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annulled in 1720, and Carolina taken under royal government. The crown, in 1728, purchased the property of seven of the owners, for seventeen thousand, five hundred pounds.

12. General Remarks on the foregoing Fals. From the history of the colonies, it appears that the principles of their opposition to the parent state, were mostly planted in the minds of the first settlers, or in their primitive conftitutions of government. In New-England, an enmity to the ecclefiaftical power of the English church naturally fostered an enmity to monarchy; and this enmity was increased by repeated attempts of the crown to establish its -power and prerogatives in the colonies. This enmity gra. dually matured into habitual and systemized opposition, which was greatly encouraged and confirmed by the speculations on government found in the writings of Locke,

Sidney and others. The authority of these authors was - reinforced by the parliamentary discufsions on royal prerogative and popular liberty, at the revolution in England. In the proprietary and royal governments, the endless contentions between the governors and assemblies, encouraged a spirit of investigation into the extent of the power of the crown, and formed the principle of opposition into habit. The open rupture therefore between Great Britain and the colonies, was not the sudden effect of a tumultuous opposition to a particular act of parliament, but the effect of hostile principles and habits which had grown out of a long series of events, and which a few measures of the British government ripened into action.

13. Immediate Causes of the Revolution. The proceedings of the British parliament which manifested a settled determination to keep America subject to the crown, and subfervient to the interests of Great Britain, were the direct causes of an opposition to her claims, which ended in an appeal to arms. As early as 1750, an act was passed in parliament, to encourage the exportation of iron in pigs and bars, from America to London; and to prevent the erecting of any mill in the colonies for slitting or rolling

iron, or any plating forge, or furnace for making steel. The purpose of the British government was to check the growth of manufactures in the colonies, and to compel them to export their iron, and import the manufactures of England. This arbitrary law was enforced, to the de.. struction of some machines of the kinds mentioned, and the dissatisfaction of the colonies.

14. Stamp Aa. After the peace of 1763, the British parliament formed a plan of raising a revenue by taxing the colonies. The pretext for it, was to obtain indemnification for the great expenses of Great Britain in defending the colonies, and to enable her to discharge the debt incur. red in the preceding war. But a more influential motive, was to check the increasing spirit of opposition, which it was apprehended would, in time, mature into a revolt ; the parliament, therefore, determined to assert its sovereignty and establish the immediate exercise of authority over the colonies. For this purpose, an act was passed for laying a duty on all paper, vellum or parchment, used in America, and declaring all writings on unstamped materials to be null and void. This act received the royal alsent on the 22d of March, 1765.

15. Reception of the Slamp ad in America. When the news of the stamp act reached the colonies, the people every where manifested alarm, and a determination to oppose its execution. The assembly of Virginia first declared its opposition to the act, by a number of spirited resolves ; but Massachusetts took the lead in this important crisis, and maintained it in every stage of the subsequent revolution. In all the colonies however, the determined fpirit of reliftance prevented the execution of the act. The stamp-mafters were burnt in effigy-and popular tumults succeeded. In Boston, the friends of the British measures, and the crown officers were insulted; their houses demolished ; and among other damages, the populace destroyed a valuable collection of original papers, concerning the history of the colonies, which governor Hutchinson had made, and intended to publish. This loss was irreparable. To render

the opposition complete, the merchants associated, and agreed to a resolution not to import any more goods from Great-Britain, until the stamp law should be repealed.

16. - Principles in which the Parliament and the Colorie: acted. The British parliament, previous to the repeal of che stamp law, passed an act declaring that “they had, and of right ought to have, power to bind the colonies in all cases whatsoever.”- 'oey alledged that the colonius were planted by their cire, nourished by their indulgences. and protected by their arms, and their moncy od therefore the colonies owed allegiance, fubjection and grititude to the parent state. The colonies denied very jakly that they were planted by the British government. Nje one of them was settled at the expense of the cruwn ; but with a vast expense of individuals, and with hardships and sufferings beyond description or credibility. Nor dil the government of England expend any mory or furnih any force for protecting the colonies, for sixty years after ta settlement of Plymouth. On the other hand, the goverr:ment neglected the colonies, while feeble and poor; ani. did not extend a proceeting arm, until the colonies had conquered and expelled several Indian tribes--had overcome the difficulties of setilement-had acquired a good degree of strength, and began to have a valuable commerce. Then the governmırt of England lent alliance to defend the colonies, and ecrie co heriëlf a beneficial trade.

:17. Grounds on which the Colonies oppofid ihe Stamo vitt. The colonies always acknowledged themselves subjects of the crown of Great Britain, until the declaration of Independence ; and were moit loyal and affectionate subjects, until the Parliament allerted the right of laying internal taxes on them, without admitting them to a fare cof repre. sentation. The great principle, fierted by the friends of liberty in parliainent, that "taxation and representation are inseparable,??, was universally embraced and maintained in America ; and the colonies denied the right of the parliament to tax them without their consent.. In vain did the ministry alledge that a revenue raised in America

would be expended in supporting government and defending the colonies. The assemblies wished not to have the taxes raised by Great-Britain, nor to be at her disposal,

18. Congress at New-York. To give system and efficacy to the colonial opposition to the stamp-act, Massachusetts proposed a meeting of deputies from the several colonies, to be held in New York in October 1765. Ac. cordingly deputies from nine of the colonies assembled in congress at New-York, and after deliberation, agreed on a deciaration of their rights and grievances--asserted their exemption from taxes not imposed by their own representatives--and sent a petition to the king, with me. morials to both houses of parliament. This fpirited opposition, seconded by the energetic eloquence of Mr. Pitt and other friends of America, produced a repeal of the stamp law, on the 18th of March 1766. The news of this event was received in America, with bonfires, ringing of bells, and other unusual demonstrations of joy. .

19. Duties on Glass, Paper, Paints and Tea. Not discouraged by the fate of the stamp act, the British ministry perlisted in their design of raising a revenue in America ; and in 1767, an act was passed, for laying duties on glass, painters colors, paper, and tea, imported into the colonies. To render the act effectual, a custom-house was directed to be established in America, with a board of commissioners to superintend the revenue, and to reside at Boston. These duties were small, but the colonies objected to the principle, rather than to the amount, of the tax ; and remonstrated against the act. A fecond association was formed for suspending the importation and consumption of the goods on which the duties were charged, and other Britilli manufactures. These measures of Massachusetts were adopted by the other colonies, and a circular letter from Boiton had its influence in giving concert and consistency to the opinions and proceedings of the colonial affemblies. This opposition, fupported by petitions and remonstrances in January 1770, procured an abolition of all the duties, except that of three pence on every pound of tea.

20. Causes of Sinuggling. The enterprizing commercial spirit of the people in America, bore, with extreme impatience, the severe regulations impofed on their trade, which prevented their seeking the best markets, and poured all the profits of a thriving commerce into the bosom of the parent state. So unjust and tyrannical were these restrictions considered, that sinuggling goods to evade the duties, was deemed honorable and greatly encouraged In 1768, the revenue officers seized a íloop, in Boston harbor, for attempts to smuggle wine. The populace afsembled with a view to rescue the floop, but she was moored under the protection of a British ship of war. The populace then attacked the houses of the commillioners, who saved themselves by flight to the castle.

21. First Armed Force sent to support the Ass of Parliament. The ministry, finding all mild eforts to establish their authority, in regard to a revenue, unavailing, fent four regiments of troops to be stationed at Boston, to overawe the inhabitants, and affist the crown officers to enforce the obnoxious acts of parliament. The arrival of these in 1768 gave no small uneasiness to the colonics, but no opposition was then made. The ministry also gave 01ders to station armed ships in the principal ports to prevent smuggling. An armed fchooner called the Gaspee, was stationed in Providence river, where she was burnt in 1772 by an exasperated populace. A large reward was offered for the discovery of the offenders, but no discove. ry was made.

22. Further Measures to enforce Obedience. In 1769, the parliament passed an act to revive the provisions of a statute enacted in the arbitrary reign of Henry Sih ; by which persons charged with treason in any of the coJonies, might be arrested and sent to England for trial.

The gross injustice of this act, augmented the clamor against the ministry in Great Britain, and served only to exasperate still more, the minds of the Americans. This impolitic act alone would have raised a rebellion in the colonies. Indeed the spirit of opposition increased, in proportion to the determination of the British ministry to

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