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days when the accident occurred, 1.37 per cent from three days up to one week, 5.61 per cent from one week up to one month, 7.80 per cent from one month to three months, 6.66 per cent from three months to six months, 7.46 per cent from six months to one year, and 67.57 per cent one year or more. Those engaged as casual workers in the occupation formed 0.54 per cent of the total number of injured persons.

In each of the two preceding cases it is noteworthy that the workmen employed less than three days in an establishment or in an occupation had formed a much higher proportion of the injured persons than those employed from three days to one week; thus in the establishment figures, 3.07 per cent had been employed less than three days, while 1.89 per cent had been employed from three days to one week; in the occupation figures, 2.99 per cent had been employed less than three days, while 1.37 per cent had been employed from three days to one week.

Considering the various groups of industries, the data for the length of time employed in the establishment show that in the case of the injured employees of the public authorities 73.55 per cent had been employed in the establishments one year and over, while only 52.73 per cent of the injured employees of private establishments (not including the institutes) had been employed one year and over. The difference is most probably due to the greater continuity of employment in the establishments conducted by the Government authorities. Four of the industry groups had approximately 70 per cent and over of their injured employees engaged in the establishment for one year and over. These industries are blacksmithing (association 66) with 79.87 per cent, private railways (association 56) with 73.21 per cent, mining (association 1) with 69.68 per cent, and silk (association 27) with 69.59 per cent. Two of the accident associations engaged in transportation service, viz, express and storage (association 58) with 7.28 per cent, and livery, drayage, cartage (association 59) with 9.10 per cent, had the highest proportion of their injured persons consisting of those employed less than three days. Some of the industry groups, such as mining (association 1) with 0.62 per cent, street and small railroads (association 57) with 0.42 per cent, show an unusually small proportion of the injured persons to have been newcomers in the establishment.

The total line of figures giving the percentages for the public authorities and for the private establishments show that these groups had 66.54 per cent and 67.64 per cent, respectively, of their injured persons employed one year and over in the occupation at which they were engaged at the time of the accident. There is therefore but little difference between the Government and the private estab

85048°—Bull. 92–11-4

lishments in this respect. Among the different industries there is a marked difference in the proportion of injured persons who had been engaged in the occupation more than one year. The least favorable showing in this respect was that of the paper products group (association 29) with only 37.70 per cent of its injured persons in the oneyear class, while the most favorable showing was that of the blacksmithing, etc., group (association 66) with 88.27 per cent in the oneyear class. In all, five groups of industries had over 80 per cent of their injured persons in the class employed one year and over. These groups were blacksmithing (association 66) with 88.27 per cent, meat products (association 65) with 86.11 per cent, chimney sweeping (association 42) with 85.29 per cent, marine navigation (association 63) with 84.65 per cent, and express and storage (association 58) with 81.75 per cent. Taking the other extreme, the proportion of injured persons who had been employed in the occupation for less than three days when the accident occurred was 2.80 per cent in the private establishments and 4.14 per cent in the Government establishments. Four of the groups of industries had over 5 per cent of their injured persons disabled during the first three days of their employment at the occupation-clothing (association 41) with 7.26 per cent, sugar (association 37) with 6.72 per cent, metal working (associations 12 and 13) with 5.68 per cent, and chemicals (association 18) with 5.23 per cent.

TABLE 8.-LENGTH OF TIME EMPLOYED IN THE ESTABLISHMENT: PER CENT OF

PERSONS KILLED OR INJURED, BY DURATION OF EMPLOYMENT IN THE ESTAB.

LISHMENT PREVIOUS TO THE ACCIDENT. (Source: Amtliche Nachrichten des Reichs-Versicherungsamts, 1910. I Beiheft, I Teil. Gewerbe-Unfall

statistik für das Jabr 1907, pp. 328 to 337.)

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TABLE 9.-LENGTH OF TIME EMPLOYED IN THE OCCUPATION: PER CENT OF PERSONS KILLED OR INJURED, BY DURATION OF EMPLOYMENT IN THE OCCUPATION PRE

VIOUS TO THE ACCIDENT. (Source: Amtliche Nachrichten des Reichs-Versicherungsamts, 1910. I Beiheft, I Tefl. Gewerbe-Unfall

statistik für das Jahr 1907, pp. 328 to 337.)

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LENGTH OF TIME THE INJURED PERSON HAD BEEN AT WORK ON THE

DAY OF THE ACCIDENT.

In order to disclose what, if any, relation exists between the number of hours which the injured person had been at work on the day of the accident and the frequency of accidents, Table 10 shows the number of persons killed and injured classified by the number of hours they had been at work on the day of the accident. As was the case in the tables showing the length of time employed in the establishment and in the occupation, it would be necessary to know the total number of persons employed the respective number of hours per day in order to compute an accurate rate; this information is not available. Table 10 presents the proportion of injured persons instead of the rate per 1,000 persons in each period of time.

Taking the total number of injured persons, Table 10 shows that these were distributed throughout the day as follows: Number of hours the injured

person had been at work. Less than 1 hour....

4. 94 1 hour and up to 2 hours.

8. 63 2 hours and up to 3 hours..

9. 21 3 hours and up to 4 hours..

11, 28 4 hours and up to 5 hours.

12. 20 5 hours and up to 6 hours.

10. 16 6 hours and up to 7 hours...

8.10 7 hours and up to 8 hours..

8. 66 8 hours and up to 9 hours.

8. 54 9 hours and up to 10 hours..

7.57 10 hours and over...

10.71 Total.......

100.00

Per cent.

The most conspicuous fact in these figures is that the expected increase in the proportion of accidents in the last few hours of the day does not appear; in fact, the proportion of accidents occurring from the seventh to the eighth hour of work is practically the same as that occurring from the first to the second hour of work. It is customary to allow about 15 minutes for afternoon lunch (Vesperpause) at 4 o'clock or later; and probably this intermission is responsible for the decrease noted beginning with the eighth hour of work.

While the last 4 hours of work do not show an increase in the proportion of accidents, the first 5 hours do show such an increase to a marked degree. The proportion of all accidents occurring to persons at work less than 1 hour was 4.94 per cent; the increase in the next group, those who had been employed 1 to 2 hours, is quite marked; after the second hour the increase is uninterrupted until the end of the fifth hour, when the maximum for the day is reached with 12.20 per cent of all the injured persons. At this point the noon recess evidently influences the number of accidents, though in

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