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those miserable men he established on the isle of CHAP. Sable; and the wretched exiles, terrified at their solitude and the barrenness of the soil, sighed for their 1598. dungeons. After some years, a few, who survived, were once more brought within the influence of civilized life. The miserable men were pardoned for their former crimes. A temporary exile to America was deemed a sufficient commutation for a long imprisonment.

The prospect of gain prompted the next enterprize. A monopoly of the fur-trade, with an ample patent, was obtained by Chauvin ;' and Pontgravé, a 1600. merchant of St. Malo, shared the traffic.

The 1601-2 voyage was repeated, for it was lucrative. The death of Chauvin prevented his settling a colony.

A firmer hope of success was entertained, when a 1603. company of merchants of Rouen was formed by the governor of Dieppe; and Samuel Champlain, of Brouage, an officer of bravery, experience and skill, was appointed to direct the expedition. For Champlain by his natural disposition “delighted marvellously in these enterprizes,” and became the father of the French settlements in Canada. He possessed a clear and penetrating understanding with a spirit of cautious inquiry; untiring perseverance with great mobility ; indefatigable activity with the most fearless courage. The account of his first expedi- 1603. . tion gives proof of sound judgment and accurate observation. It is full of careful remarks on the

1 Charlevoix, N. F. v. i. p. 110, 3 Purchas' Pilgrims, v. iv. p. 111.

1605—1619. Compare Belknap's 2 Charlevoix, N. F. v. i. p. 111. American Biog. v. i. p. 322, 323.

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1603.

1603. Nov. 8.

CHAP. manners and character of the savage tribes, not less

than of exact details on the geography of the country; and the position of Quebec, an Indian word which signifies a strait, was already selected as the appropriate site for a fort.

Champlain returned to France just before an exclusive patent' had been issued to De Monts. The sovereignty of Acadia, the country from the fortieth to the forty-sixth degree of latitude, that is, from Philadelphia to beyond Montreal, the special monopoly of the lucrative fur-trade, the exclusive right of granting the soil, admitting emigrants, controlling trade, and appropriating domains, were some of the privileges, which the charter conceded. The vagabonds, idlers, and men without a profession, as well in the towns as in the villages of France, and all banished men, were doomed to lend him aid. The certain profits of a lucrative monopoly were added to the honors of territorial jurisdiction. Wealth and glory were alike expected.

An expedition was prepared without delay, and left the shores of France, not to return, till a permanent French settlement should be made in America. All New-France was now contained in two ships; 5 which followed the well-known path to Nova Scotia.

1604. Mar. 7.

1 See the patent, in Purchas, v. Purchas, v. iv. p. 1620-1641. iv. p. 1619, 1620, much abridged. Compare Charlevoix, N. Fr. v. i. It is entire in Hazard, v. i. p. 45— p. 111, and ff. Of American au48. Lescarbot, t. ii. p. 4:32—446. thors, Belknap's Am. Biog. v. i. p.

2 Charlevoix, N. F. v. i. p. 111. 3233, and tf.; Haliburton's Nova

3 Prevaloir des vagabonds, per- Scotia, v. i. p. 12, and ff.; Holmes' sonnes oiseuses et sans aveu, &c. Annals, v. i. p. 121, 122; and Hazard, v. i. p. 47.

Williamson's elaborate History of 4 On this expedition the materi- Maine, v. i. p. 188. als are ample. Lescarbot, I. iv. in 5 Les. in Purchas, v. iv. p. 1620. 1 Lescarbot, in Purchas, v. iv.p. pare Belknap's Am. Biog. v. i. p. 1621. Compare Haliburton's No- 326–330; Williamson's Hist. of va Scotia, v. i. p. 15.

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The summer glided away, while the emigrants CHAP. trafficked with the natives and explored the coasts. a The harbor, called Annapolis after the

1604.

conquest of Acadia by Queen Ann, an excellent harbor, though difficult of access, possessing a small but navigable river, which abounded in fish and is bordered by beautiful meadows, so pleased the imagination of Poutrincourt,' a leader in the enterprize, that he sued for a grant of it from De Monts, and, naming it Port Royal, determined to reside there with his family. The company of De Monts made their first attempt at a settlement on the island of 1604. St. Croix, at the mouth of the river of the same

That river subsequently was adopted as the boundary of the United States; and when a question was raised, which stream was the true St. Croix, the remains of the fortification of De Monts assisted to decide the question. Yet the island was so ill suited to the purposes of the colony, that, in the following spring, it was abandoned, and the whole company 1605. removed to Port Royal."

The judgment of De Monts clearly saw, that, for an agricultural colony, a situation in a milder climate was more desirable; and, in the view of making a settlement at the south, he explored and claimed for 1605. France, the rivers, the coasts and the bays of New

name.

Maine, v. i. p. 189—191. 2 Lescarbot, in Purchas, v. iv. 4 Lescarbot, in Purchas, v. iv. p. 1622; Charlevoix, N. F. v. i. p. p. 1622, and more particularly p. 115, 116.

1626; Chalmers' Annals, p. 82; 3 Webber's remark, in note in Charlevoix, N. F. v. i. p. 116; Holmes' Annals, v. i. p. 122. Com- Purchas, v. i. p. 934, 935.

1606.

28.

14.

CHAP. England, as far, at least, as Cape Cod. The

- numbers and hostility of the savages led him to delay 1605.

a removal, since his colonists were so few. Yet the

purpose remained. Thrice in the spring of the fol1606. lowing year did Dupont,his lieutenant, attempt to

complete the discovery. Twice he was driven back by adverse winds; and at the third attempt, his

vessel was wrecked. Poutrincourt, who had visited Aug. France and was now returned with supplies, him

self renewed the design ;but meeting with disasters Nov. among the shoals of Cape Cod, he, too, returned to

Port Royal. The soil of New-England was reserved

for other emigrants; it was at Port Royal, that a 1605. French settlement, on the American continent, was

first permanently made; two years before James river was discovered, and three years before a cabin had been raised in Canada.

For it was not till after the remonstrances of the French merchants had effected the revocation of the monopoly of De Monts, and even procured the can

celling of his commission, that a company of mer1608. chants of Dieppe and St. Malo, founded Quebec. July

The design was executed by Champlain, who acted not as a merchant, but as a citizen, aiming not at the profits of trade, but at the glory of founding a state. The city of Quebec was begun; that is to

3.

1 Lescarbot, in Purchas, v. iv. 3 Lescarbot, in Purchas, v. iv. p. 1625, 1026; Belknap's Ameri- p. 1631-1635; Belknap's American Biog. v. i. p. 328, 329; Hali- can Biog. v. i. p. 3:32. burton's Nova Scotia, v. i. p. 19, 4 Lescarbot, in Purchas, v. iv. p. &c. &c.

1611; Voltaire, Esprit des Meurs, 2 Lescarbot, in Purchas, v. ivi &c. &c.c. cli. p. 1027; Belknap's Am. Biog. v. 5 Charlevoix, Nouv. Fr. v. i. p. i. p. 331.

121.

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say, rude cottages were framed; a few fields were CHAP. cleared, and one or two gardens planted. The next year, that singularly bold adventurer, attended but 1609. by two Europeans, joined a party of savages in an expedition against the Iroquois. He ascended the Sorel, and explored the lake which lies within our republic, and which, bearing his name, will perpetuate his memory. It was Champlain, who successfully established the authority of the French on the banks of the St. Lawrence, in the territory, then called New-France. Thus the humble industry of the fishermen of Normandy and Brittany promised their country the acquisition of an empire.

1 Additions to Nova Francia, in Purchas, v. iv. p. 1642, 1643,

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