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ACT OF APRIL 4, 1911.
SECTION I.--Compensation by action at law. 1. When personal injury is caused to an employee by accident arising out of and in the course of his employment, of which the actual or lawfully imputed negligence of the employer is the natural and proximate cause, he shall receive compensation therefor from his employer, provided the employee was himself not willfully negligent at the time of receiving such injury, and the question of whether the employee was willfully negligent shall be one of fact to be submitted to the jury, subject to the usual superintending powers of a court to set aside a verdict rendered contrary to the evidence.
2. The right to compensation as provided by Section I of this act shall not be de feated upon the ground that the injury was caused in any degree by the negligence of a fellow employee; or that the injured employee assumed the risks inherent in or incidental to or arising out of his employment or arising from the failure of the employer to provide and maintain safe premises and suitable appliances; which said grounds of defense are hereby abolished.
3. If an employer enters into a contract, written or verbal, with an independent contractor to do part of such employer's work, or if such contractor enters into a contract, written or verbal, with a subcontractor to do all or any part of such work comprised in such contractor's contract with the employer, such contract or subcontract shall not bar the liability of the employer under this act for injury caused to an employee of such contractor or subcontractor by any defect in the condition of the ways, works, machinery or plant if the defect arose or had not been discovered and remedied through the negligence of the employer or some one entrusted by him with the duty of seeing that they were in proper condition. This paragraph shall apply only to actions arising under section one.
4. The provisions of paragraphs one, two and three shall apply to any claim for the death of an employee arising under an act entitled “An act to provide for the recovery of damages in cases where the death of a person is caused by wrongful act, neglect or default, approved March third, eighteen hundred and forty-eight, and the amendments thereof and supplements thereto.
5. In all actions at law brought pursuant to Section I of this act, the burden of proof to establish willful negligence in the injured employee shall be upon the defendant.
6. No claim for legal services or disbursements pertaining to any demand made or suit brought under the provisions of this act shall be an enforceable lien against the amount paid as compensation, unless the same be approved in writing by the judge or justice presiding at the trial, or in case of settlement without trial, by the judge of the circuit court of the district in which such issue arose: Provided, That if notice in writing be given the defendant of such claim for legal services or disbursements, the same shall be a lien against the amount paid as compensation, subject to determination of the amount and approval hereinbefore provided.
SECTION II.-Elective compensation. 7. When employer and employee shall by agreement, either express or implied, as hereinafter provided, accept the provisions of Section II of this act, compensation for personal injuries to or for the death of such employee by accident arising out of and in the course of his employment shall be made by the employer without regard to the negligence
of the employer, according to the schedule contained in paragraph eleven, in all cases except when the injury or death is intentionally self-inflicted, or when intoxication is the natural and proximate cause of injury, and the burden of proof of such fact shall be upon the employer.
8. Such agreement shall be a surrender by the parties thereto of their rights to any other method, form or amount of compensation or determination thereof than as provided in Section II of this act, and an acceptance of all the provisions of Section II of this act, and shall bind the employee himself and for compensation for his death shall bind his personal representatives, his widow and next of kin, as well as the employer, and those conducting his business during bankruptcy or insolvency.
9. Every contract of hiring made subsequent to the time provided for this act to take effect shall be presumed to have been made with reference to the provisions of Section II of this act, and unless there be as a part of such contract an express statement in writing, prior to any accident, either in the contract itself or by written notice from either party to the other, that the provisions of Section II of this act are not intended to apply, then it shall be presumed that the parties have accepted the provisions of Section II of this act and have agreed to be bound thereby. In the employment of minors, Section II shall be presumed to apply unless the notice be given by or to the parent or guardian of the minor.
10. The contract for the operation of the provisions of Section II of this act may be terminated by either party upon sixty days' notice in writing prior to any accident.
11. Following is the schedule of compensation:
(a) For injury, producing temporary disability, fifty per centum of the wages received at the time of injury, subject to a maximum compensation of ten dollars per week and a minimum of five dollars per week: Provided, That if at the time of injury the employee receives wages of less than five dollars per week, then he shall receive the full amount of such wages per week. This compensation shall be paid during the period of such disability, not, however, beyond three hundred weeks.
(b) For disability total in character and permanent in quality, fifty per centum of the wages received at the time of injury, subject to a maximum compensation of ten dollars per week and a minimum of five dollars per week: Provided, That if at the time of injury the employee receives wages of less than five dollars per week, then he shall receive the full amount of wages per week. This compensation shall be paid during the period of such disability, not, however, beyond four hundred weeks.
(C) For disability partial in character but permanent in quality, the compensation shall be based upon the extent of such disability: In cases included by the following schedule the compensation shall be that named in the schedule, to wit:
For the loss of a thumb, fifty per centum of daily wages during sixty weeks.
For the loss of a first finger, commonly called index finger, fifty per centum of daily wages during thirty-five weeks.
For the loss of a second finger, fifty per centum of daily wages during thirty weeks. For the loss of a third finger, fifty per centum of daily wages during twenty weeks.
For the loss of a fourth finger, commonly called little finger, fifty per centum of daily wages during fifteen weeks.
The loss of the first phalange of the thumb, or of any finger, shall be considered to be equal to the loss of one-half of such thumb, or finger, and compensation shall be one-half the amounts above specified.
The loss of more than one phalange shall be considered as the loss of the entire finger or thumb: Providing, however, that in no case shall the amount received for more than one finger exceed the amount provided in this schedule for the loss of a hand.
For the loss of a great toe, fifty per centum of daily wages during thirty weeks.
For the loss of one of the toes other than a great toe, fifty per centum of daily wages during ten weeks.
For the loss of the first phalange of any toe shall be considered to be equal to the loss of one-half of such toe, and compensation shall be one-half of the amount above specified. The loss of more than one phalange shall be considered as the loss of the entire toe.
For the loss of a hand, fifty per centum of daily wages during one hundred and fifty weeks.
For the loss of an arm, fifty per centum of daily wages during two hundred weeks.
For the loss of a foot, fifty per centum of daily wages during one hundred and twentyfive weeks.
For the loss of a leg, fifty per centum of daily wages during one hundred and seventyfive weeks.
For the loss of an eye, fifty per centum of daily wages during one hundred weeks.
The loss of both hands, or both arms, or both feet, or both legs, or both eyes, or of any two thereof, shall constitute total and permanent disability, to be compensated according to the provisions of clause (b).
In all other cases in this class the compensation shall bear such relation to the amounts stated in the above schedule as the disabilities bear to those produced by the injuries named in the schedule. Should the employer and employee be unable to agree upon the amount of compensation to be paid in cases not covered by the schedule, the amount of compensation shall be settled according to the provisions of paragraph twenty hereof.
The amounts specified in this clause are all subject to the same limitations as to maximum and minimum as are stated in clause (a).
12. In case or death compensation shall be computed but not distributed on the following basis:
(1) Actual dependents.
If orphan or orphans, a minimum of twenty-five per centum of wages of deceased, with ten per centum additional for each orphan in excess of two, with a maximum of sixty per centum.
If widow alone, twenty-five per centum of wages.
If grandparents, grandchildren, or minor, or incapacitated brothers or sisters, twenty-five per centum of wages.
Compensation in case of death shall be computed on the basis of the foregoing schedule, but shall be distributed according to the laws of this state providing for the distribution of the personal property of an intestate decedent, unless decedent has in fact left a will.
(2) No dependents.
In computing compensation to orphans or other children, only those under sixteen years of age shall be included, and only during the period in which they are under that age, at which time payment on account of such child shall cease.
The compensation in case of death shall be subject to a maximum compensation of ten dollars per week and a minimum of five dollars per week: Provided, That if at the time of injury the employee receives wages of less than five dollars per week, then the compensation shall be the full amount of such wages per week. This compensation shall be paid during three hundred weeks.
Compensation under this schedule shall not apply to alien dependents not residents of the United States.
13. No compensation shall be allowed for the first two weeks after injury received, except as provided by paragraph fourteen, nor in any case unless the employer has actual knowledge of the injury or is notified thereof within the period specified in paragraph fifteen.
14. During the first two weeks after the injury the employer shall furnish reasonable medical and hospital services and medicines, as and when needed, not to exceed one hundred dollars in value, unless the employee refuses to allow them to be furnished by the employer.
15. Unless the employer shall have actual knowledge of the occurrence of the injury, or unless the employee, or some one on his behalf, or some of the dependents, or some one on their behalf, shall give notice thereof to the employer within fourteen days of the occurrence of the injury, then no compensation shall be due until such notice is given or knowledge obtained. If the notice is given, or the knowledge obtained within thirty days from the occurrence of the injury, no want, failure, or inaccuracy of a notice shall be a bar to obtaining compensation, unless the employer shall show that he was prejudiced by such want, defect or inaccuracy, and then only to the extent of such prejudice. If the notice is given, or the knowledge obtained within ninety days, and if the employee, or other beneficiary, shall show that his failure to give prior notice was due to his mistake, inadvertence, ignorance of fact or law, or inability, or to the fraud, misrepresentation or deceit of another person, or to any other reasonable cause or excuse, then compensation may be allowed, unless, and then to the extent only that the employer shall show that he was prejudiced by failure to receive such notice. Unless knowledge be obtained, or notice given, within ninety days after the occurrence of the injury, no compensation shall be allowed.
16. The notice referred to may be served personally upon the employer, or upon any agent of the employer upon whom a summons may be served in a civil action, or by sending it through the mail to the employer at the last known residence or business place thereof within the State, and shall be substantially in the following form: To (name of employer):
You are hereby notified that a personal injury was received by (name of employee injured), who was in your employ at (place) while engaged as (nature of employment), on or about the (-) day of (- --), nineteen hundred and (- --), and that compensation will be claimed therefor.
-). but no variation from this form shall be material if the notice is sufficient to advise the employer that a certain employee, by name, received an injury in the course of his employment on or about a specified time, at or near a certain place. Notice served at the office of, or on the person who was the employer's immediate superior, shall be a compliance with this act.
17. After an injury, the employee, if so requested by his employer, must submit himself for examination at some reasonable time and place within the State, and as often as may be reasonably requested, to a physician or physicians authorized to practice under the laws of this State. If the employee requests, he shall be entitled to have a physician or physicians of his own selection present to participate in such examination. The refusal of the employee to submit to such examination shall deprive him of the right to compensation during the continuance of such refusal. When a right to compensation is thus suspended no compensation shall be payable in respect of the period of suspension.
18. In case of a dispute over, or failure to agree upon, a claim for compensation between employer and employee, or the dependents of the employee, either party may submit the claim, both as to questions of fact, the nature and effect of the injuries, and the amount of compensation therefor according to the schedule herein provided, to the judge of the court of common pleas of such county as would have jurisdiction in a civil case, or where there is more than one judge of said court, then to either or any of said judges of such court, which judge is hereby authorized to hear and determine such disputes in a summary manner, and his decision as to all questions of fact shall be conclusive and binding.
19. In case of death, where no executor or administrator is qualified, the said judge shall, by order, direct payment to be made to such person as would be appointed administrator of the estate of such decedent upon like terms as to bond for the proper application of compensation payments as are required of administrators. 20. Procedure in case of dispute shall be as follows:
Either party may present a petition to said judge setting forth the names and residences of the parties and the facts relating to employment at the time of injury, the injury in its extent and character, the amount of wages received at the time of injury, the knowledge of the employer or notice of the occurrence of said injury, and such other facts as may be necessary and proper for the information of the said judge, and shall state the matter or matters in dispute and the contention of the petitioner with reference thereto. This petition shall be verified by the oath or affirmation of the petitioner.
Upon the presentation of such petition the same shall be filed with the clerk of the court of common pleas, and the judge shall fix a time and place for the hearing thereof, not less than three weeks after the date of the filing of said petition. A copy of said petition shall be served as summons in a civil action and may be served within four days thereafter upon the adverse party. Within seven days after the service of such notice the adverse party shall file an answer to said petition, which shall admit or deny the substantial averments of the petition, and shall state the contention of the defendant with reference to the matters in dispute as disclosed by the petition. The answer shall be verified in like manner as required for a petition.
At the time fixed for hearing or any adjournment thereof the said judge shall hear such witnesses as may be presented by each party, and in a summary manner decide the merits of the controversy. This determination shall be filed in writing with the clerk of the common pleas court, and judgment shall be entered thereon in the same manner as in causes tried in the court of common pleas, and shall contain a statement of facts as determined by said judge. Subsequent proceedings thereon shall only be for the recovery of moneys thereby determined to be due: Provided, That nothing herein contained shall be construed as limiting the jurisdiction of the supreme court to review questions of law by certiorari. Costs may be awarded by said judge in his discretion, and when so awarded the same costs shall be allowed, taxed and collected as are allowed, taxed and collected for like services in the common pleas court.
21. The amounts payable periodically as compensation may be commuted to one or more lump sum payments by the judge of the court of common pleas having jusisdiction as set forth in the preceding paragraph, upon the application of either party, in his discretion, provided the same be in the interest of justice. Unless so approved, no compensation payments shall be commuted.
An agreement of award of compensation may be modified at any time by a subsequent agreement, or at any time after one year from the time when the same became operative it may be reviewed upon the application of either party on the ground that the incapacity of the injured employee has subsequently increased or diminished. In such case the provisions of paragraph seventeen with reference to medical examination shall apply.
22. The right of compensation granted by this act shall have the same preference against the assets of the employer as is now or may hereafter be allowed by law for a claim for unpaid wages for labor. Claims or payments due under this act shall not be assignable, and shall be exempt from all claims of creditors and from levy, execution or attachment.
SECTION III.-General provisions. 23. For the purposes of this act, willful negligence shall consist of (1) deliberate act or deliberate failure to act, or (2) such conduct as evidences reckless indifference to safety, or (3) intoxication, operating as the proximate cause of injury.
Wherever in this act the singular is used the plural shall be included; where the masculine gender is used, the feminine and neuter shall be included.
Employer is declared to be synonymous with master and includes natural persons, partnerships and corporations; employee is synonymous with servant and includes all natural persons who perform service for another for financial consideration, exclusive. of casual employments.
Amputation between the elbow and the wrist shall be considered as the equivalent of the loss of a hand, and amputation between the knee and the ankle shall be considered as the equivalent of the loss of a foot.
24. In case for any reason any paragraph or any provision of this act shall be questioned in any court and shall be held to be unconstitutional or invalid, the same shall not be held to affect any other paragraph or provision of this act, except that Sections I and II are hereby declared to be inseparable, and if either section be declared void or inoperative in an essential part, so that the whole of such section must fall, the other section shall fall with it and not stand alone. Section I of this act shall not apply in cases where Section II becomes operative in accordance with the provisions thereof, but shall apply in all other cases, and in such cases shall be in extension of the common law.
25. Every right of action for negligence, or to recover damages for injuries resulting in death, existing before this act shall take effect, is continued, and nothing in this act contained shall be construed as affecting any such right of action, nor shall the failure to give the notice provided for in Section II, paragraph fifteen of this act, be a bar to the maintenance of a suit upon any right or action existing before this act shall take effect.
26. All acts or parts of acts inconsistent with the provisions of this act are hereby repealed.
27. This act shall take effect on the fourth day of July next succeeding its passage and approval.
NEW YORK, [The compensation law of New York (elective) was printed in Bulletin No. 90, pp. 709–712, and in Bulletin No. 91, pp. 1091-1095.j
ACT OF MARCH 14, 1911.
Section 1. The common-law system governing the remedy of workmen against employers for injuries received in hazardous work is inconsistent with modern industrial conditions. In practice it proves to be economically unwise and unfair. Its administration has produced the result that little of the cost of the employer has reached the workman and that little only at large expense to the public. The remedy of the workman has been uncertain, slow and inadequate. Injuries in such works, formerly occasional, have become frequent and inevitable. The welfare of the State depends upon its industries, and even more upon the welfare of its wageworker. The State of Washington, therefore, exercising herein its police and sovereign power, declares that all phases of the premises are withdrawn from private controversy, and sure and certain relief for workmen, injured in extra hazardous work, and their families and dependents is hereby provided regardless of questions of fault and to the exclusion of every other remedy, proceeding or compensation, except as otherwise provided in this act; and to that end all civil actions and civil causes of action for such personal injuries and all jurisdiction of the courts of the State over such causes are hereby abolished, except as in this act provided.
Sec. 2. There is a hazard in all employment, but certain employments have come to be, and to be recognized as being inherently constantly dangerous. This act is intended to apply to all such inherently hazardous works and occupations, and it is the purpose to embrace all of them, which are within the legislative jurisdiction of the State, in the following enumeration, and they are intended to be embraced within the term "extra hazardous” wherever used in this act, to-wit:
Factories, mills and workshops where machinery is used; printing, electrotyping, photo-engraving and stereotyping plants where machinery is used; foundries, blast furnaces, mines, wells, gas works, waterworks, reduction works, breweries, elevators,