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there is a rate of 80 per 1,000 full-time workers (women); in the subgroup hauling of goods, etc. (association 59), there is a rate of 43.33 (women); in group coal and wood dealers (association 58) the rate is 35.78 (women); in two subgroups of the building trades, namely, tinsmiths and carpenters (associations 43-54), the rates are respectively 22.22 and 21.28 per 1,000 full-time workers (women). None of the other subgroups or groups of industries has a rate for female adults in excess of 15 per 1,000 full-time workers (women).
In the case of young persons there are also a number of high accident rates, but here also it is probable that such rates have been unduly influenced by the fact that the number of persons exposed to the risk is small and inadequate for the computation of rates. In the subgroup tenders of motors, etc. (associations 43–54), boys under 16 years had a rate of 139.07 per 1,000 full-time workers (boys); the subgroup hauling of goods, etc. (association 59), had a rate for boys under 16 of 34.90 per 1,000 full-time workers (boys); subgroup flour mills, etc..(association 35), had a rate of 22.01 per 1,000 full-time workers (boys). None of the other subgroups had a rate in excess of 20 per 1,000 full-time workers (boys). In the case of girls under 16 the same caution as to the adequacy of the number of cases for forming a rate must be observed; the subgroup construction of railways, etc. (association 64), the rate for girls under 16 was 68.97 per 1,000 full-time workers (girls). In the storage and transportation of beers and wines, etc. (association 58), the rate for girls under 16 was 45.45 per 1,000 full-time workers (girls). Aside from these two rates, none of the other subgroups showed rates in excess of 12 per 1,000 full-time workers.
In general the accident rates for male adults are higher than the rates for female adults; it may be assumed that the heavier and the more dangerous work is performed by men and the accident rates naturally reflect this state of affairs. There are four cases (associations 55, 59, 64, and 66) in which the accident rates of the industry groups for female adults are higher than the rates for men; three of these-namely, livery, drayage, cartage, etc. (59); engineering, excavating, etc. (64), and blacksmithing, etc. (66)—are groups in which the number of women employed is small and the accident rates are therefore subject to greater fluctuations than would be the case if the numbers were larger. It is also obvious that these industries contain occupations not adapted for the weaker physique of women, and two of them (livery, drayage, etc., and engineering, excavating, etc.) show accident rates for men which are among the highest rates given in the table. The group printing and publishing (association 55) has an accident rate for men of 2.60 and for women of 3.93 per 1,000 fulltime workers of the same sex and age group. The experience of the Leipzig Sick Fund (Twenty-fourth Annual Report of the Commissioner of Labor, Vol. I, pp. 1321 and 1323) shows that for all accidents (industrial and nonindustrial) the males engaged in printing and publishing had a rate of 50.4 per 1,000 members, while for females the rate was 36.1; the rate of the accident association for the accidents resulting in death or in disability of more than 13 weeks seems to indicate that accidents in the printing industries are more serious in the case of women than in the case of men.
The data as to the relative hazard of the various industries may be summed up by stating that establishments in which a high accident rate was to have been expected, such as underground work (e. g., mining, quarrying, etc.), operations especially exposed to the dangers of the elements (e. g., navigation), as a matter of fact do show a high rate of injuries. The rates for these industries are exceeded by those industries using mechanical apparatus of various kinds, such as the haulage, drayage, etc., the milling industries, etc. Likewise the establishments which use a large amount and variety of machinery, such as the iron and steel, the woodworking, etc., industries, also show high accident rates, though in these establishments the hazard of the machinery is reduced by careful and continuous supervision, training of the workers, use of safety appliances, etc.
TABLE 2-SEX AND AGE OF INJURED PERSONS: NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS AND
FULL-TIME WORKERS, AND NUMBER PER 1,000 FULL-TIME WORKERS OF PERSONS KILLED OR INJURED, BY INDUSTRIES AND SEX, 1907. (Source: Amtliche Nachrichten des Reichs-Versicherungsamts, 1910. I Beihest, I Teil. Gewerbe-Unfall
statistik für das Jahr 1907, pp. 1 to 293.)
(1) 8,604, 155 81,248 9.44 Industrial accident associations
(not including institutes). 673,095 7,860,780 | 75,370 9.58
trades, engineering, and naviga
(1) 81,164 1,345 16.57
4,533 6.85 B. GROUPS OF ASSOCIATIONS. 1 Mining: Total..
2,258 732,584 11,381 15.54 Hard coal.
328 537, 187 9,349 17.40 Soft coal
46,395 601 12.95 Ore..
17.76 13.16 10.30
801 71, 620 691 9.65 1 Not reported.
TABLE 2.-SEX AND AGE OF INJURED PERSONS: NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS AND FULL-TIME WORKERS, AND NUMBER PER 1,000 FULL-TIME WORKERS OF PERSONS KILLED OR INJURED, BY INDUSTRIES AND SEX, 1907-Continued.
TABLE 2.-SEX AND AGE OF INJURED PERSONS: NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS AND
FULL-TIME WORKERS, AND NUMBER PER 1,000 FULL-TIME WORKERS OF PERSONS KILLED OR INJURED, BY INDUSTRIES AND SEX, 1907-Continued.
movers), boilers, machines,
Book printing 56 Private railways. 57 Street and small railroads:
Street railways. 850489_Bull. 92-11- -2