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RELATIVE LEVEL OF WEEKLY WAGES IN CERTAIN OCCUPATIONS IN SPECIFIED

INDUSTRIES, BY COUNTRIES. (Compiled from reports of an Inquiry by the Board of Trade into Working Class Rents, Housing and

Retail Prices, together with Rates of Wages in certain occupations in the Principal IndustrialTowns of the United Kingdom, 1908; Germany, 1908; France, 1909; Belgium, 1910; United States, 1911.)

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England and Wales (excluding

London).
Germany (excluding Berlin)..
France.
Belgium
United States.

1 Including stonemasons.

2 Included in bricklayers. An examination of the above table shows that for all occupations without exception wages are highest in the United States, the other countries arranging themselves in order, England and Wales, Germany, France, and Belgium. Taking the arithmetical mean of the ratios for all occupations, the weekly rate of wages in the United States was, according to the reports, approximately two and onethird times the wages in England and Wales, two and five-sixths times the wages in Germany, three and one-eighth times the wages in France, and three and three-fourths times the wages in Belgium.

With regard to the effect of the differences in the dates of the investigations upon the wages as shown in the table, the statements of the reports of the Board of Trade may be summed up as follows:

Germany.-If the data for all the trades be taken together, an estimate of a rise of 8 or 9 per cent in the general level of weekly wages and earnings between October, 1905, and March, 1908 (that is, in a period marked until near its close by great industrial activity), may be regarded as approximately accurate.

France.- Between October, 1905, and October, 1907, on the average, wages in the building trades increased about 5 per cent. In th3 engineering trades changes were less marked. Taking all the towns together the average rise was about 3 per cent. Earnings

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in the printing trades do not appear to have increased to any appreciable extent.

Belgium.-It does not appear that the result of the investigation would have been appreciably different if all the data could have been brought down to the autumn of 1908.

England and Wales.—The level of wages in the building trades was the same in England and Wales in 1909 as in 1905, but the level in the engineering trades had been raised by about 1} per cent between October, 1905, and February, 1909, and those of compositors by about 24 per cent. The effect of these changes would be to lower the mean ratio for the trades represented in the above table from 232 to 100 to 230 to 100.

When the rates of wages reported in the individual cities of each country are compared a wide range is found. Each report contains figures showing the relative rates of wages in each city as compared with those in the chief city of the country as a basis or 100, and in order to compare the ranges in the various countries these figures have been brought together in the following table: RANGE OF WEEKLY WAGES IN THE CITIES OF EACII COUNTRY AS COMPARED WITII

WAGES IN THE CHIEF CITY. [Compiled from reports of an Inquiry by the Board of Trade into Working Class Rents, Housing and

Retail Prices, together with Rates of Wages in certain occupations in the Principal Industrial Towns of the United Kingdom, 1908; Germany, 1908; France, 1909; Belgium, 1910; United States, 1911.]

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Comparing the various countries in regard to the extent of the range in wages, it will be seen that within every country and within every occupation the rates of wages differ widely. This range is found to be generally the widest in the cities of France. Taking the five groups of occupations together, the differences between the cities of the United States are, according to these reports, less than the differences between the cities of any of the other countries, although the territory covered by the investigation in the United States was greater than that covered in any of the other countries.

Although the fact is not brought out in the table, it may be stated that in no case was the minimum wage reported found in the smallest city of the country. On the other hand, it will be seen that in many cases the highest wage was paid in some city other than the largest city of the country. In France, however, the highest wage was reported for Paris for every occupation.

HOURS OF LABOR.

The average usual hours of labor per week for the same group of occupations for which rates of wages have been shown are presented in the following table:

AVERAGE USUAL HOURS OF LABOR IN CERTAIN OCCUPATIONS IN SPECIFIED INDUS.

TRIES, BY COUNTRIES. (Compiled from reports of an Inquiry by the Board of Trade into Working Class Rents, Housing and

Retail Prices, together with Rates of Wages in certain occupations in the Principal Industrial Towns of the United Kingdom, 1908; Germany, 1908; France, 1909; Belgium, 1910; United States, 1911.)

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1 According to the Board of Trade report " The inquiry embraced towns scattered over an area nine times as great as the United Kingdom and equal to nearly twice the combined areas of the United Kingdom, Germany, France, and Belgium, the four countries previously investigated."

· Whether London is included, not reported. 3 Whether Paris is included, not reported.

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The comparison of weekly hours of labor can be made much more readily by the use of the relative figures contained in the reports, which are in the case of each occupation computed upon the basis of the average weekly hours in England and Wales as 100.

RELATIVE LEVEL OF AVERAGE USUAL HOURS OF LABOR IN CERTAIN OCCUPATIONS

IN SPECIFIED INDUSTRIES, BY COUNTRIES. (Compiled from reports of an Inquiry by the Board of Trade into Working Class Rents, Housing and Retail Prices, together with Rates of Wages in certain occupations in the Principal Industrial Towns of the United Kingdom, 1908; Germany, 1908; France, 1909; Belgium, 1910; United States, 1911.)

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An examination of the foregoing table shows that for the building trades and for compositors the hours of labor in the United States are uniformly fewer than those in any of the other countries, being approximately 10 per cent below the hours in those occupations in England and Wales. The next above England and Wales is Germany, with hours from 10 to 12 per cent longer; France, with hours approximately 20 per cent longer in the building trades, and 13 per cent for compositors, and 14 per cent in the engineering trades; and Belgium, with hours in the building trades nearly 30 per cent higher and in the engineering and printing trades 14 per cent higher. Considering the arithmetical mean of the ratios for all trades, hours in the United States are 5 per cent below those in England and Wales, and those in Germany, France, and Belgium are, respectively, 11, 17, and 21 per cent higher than England and Wales.

Since the date of the investigation a slight tendency toward a reduction of hours has been noted in all of the countries save Belgium, but it does not appear that these changes would affect in any marked degree the comparisons of the foregoing table.

RENTS.

In the following table are presented the actual and relative weekly rents charged in the various countries for dwellings of two, three, four, five, and six rooms. Only dwellings of three and four rooms were found as prevailing types in all of the countries, and dwellings of five and six rooms were found common types only in England and the United States.

PREDOMINANT RANGE OF WEEKLY RENTS IN EACH COUNTRY, BY SIZE OF

DWELLING. (Compiled from reports of an Inquiry by the Board of Trade into Working Class Rents, Housing and

Retail Prices, together with Rates of Wages in certain occupations in the Principal Industrial Towns of the United Kingdom, 1908; Germany, 1908; France, 1909; Belgium, 1910; United States, 1911.)

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1 Dwellings occupied by colored tenants are excluded. RELATIVE LEVEL OF WEEKLY RENTS IN EACH COUNTRY, BY SIZE OF DWELLING. (Compiled from reports of an Inquiry by the Board of Trade into Working Class Rents, Housing and

Retail Prices, together with Rates of Wages in certain occupations in the Principal Industrial Towns of the United Kingdom, 1908; Germany, 1908; France, 1909; Belgium, 1910; United States, 1911.]

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For the type of dwelling most generally found in the United States weekly rentals were more than double the rates paid in England and Wales and in Germany. As compared with the other countries the rate is about 2} times that of France and over 3 times that of Belgium. It can not, of course, be said in regard to housing that these comparisons are for approximately the same accommodation. They are in each case for the type of dwelling occupied by families of wage earn

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