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age and over may be employed at night in the cleaning and finishing
of bed feathers, in machine lace factories, and in fez factories. In
some of the factories just specified, the employment of women and
children may occur only in special occupations.
NUMBER OF FACTORIES AND OF MEN, WOMEN, AND YOUNG PERSONS

EMPLOYED. The number of establishments classified by the method of operation, and the number of employees classified by age and sex, are shown in the following table: NUMBER OF FACTORIES AND NUMBER OF MEN, WOMEN, AND YOUNG PERSONS

EMPLOYED IN EACH CLASS OF FACTORIES, BY INDUSTRY GROUPS, 1906.

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? Including females under 16 years of age.

1 Including males under 16 years of age.

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NUMBER OF FACTORIES AND NUMBER OF MEN, WOMEN, AND YOUNG PERSONS EMPLOYED IN EACH CLASS OF FACTORIES, BY INDUSTRY GROUPS, 1906–Concl’d.

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At the time of the 1906 investigation there were in Austria 12,594 factories, in which 1,037,601 persons were employed, of whom 728,920 were males and 308,681 were females. The latest industrial census of Austria was taken on June 3, 1902, and as the two enumerations were made at approximately the same season of the year, a comparison of the two sets of returns is of interest. In those groups of industries in which factory establishments occur (i. e., in all classes of productive industry, except hotels and restaurants, the building trades, and the industrial establishments engaged in itinerant trades), there were 494,607 establishments employing 2,274,759

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persons, of whom 1,798,788 were males and 475,971 females. The factory establishments, therefore, comprised approximately 2.5 per cent of all industrial establishments, and the factory workers 45.6 per cent of all the persons employed in these industries. The industrial census of June 3, 1902, showed that there were in these industry groups 157,398 young persons under 16 years of age, of whom 121,420 were males and 35,978 were females; the 1906 enumeration of the factory establishments showed that there were employed in factories 66,252 young persons under 16, of whom 39,673 were males and 26,579 were females. The young persons employed in factories comprised, therefore, 42.1 per cent of all young persons in these industry groups while the male young persons formed 32.7 per cent of all male young persons and the female young persons 73.9 per cent of all female young persons employed in these industries. The high proportion of females among factory workers is due to the fact that in the textile industries, which have the largest number of women employees, nearly all the female employees are in factories.

The study of the geographical distribution of the factory establishments shows that the largest number of factories occurs in the chamber of commerce district of Vienna with 2,500 establishments; Reichenberg with 2,353 establishments ranks second, and Prague with 1,214 establishments ranks third; all the other chamber of commerce districts have less than 1,000 establishments. The district of Reichenberg has the highest number of factory employees, having 221,022. Vienna comes next with 200,654, and Prague third, with 109,835 persons employed in factories; all the other chamber of commerce districts have less than 100,000 factory employees. The three districts of Reichenberg, Vienna, and Prague, therefore, are the factory centers of the country and contain over half of the employees included in the present investigation.

The industry with the largest number of factory establishments and factory employees is the textile industry, which had 2,274 establishments and 300,828 employees engaged in these factories; the industry of stones, earths, etc., ranks second with 2,076 establishments and 138,501 employees, while the food products industry had 1,936 establishments and 140,111 persons employed. The three industry groups with the smallest number of factories is reported for the smelting, etc., industries with only 13 establishments and 2,450 workers; the mining, agricultural products, etc., factories

, with 13 establishments and 1,878 workers; and the upholstering, etc., industries with 15 establishments and 546 workers. The small number of smelting, etc., establishments reported is due to the fact that the greater part of the smelting establishments were not included in the study because they were parts of mining establishments and not subject to the jurisdiction of the factory inspection officials

Throughout the study factories are classed as those operating continuously, meaning thereby those in operation 24 hours per day and 7 days of the week; second, establishments not operating continuously, including those establishments which shut down regularly at night and on Sundays in each week; and third, mixed establishments, those having departments operating continuously and departments shutting down at night and on Sundays. The establishments which did not operate continuously numbered 9,327 and employed 763,633 workers, of whom 500,960 were males and 262,673 were females; the establishments operating continuously numbered 406 and employed 16,285 workers, of whom 14,051 were males and 2,234 were females; the mixed establishments numbered 2,861 establishments and employed 257,683 workers, of whom 213,909 were males and 43,774 were females. The establishments operating continuously formed, therefore, but a small proportion of the total; they comprised 3.2 per cent of the establishments and employed 1.6 per cent of the factory workers. The mixed establishments, however, comprised 22.7 per cent of all factories and 24.8 per cent of the factory workers. The largest number of establishments operating continuously was found in the food products industry with 176 establishments and 11,904 workers, and in the power plants with 138 establishments employing 1,067 workers. The largest number of mixed establishments is found in the industry of stones and earths with 1,310 establishments employing 94,892 workers and in the food products industry with 907 establishments employing 97,136 workers.

The size of these factory establishments as disclosed by the average number of workmen employed is a matter of some interest. The smelting, etc., industries showed the largest plants with an average of 188 employees per factory; the rubber industries, ranked second with 147 employees, and mining, agricultural products, etc., industries with 144 workmen per factory. It should be noted, however, that these three groups included but few establishments and but few workmen; it is important to note that in the textile industries, the machine building industries, and the metal working industries, the average size of the establishment ranks high; the textile establishments averaged 132 employees per factory, the machine building 113, and the metal working 101 employees per factory. The average for all establishments included in the study was 82 persons per establishment. A more accurate statement of the size of the establishments is found in the table showing the establishments arranged in groups; if the establishments employing more than 300 workmen be regarded as the larger establishments, it is found that the textile industry ranks first with 12.2 per cent of all the establishments in this class, the machine building industry with 7.9 per cent, the food products industry with 6.9 per cent, and

86026°—Bull. 93--11-18

the metal working industry with 6.8 per cent. Of the very large establishments, namely, those with more than 1,000 workmen, the largest proportion is found in the machinery, the textile, and the metal working industries.

EMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN AND YOUNG PERSONS IN FACTORIES.

The following tables show the number and proportion of women and young persons employed in factory establishments in 1906, and similar data for industrial undertakings, including both factory and nonfactory establishments, in 1902.

NUMBER AND PER CENT OF MALE AND FEMALE WORKERS AND OF PERSONS

UNDER 16 YEARS OF AGE EMPLOYED IN FACTORY ESTABLISHMENTS IN 1906 AND IN ALL INDUSTRIAL ESTABLISHMENTS IN 1902.

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i or all workers in the respective industry groups.
a of all persons under 16 years of age in the respective industry groups.

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