owing to duplications, it is impossible to find the exact number of members of the societies above enumerated, but the labor office estimates that approximately 1,000,000 women are members of organizations in the Empire. As the population census of 1905 showed that there were 18,503,452 women over 18 years of age in the Empire, the organized women, therefore, composed 5.4 per cent of the women of this age.
The date of the organization of 70 imperial, 131 state and provincial, and 1,136 local associations was reported to the labor office in the schedules. The number and per cent of organizations in operation in the year 1908 reporting the date of founding are shown in the following table:
NUMBER AND PER CENT OF EACII CLASS OF WOMEN'S ORGANIZATIONS IN 1908
REPORTING DATE OF FOUNDATION BY YEARLY PERIODS.
Num! Per Num- Per Num- Per Num- Per Num- Per Num- Per Num- Per
According to the preceding table comparatively few organizations were in existence previous to the founding of the Empire in 1871; also, from 1871 to 1890 the number established was small, but after the enactment of the national laws on social insurance the number increased rapidly. After 1890 the increase is marked in all of the classes of organizations, but particularly so in the occupational organizations. The most conspicuous occupational organizations were those of the woman teachers, closely followed by the organizations of commercial employees.
The data relating to the number of members of these organizations were not reported in satisfactory form, but as already stated it is estimated that the number of members is not far from 1,000,000. Of the membership reported, 68.7 per cent are in the State of Prussia, 10.2 per cent in the State of Bavaria, 9.8 per cent in the State of Baden, and 2.3 per cent in the State of Saxony. It is interesting to note that 5.2 per cent are in the city of Berlin. The number of members of the occupational associations in 1908 was as follows: Prussia, 50,049; Bavaria, 7,009; Saxony, 4,327; Wurttemberg, 2,382; Baden, 3,774; Hesse, 909.
Approximately 23,000 members of the occupational associations are credited to the city of Berlin.
In the report special attention is paid to the activities of these organizations in conducting employment agencies, each type of the associations, except those whose purpose is political, having some institution for this purpose, though they are most numerous in the case of the occupational organizations. Thus the number of organizations conducting agencies or institutions for securing employment in 1908 was as follows: General organizations, 38; occupational
, organizations, 65; social organizations, 36; charitable organizations, 25; and educational organizations, 21.
The summary statement of the receipts, expenditures, and assets for the year 1907 of the organizations reporting is shown in the following table:
RECEIPTS, EXPENDITURES, AND ASSETS OF WOMEN'S ORGANIZATIONS IN 1907.
The most conspicuous group is that of the organizations designated as charitable, which includes the societies affiliated with the Red Cross and those affiliated with the Woman's Branch of the Aid Society of Evangelical Churches.
The following table shows for the year 1907 the items of expenditure separately reported for the various classes of organizations, and the per cent that these amounts were of the total expenditures in each class:
EXPENDITURES OF WOMEN'S ORGANIZATIONS OF EACH CLASS FOR SPECIFIED
PURPOSES IN 1907.
In the case of the occupational societies the miscellaneous items of expenditure comprise 39.1 per cent of the total; the next largest amount was that expended for institutions of various kinds, propaganda, newspapers, etc., with 21.8 per cent, the cost of administration comprised 17.5 per cent, the amount expended for relief purposes of various kinds was 6.7 per cent, while the cost of the employment agency work comprised 4.5 per cent of the total amount expended.
Inchiesta sulle abitazioni degli impiegati d'ordine e subalterni in Roma
e del personale ferroviario in Roma e in altre città d'Italia. Ministero di Agricoltura, Industria e Commercio, Ufficio del Lavoro. 1908. vii, 293 pp.
In the present volume are published the results of an investigation of housing conditions among public administration employees residing in the city of Rome, also among employees of railways in Rome and in other cities of Italy. The inquiry was conducted by the office of labor, which forms a branch of the Italian Ministry of Agriculture, Industry, and Commerce. The report comprises four parts, each of which contains, in addition to a textual analysis of the data presented, a series of statistical tables. A map of the city of Rome, showing its division into districts for the purpose of topographical classification of dwellings, is inserted in the volume.
Part I of the monograph relates to the habitations of salaried employees (impiegati d'ordine) and subordinates (subalterni) in the public service at Rome. Among the former class were included heads of offices and their assistants, persons attached to administrative and accounting divisions, postal and telegraph officials and employees, State lottery commissioners, secretaries of museums and technical schools, local officers connected with the Ministry of War, and others. Under the term subordinates were included letter carriers, telegraph messengers, museum employees, forest guards, policemen, doorkeepers, watchmen, etc.
Of 2,008 homes occupied by persons of the first class, who owned the furniture of their lodgings, 3.4 per cent were of one room, 4.7 per cent of two rooms, 21.4 per cent of three rooms, 34.7 per cent of four rooms, 21.1 per cent of five rooms, 9 per cent of six rooms, and 5.7 per cent were of more than six rooms. Of the entire number, 77.2 per cent contained from three to five rooms. With regard to the lodgings of employees in a subordinate capacity, of 1,404 included in the investigation, 16.9 per cent contained but one room, 16.3 per cent two rooms, 29.6 per cent three rooms,
cent four rooms, 10.3 per cent five rooms, 3.9 per cent six rooms, and 2.1 per cent more than six rooms. The number of lodgings containing from three to five rooms amounted to 60.8 per cent of the total number, as compared with 77.2 per cent for the habitations of officials and salaried employees.
A third class of employees, composed of persons in service of a special nature for the municipal government, such as funeral directors, hearse drivers, cemetery hands, fountain keepers, members of disinfecting squads, stable hands, building watchmen, highway custodians, etc., was covered by the investigation. Out of 256 dwellings occupied by such persons, 25 per cent had one room only, 24.2 per cent had two rooms, 25.4 per cent three rooms, 14.8 per cent four rooms, 6.3 per cent five rooms, 3.5 per cent six rooms, and 0.8 per cent seven rooms. The relative number of lodgings of medium size (from three to five rooms) belonging to this group of employees was smaller than that of either of the two preceding groups, constituting but 46.5 per cent of the total number. Small dwellings of one or two rooms each formed nearly 50 per cent of the entire number for this class of employees. The distribution of lodgings among the three groups, classified according to the number of rooms contained, is shown in the table following.
UNFURNISHED LODGINGS RENTED BY PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION EMPLOYEES
RESIDING IN ROME, CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO NUMBER OF ROOMS.
1 Total does not agree with the sum of the items, but is reproduced as published.
Of 1,989 unfurnished lodgings rented by officials and salaried employees for which the number of occupants was reported, 2 per cent were occupied by persons living alone, 17 per cent by two persons, 19 per cent by three persons, 21 per cent by four persons,
, cent by five persons, and 25 per cent by more than five per
Over 85 per cent of all homes were occupied by families of from two to six persons. Among persons living alone, 37 per cent were found to occupy single rooms; 22 per cent, apartments of two rooms; 22 per cent, apartments of three rooms; and 19 per cent, apartments of four or more rooms. Among subordinate employees, of 1,395 dwellings for which the facts were reported, 3 per cent contained one tenant; 14 per cent, two tenants; 17 per cent, three tenants; 19 per cent, four tenants; 15 per cent, five tenants; and 32 per cent, six or more tenants. Families comprising from two. to six members occupied nearly 77 per cent of all dwellings. Of 38 employees of this class living alone, 33 occupied single rooms. With regard to special-service employees, of 255 lodgings, 4 per cent had a single occupant; 11 per cent, two occupants; 17 per cent, three occupants; 15 per cent, four occupants; 14 per cent, five occupants; and 39 per cent, six or more occupants.
The table following shows, for each of the three classes of employees, the condition of the dwellings covered by the investigation with regard to the provision of modern conveniences.