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In business offices, the proportion of females receiving the lowest wages is hardly more than one-half the proportion of males in this class, due no doubt to the fact that the class is made up chiefly of young persons and that, as a rule, boys enter service at an earlier age than do girls. Slightly more than one-half of all females annually receive 1,000 marks (8193) and under 2,000 marks (8386); this is also the group which comprises the greatest number of male employees, but the distribution in the higher classes is indicative of the fact that the average payment for females is considerably less than for males.
As would be anticipated, the earnings of employees in mercantile establishments are less than the earnings of employees in business offices. The proportion of males and of females in the lowest group is practically the same; while 67.1 per cent of the females receive less than 1,000 marks ($193), 61.8 per cent of the males are in the two groups between 500 marks (896.50) and 2,000 marks ($386).
The relations between age and earnings of employees in mercantile establishments are shown in the following table:
PER CENT OF MALE AND OF FEMALE EMPLOYEES IN MERCANTILE ESTABLISH
MENTS EARNING SPECIFIED AMOUNTS PER AXXUM, BY AGE GROUPS.
From this table it appears that the persons receiving less than 500 marks ($96.50) are either under 18 or over 60 years of age, with very few exceptions. More than one-half of the males under 18 years and nearly three-fourths of the females under that age are within this wage group. Of the age group 18 to 30 years, the per cent of females receiving 500 marks ($96.50) and under 1,000 marks ($193) per annum is nearly twice as great as is the per cent receiving 1,000 marks ($193) and under 2,000 marks ($386) per annum; while in the case of males of the same age group the situation is practically
reversed. The per cent of females between the ages of 30 and 60 is larger than that of males of the same ages receiving the wage rate 1,000 marks ($193) and under 2,000 marks ($386), but females fall behind in the next higher wage group, and practically disappear in the class of employees receiving 3,000 marks ($579) or above.
Some inferences as to the effect of the length of employment on wages may be drawn from the above table; the facts in this connection are more clearly set forth in the following table, which shows wage groups by sex and period of service:
PER CENT OF MALE AND OF FEMALE EMPLOYEES IN MERCANTILE ESTABLISHI.
MENTS EARNING SPECIFIED AMOUNTS PER ANNUM, BY PERIOD OF SERVICE.
The earlier age of employment for males must be looked to to account for the larger percentage of males than of females in the wage group under 500 marks ($96.50), after less than two years of service. In the next higher wage group the proportion of females is uniformly higher than the proportion of males. The greater number of females serving 10 and under 20 years are to be found in the class 1,000 marks ($193) and under 2,000 marks ($386), while for males practically one-third are found in the next higher group; nearly another one-third of the males employed 20 years and over are to be found in the wage group 3,000 marks ($579) and under 6,000 marks ($1,158), while almost no females are found in this group.
As regards the hours of labor, employees in business offices are more favorably situated than are those in mercantile establishments. The table following shows for each class the number of places of employment represented and the number and per cent of employees of each sex affected, in groups of establishments requiring the designated periods of daily service. The time given is actual working time, intervals for rest and recreation having been deducted.
NUMBER AND PER CENT OF MALE AND OF FEMALE EMPLOYEES IN BUSINESS OFFICES AND MERCANTILE ESTABLISHMENTS, CLASSIFIED BY HOURS OF SERVICE,
Only 8.1 per cent of the males and 14.2 per cent of the females employed in business offices work more than nine hours, while in mercantile establishments, 72.4 per cent of the males and 77.8 per cent of the females work more than nine hours. It is noticeable that the proportion of females is greater than that of males in both classes of establishments that observe the longer working day. In so far as mercantile establishments are concerned, this is explained by the preponderance of female employees in milk shops and bakeriesplaces of business that open at an early hour of the day.
The large majority of business offices open between 8 and 9 o'clock in the morning, the actual per cent being 80.9. In these are employed 89.1 per cent of the males and 87.4 per cent of the females; 77.5 per cent of these offices, employing 75.5 per cent of the males and 75 per cent of the females, close between 6 and 7 o'clock p. m. Of the mercantile establishments, 26.3 per cent open before 7 a. m., and 65.9 per cent open between 7 and 8 a. m.; 65.3 per cent are closed by 7 p. m., 29.4 per cent close between 7 and 8 p. m.,
m., and 5.3 per cent close after 8 p. m.
The hours for recreation and the partaking of food are said not to be satisfactorily arranged, particularly in the mercantile establishments. Sunday labor ranging from 1 to 15 hours was found in 175 stores, employing 101 males and 462 females; few business offices open on Sunday.
GERMANY. Denkschriften des Statistischen Amtes der Stadt Düsseldorf. Heft 1.
1. Die städtische Arbeitslosenbeschäftigung in Düsseldorf 1908–9. II. Zur Frage der Arbeitslosenversicherung. 1909. 17 pp., 1 diagram.
Since the winter of 1901–2 the municipality of Düsseldorf, like many other German cities, has made a practice of instituting systematic re"
r unemployed residents during the winter. The present report gives an account of the operations of this systematic relief work during the winter of 1908-9 with a comparison of the experience in previous winters. The report also gives a summary statement of attempts to institute systems of unemployment insurance in various countries.
As the city of Düsseldorf is the center of a large industrial district, the slackening of industrial activity which took place in the year 1908 was responsible for the large number of unemployed workmen, and in the winter of 1908-9 the number was even greater than during the first part of the year 1908. The number of persons in the city reported as employed and on that account paying dues under the national compulsory sickness insurance system at the end of March, 1908, was 69,076; at the end of June, 70,213; at the end of September, 69,271; while at the end of December it had fallen to 64,498. The usual effects of this decrease in the number of employed persons were accentuated by the fact that a large number of persons moved into the city during this period. The effect of this immigration on the resident population is indicated by the report of the General Employment Agency, which shows that of the 14,285 positions secured for male persons in 1908, not less than 5,091, or 35.6 per cent, were given to persons who had recently moved into the city.
The unfavorable industrial conditions prevailing in the year 1908 are illustrated most clearly by a comparison between the number of persons applying for work and the number of positions secured by the General Employment Agency of the city. The following table shows, for each hundred male persons who applied at the agency, the number of positions secured:
NUMBER OF POSITIONS SECURED PER 100 MALE PERSONS APPLYING FOR WORK
BY THE DÜSSELDORF GENERAL EMPLOYMENT AGENCY IN 1907 AND 1908.
The report states that since the creation of the municipal employment agency, the results were never so unsatisfactory as during the fall and winter months of 1908. On this account, the operation of the municipal relief work system was begun at an earlier date than at any previous time; the relief work began on November 19, 1901, for the winter of 1901–2; on December 15, 1902, for the winter of 1902–3; on January 15, 1907, for the winter of 1907–8; and for the winter of 1908-9 actual operations began on November 17, 1908, although the office was open for investigation and registry on November 9, 1908.
The regulations for the municipal relief work system provide that work shall be given only to persons who have a legal residence in the city of Düsseldorf, such residence to be determined according to the principles of the poor law. Employment was given only to an applicant who proved to the officials of the General Employment Agency that he had made earnest and prolonged efforts on his own account to secure employment, and only those applicants who had been out of work at least 14 days were put on the registry. Preference was given to married men and to single men who could show that they had relatives depending on them for support.
The preliminary work in the administration of the relief work system was placed in the hands of the municipal statistical office. In previous years this work had been done by the poor relief authorities, but the association of the relief work system with the charity office was regarded as undesirable. The municipal statistical office made a thorough investigation, and each applicant complying with the regulations was given a registry card which was to be presented at a specified time to the official in charge of the construction or other work undertaken for the purpose of providing employment.
The number of persons registering themselves as out of work was 4,520, of whom 1,623 were not considered because they were out of work less than 14 days or because they had no family to support; 56 other applications were not considered for various reasons. A number of persons who were given registry cards did not use them, so that altogether the number of persons given work was 2,354. The extent of the relief work is indicated by the following statement:
NUMBER OF APPLICATIONS, PERSONS EMPLOYED, AND DAYS WORKED DURING
SPECIFIED WINTERS, 1901-2 TO 1908-9.
The number of persons given employment was greatly in excess of any previous year, and the number of days of work performed was far in excess of any previous year.