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Of the 1,037,601 persons enumerated in 1906 in the factories, 308,681, or 29.7 per cent, were women and 66,252, or 6.4 per cent, were young persons under 16 years of age. The industries showing the largest number of women are the clothing industries, where 59.7 per cent of all the employees were women; the textile industries, where 53 per cent were women; and the paper industries, where 39.6 per cent were women. The industries with the smallest proportion of females employed are the metal working, the machinery, woodworking, leather, smelting, and power plants.
The industries employing the largest proportion of young persons under 16 years of age are the mining, agricultural products, etc., industries with 15.3 per cent of all employees, though it must be remembered that the number of establishments here included is relatively small; the textile industries with 7.9 per cent of all employees, the stones, earths, etc., industries with 7.6 per cent, the printing and publishing with 7.4 per cent, and the machinery industries with 6.9 per cent. The industries employing the largest number of female young persons are, first, the clothing, etc., industries with 76.1 per cent of its young persons being females, the paper industry with 61.4 per cent, and the textile industries with 59.3 per cent. The industries showing the largest proportion of males among the young persons under 16 are the machinery industries with 97.7 per cent of its young persons being males, leather industries with 84.9 per cent, metal working 76.9 per cent, and stones, earths, etc., 76.9 per cent.
In those industries in which large numbers of female workers are employed, nearly all of these workers are employed in factory establishments. For instance, the 1902 industrial census showed that the textile establishments employed 165,483 females, while the factory establishments in 1906 employed 159,459 females; a similar high proportion of females is found in the industry of stones, earths, etc. On the other hand, the number of females employed in the clothing industries is greater in the nonfactory establishments; thus, out of 114,194 females employed, only 21,977 were employed in factory establishments.
A comparison of the number of young persons under 16 years of age employed in all kinds of establishments shows that the number of young persons employed in the textile industries was 22,638 in 1902, while the investigation of factories showed that there were 23,631 such employees in 1906. It can, however, be stated that in the textile industries the young persons are almost entirely factory employees; similarly, in the stones, earths, etc., industries and the chemical industries almost all the young persons were factory employees, in the machinery industries 69.9 per cent were factory employees, while, on the other hand, in the food products and the metalworking industries there were very few factory employees, and in the case of the clothing industries an extremely small proportion of the young persons were engaged in factories.
The 1902 data showed that of all persons included in the table, only 20.9 per cent were females, while in 1906, of the factory employees, 29.7 per cent were females. In most of the industry groups the proportion of females employed in the entire industry is smaller than that of females employed in the factories only, though there are a number of exceptions to this statement; thus, in the food products industries 23.3 per cent and in the rubber industries 40.7 per cent are females, while in the factory establishments of these same industries the proportions are 20.8 per cent and 38 per cent. As a general rule, however, it may be stated that the proportion of women employed in factories is higher than the proportion of women employed in the industry as a whole.
The proportion of young persons under 16 years of age in the industry groups as a whole is approximately the same as the proportion of young persons employed in the factory establishments engaged in these industry groups. However, there is a marked difference in the proportion of male and female young persons; thus, of all persons under 16 years of age, the females employed in the industry groups formed 22.9 per cent, while in the factory establishments the females formed 40.1 per cent of all persons under 16 years of age. In 12 out of 16 industry groups the proportion of females under 16 years of age in the factory establishments is higher than the proportion of female workers under that age in the whole industry group, and in a few instances the difference is quite marked; thus, in the woodworking industries, of all persons under 16 years of age 27.9 per cent in the factories were females as contrasted with 3.8 per cent in the whole industry group. In the metal-working industries the respective proportions were 23.1 per cent and 6 per cent. In the food products industries the proportions were 47.2 per cent and 14.3 per cent. In the clothing industries 76.1 per cent and 29.4 per cent, and in the paper industries 61.4 per cent and 41 per cent. In all industrial establishments in 1902, the males under 16 years of age formed 77.1 per cent of all persons under that age, but in factory establishments in 1906 only 59.9 per cent of all persons under 16 years of age were males This is due to the fact that the young persons employed in certain handworking trades, such, for instance, as blacksmithing, bookbinding, men's clothing, and shoemaking, are principally males.
NIGHT WORK IN FACTORIES.
In filling out the schedules for the mixed establishments, namely, establishments having continuous-operation and noncontinuousoperation departments, the factory inspectors were required to report how many workers were employed in each. In addition, reports were made for the noncontinuous-operation establishments working both day and night shifts, as to the number of day workers and also as to the number of shift workers. From these answers it was possible to ascertain the approximate number of males and females who were employed in day and in night shifts; this number is approximate only, because the number of workmen in the continuous-operation establishments is not always the same as the number of workmen actually employed in day and night shifts, since there was always a certain number of workmen who were employed during the day only. However, the figures are on the whole close to the truth, because the reports in many cases specifically stated that in the continuousoperation departments certain categories of workers, such, for instance, as the women or the young persons, were employed only by day and thus permitted the separation of that part of the force which was not employed in shifts.
In the following table is shown the number of establishments in which night shifts were used and the number for which data concerning the number of day and night workers were reported. The table also gives the total number of workmen by sex and age groups so as to permit of a comparison of the data given in the table on page 582.
TOTAL FACTORIES AND TOTAL EMPLOYEES, BY SEX; FACTORIES EMPLOYING DAY AND NIGHT SHIFT WORKERS AND FACTORIES REPORTING NUMBER OF EACH, BY INDUSTRY GROUPS, 1906.
The last two columns in the preceding table show that the larger proportion, namely, 95.7 per cent, of establishments employing day and night shifts reported the information on this topic. In the following table is given by sex and age groups the number of persons employed on these day and night shifts:
NUMBER AND PER CENT OF MALE AND OF FEMALE SHIFT WORKERS EMPLOYED IN FACTORIES, AND NUMBER AND PERCENT OF YOUNG PERSONS SO EMPLOYED, BY SEX, AND TOTAL SHIFT WORKERS, IN EACH INDUSTRY GROUP, 1906.
According to the preceding table, the total number of workers employed in factories using day and night shifts was 148,304, or 14.3 per cent of all factory employees; this number is composed of 136,731 males, or 18.8 per cent of all males employed in factories, and 11,573 females, or 3.7 per cent of all females employed in factories. The number of young persons employed in shift work was 5,222, or 7.9 per cent of all young persons employed in factories; this number is composed of 4,255 boys, or 10.7 per cent of all male young persons employed in factories, and 967 girls, or 3.6 per cent of all female young persons employed in factories. The number of females therefore employed on day and on night shifts forms but a small proportion of the total number of such employees.
The industry employing the largest number of factory workers in day and night shifts is that of the food products group which had 71,428 of such employees; following this come the metal-working group with 24,156 such employees, the industry of stones, earths, etc., with 17,059 such employees, and the paper industry with 11,247 such employees. The number of females and of young persons employed in day and night shifts is subject to many restrictions by the factory laws and for this reason the proportion which they bear to the total number of employees is but small. The food products industry employs the largest number of women in day and night shifts, having 11,079 such employees, the paper industry ranks second with 475 such employees, and the textile industry (1 establishment engaged in machine-lace manufacture) with 19 persons. The employment of young persons in day and night shifts occurs most frequently in the food products industries where 2,994 such employees are engaged, the stones, earths, etc., industry with 1,623 such employees, the metal-working industry with 534, the paper industry with 61, and the smelting, etc., industries with 10. Night work of females therefore in the factory industries occurs most frequently in the food products group, which has 15.5 per cent of all persons employed in day and night shifts; night work of young persons in the factory industries occurs most frequently in the stones, earths, etc., group, 9.5 per cent of all workers employed in day and night shifts being under 16 years of age.
HOURS OF LABOR IN FACTORY ESTABLISHMENTS.
In reporting the hours of labor the factory inspectors specified the duration of the employment separately for workmen engaged in establishments or parts of establishments operating continuously and those operating not continuously. In compiling the data, a mixed establishment operating both continuous and noncontinuous departments was counted as two establishments and the data classified accordingly.
In the table following is given the total number of establishments not operating continuously, the total number of employees of each sex, and also the per cent of factories and of employees having each specified number of working hours.