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The causes of strikes for each year of the period are shown in the following table, the cause and not the strike being the unit:

STRIKES, BY CAUSES AND YEARS, 1894 TO 1908. [Strikes due to two or more causes have been tabulated under each cause; hence the yearly totals for this

table, if computed, would not agree with those for the preceding tables.)

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The following table shows, for both strikes and strikers, during . each year of the period, the results expressed in percentages: PER CENT OF STRIKES AND OF STRIKERS, BY RESULTS, FOR EACH YEAR, 1894

TO 1908.

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LOCKOUTS.—There were 35 lockouts reported in 1908 as compared with 26 in 1907. The number of lockouts due to reported causes were 14 due to differences concerning wages and hours of labor, 12 due to strikes, and 5 to threatened strikes, and 4 due to other causes.

The following table shows the number of lockouts, establishments affected, and number of employees locked out for each year of the period, 1895 to 1908:

LOCKOUTS, ESTABLISHMENTS AFFECTED, AND EMPLOYEES LOCKED OUT, BY

YEARS, 1895 TO 1908.

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Statistique des Grèves et des Recours à la Conciliation et à l'Arbitrage Sur

venus Pendant l'Année 1908. Direction du Travail, Ministère du Travail et de la Prévoyance Sociale. xviii, 550 pp.

The present volume is the eighteenth of a series of annual reports on strikes and conciliation and arbitration issued by the French Labor Bureau. The information is presented in the same form as in previous reports.

STRIKES.—During the year 1908 there were 1,073 strikes, involving 4,641 establishments, 99,042 strikers, and 9,196 other persons thrown out of work on account of strikes. Of the strikers 89.3 per cent were men, 8.1 per cent were women, and 2.6 per cent were children. The strikes caused a loss of 1,479,071 working-days by strikers and 241,672 by other employees thrown out of work, a total of 1,720,743 workingdays. In 1907 there were 1,275 strikes, in which 197,961 strikers were involved, causing a loss of 3,048,446 working-days by the strikers, and a total of 3,562,220 working-days for strikers and other persons thrown out of work by reason of strikes. The average number of days lost per striker in 1908 was 15, being the same as in 1907.

Of the 1,073 strikes in 1908, 841 involved but 1 establishment each, 86 involved from 2 to 5 establishments, 53 involved from 6 to 10 establishments, 49 involved from 11 to 25 establishments, 35 involved from 26 to 50 establishments, and 7 involved from 51 to 100 establishments. Of the remaining strikes 2 involved over 100 establishments each, 1 involved 200, and 1 involved 300 establishments. In one strike of agricultural laborers the exact number of establishments affected could not be ascertained.

In 837 strikes all or a part of the striking employees were organized. The employers were organized in 557 strikes. Five workingmen's unions and 5 employers' associations were organized during the progress of or immediately following strikes. As a result of strikes 5 workingmen's unions and 1 employers' association dissolved. In 46 strikes regular aid was given by labor organizations to their striking members and in some cases to strikers not members. In 2 strikes, employees who remained at work gave a part of their earnings to an association furnishing aid to strikers.

Of the 1,073 strikes, 185, or 17.24 per cent of all strikes, involving 20,133 strikers, or 20.33 per cent of all strikers, succeeded; 324 strikes, or 30.20 per cent of all strikes, involving 46,599 strikers, or 47.05 per cent of all strikers, succeeded partly; and 564 strikes, or 52.56 per cent of all strikes, involving 32,310 strikers, or 32.62 per cent of all strikers, failed. In 688 strikes the striking employees were time workers, while in 183 others, they worked by the piece, and in the remaining 202 by both time and piece.

The following table shows, by groups of industries, the number of strikes, strikers, and establishments affected, according to the results of strikes; also the days of work lost by all employees and the number of strikers per 1,000 working people in each group of industries for the year 1908:

STRIKES, ESTABLISHMENTS AFFECTED, AND STRIKERS, BY RESULTS, AND WORK.

ING-DAYS LOST, FOR EACH GROUP OF INDUSTRIES, 1908.

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STRIKES, ESTABLISHMENTS AFFECTED, AND STRIKERS, BY RESULTS, AND WORK.

ING-DAYS LOST, FOR EACH GROUP OF INDUSTRIES, 1908-Concluded.

Strikers in strikes which

Strikers

Workingper 1,000

days Industries.

Total

lost by

working
Suc
Suc

strikers. people in

by all ceeded ceeded. Failed.

each

employees partly.

thrown out industry.

of work. Agriculture, forestry, and fisheries.. 3, 020 2,572 1,077 6, 669

2. 25 54,609 Mining: 2,168 2, 781 1,816 6, 765

37.19 25, 977 Quarrying.

72

3,860 775 4,707 77.08 Foods and drinks.

52, 553 133

78
1,209 1, 420

2. 23 50, 538 Chemical products (including tobacco) 344

437 526 1, 307 11. 43 Paper and printing..

5, 458 347 899

592 1, 838 13. 91 Leather and hides.

22, 007 237 2,674 404 3, 315 21.13

42, 502 Textiles...

1,379 5, 499 3,506 10,384 16. 84 256, 803 Wearing apparel, cleaning, etc.. 253 1, 480 860 2,593

5.48

13, 619 Woodworking, carved materials, etc.. 424

727 1,140 2, 291

9.36 80, 412 Building trades (woodwork).

541
948
195

1,684 Metallurgical..

15,344 12 100 276

388 Metal working, machinery, instru

5. 49

3,384 ments, apparatus, etc.. 407 2,517 2,500 5,424

9.92 Jewelry, gold and silver working.

83, 455 40 40 1.88

133 Stone cutting, products of stone, clay, glass, etc.

822
2, 456
1, 747
5,025

33. 30 Building trades (stone and earth

233,990 work).. 7,941 15, 273 11,888 35, 102

3 71.13

647, 951 Transportation, commerce, etc.

2,033 4, 298

3,759
10, 090

9. 27 132,008 Total... 20, 133 46,599 32, 310 99,042

* 18.12 1,720, 743 1 Based on the census of 1901. 2 Included in building trades (stone and earth work). 3 Including building trades (woodwork).

Based on the total number of industrial working people in France in 1901. Of the 17 groups of industries above shown, building trades (stone and earth work) and textiles together furnished 52 per cent of the total number of strikes during the year; with regard to the number of strikers, these 2 groups furnished 45.9 per cent.

The principal data as to strikes are shown, by causes, in the table following: STRIKES, ESTABLISHMENTS AFFECTED, AND STRIKERS, BY RESULTS, AND WORK

ING-DAYS LOST, FOR EACH CAUSE, 1908. (Strikes due to two or more causes have been tabulated under each cause; hence the totals for this table,

if computed, would not agree with those for preceding tables.]

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STRIKES, ESTABLISHMENTS AFFECTED, AND STRIKERS, BY RESULTS, AND WORK

ING-DAYS LOST, FOR EACH CAUSE, 1908-Concluded.

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For increase of wages.
Against reduction of wages..
For reduction of hours, with present or

increased wages..
Relating to time, method, etc., of wage

payments....
For or against modification of conditions

of work. Against piecework. For or against modification of shop rules. For abolition or reduction of fines.. Against discharge or for reinstatement of workmen, foremen, or superintend

ents.
For discharge of workmen, foremen, or

superintendents.
For discharge of female employees..
For limitation of number of apprentices...
Relating to deductions from wages for

support of insurance and aid funds..... Other causes..

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The most frequent cause of strikes during the year was wage disputes, the demands for increased wages, alone or in conjunction with other demands, having figured in 628 strikes, or 58.5 per cent of the total number of strikes for the year, involving 62,557 strikers, or 63.2 per cent of the total number of strikers, and causing a loss of 266,748 working-days, including days lost by persons other than strikers who were thrown out of employment on account of strikes. Of these demands 119 were successful for 13,594 strikers, 211 partly successful for 32,116 strikers, and 298, involving 16,847 strikers, failed. The next two tables show, for both strikes and strikers, the results of strikes by duration and the results and duration of strikes by number of strikers involved.

STRIKES AND STRIKERS, BY DURATION AND RESULTS, 1908.

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