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Whoever takes in view the aim of that piece", printed in 1774, and of book vi. chap. 10, of the Moral and Po-. litical Philosophy, published in 1775, will perceive the same acute tone of mind, the same liberality in judging, the same perspicuity and force of language; and that on a subject materially affecting the interests of the University. Dr. Paley introduces a system of accommodation, applying the doctrine of expedience, (his own word, in each work,) to both cases, though, indeed, on the opposite sides of the question.
. To what extent Dr. P. carried this doctrine, in moral,
political, and theological concerns, (for his writings embrace all,) how far it admits of defence, or in what sense,
in any particular stage of civil society, it may be necessa-.
ry, are problems which it is not my business to solve. Dr. P. was a liberal minded man; I am not speaking of him as a temporizer for private ends, (for with these mat
a With the utmost concession, THE DEFENCE was written by Dr. P. in union with Bishop Law, or some other confidential friend, such as, perhaps, Dr. Jebb. But I am authorized to put it among his own writings. In the title-page, as first published, by a friend of religious liberty, it is without the author's name, but it appears with his name in lists of genuine publications on the subject to which it relates; and has been republished, very lately, with Dr. Paley's name, by the author of his Life, Mr. Medley, ** who observes, the principles maintained by Dr. Paley, on this occasion,
he never afterwards disclaimed, but restated and enforced the most ma
terial of his arguments, in the chapter on Religious Establishments, and on Toleration, in his Principles of Moral and Political Philosophy. The republication of this tract may serve to demonstrate the great controversial talents of the author. It was his first production from the press, and the only Polemical treatise which he ever presented to the world: but it most satisfactorily evinces the extraordinary powers of the writer in argumentative discussion, whether applied to refute an adversary, or to vindicate a friend.” A Defence, &c. Pref.
ters I have no concern,) but as a political and philosophi
cal writer; as one, who, after having examined the internal structure of that vast complicated machine, civil so
ciety, and measuring its circumference, makes theories, or .
shapes those already made, to give it the primary motion, or to keep it in regular action. * The Archdeacon was, for many years a distinguished
tutor in this college, where he delivered his principles of
moral and political philosophy. His writings are received as textbooks in many of our colleges, and for examination in the senate-house, at the time of taking degrees. He took his S.T.P. degree in 1795. He was archdeacon of Carlisle, subdean of Lincoln, and one of the petitioning clergy. He died in 1805. . Of statesmen, educated in this college, I shall mention only one, Sir Walter Mildmay : he, according to the author of England's Statesmen, “was bred in Christ's College, and did not, as many young gentlemen, study only in com
pliment, but seriously applied himself to his book’.” He, with Dr. Chadderton, planned the foundation of a new
college", and called it, in due time, Emmanuel, while of this. He was also a benefactor, after he became chancellor of the exchequer to Queen Elizabeth. “He began with his benefactions to Christ's College, only to put his hand into practice:” among other services he founded a Hebrew professorship here. But of Sir Walter Mildmay I shall speak more at large under Emmanuel College.
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* vita Chaddertoni per Dillingham, and Dr. Worthington's Life of Ms. Mede, prefixed to his works.
With respect to the building, the elevation of the front is good: for though its heighth is not in proportion to its length, yet the parapet, and tower gateway, much ornamented with the devices of the foundresses' arms, produce an effect highly pleasing: and, if possessed of a favourable, situation, it would appear to still greater advantage. But the narrowness of the street here, operates as a great obstruction; and, by walking immédiately under the walls, travellers overlook what is excellent. The court is too small to be grand, but possesses sufficient neatness and variety to be agreeable.
On the north side of the chapel is fixed a fine marble monument, with a long inscription sacred to the memory of two gentlemen, who had been fellow-students at Christ's, Sir John Finch, and Sir Thomas Baines. They died very distant from each other, one at Constantinople. But they were memorable for their friendship while living, and they were deposited here, in the same tomb. On the western side is a portrait on wood, of the foundress, which appears rather a singularity. The portraits of the foundress, on the painted glass of the eastern window, with her son, Henry VII. and other relations, are reckoned well executed. •
The garden is, though not sprucely, yet agreeably laid out; diversified with spacious, open, and shady walks. It has also, what no college garden should be without, a good bowling green and alcove. Travellers are here shewn a rich mulberry tree, broken down with age, but not deserted, it being propt up with wonderful assiduity and skill, and not merely consecrated to Milton, but planted, we are told, with his own hand. Whether true or not, the fancy may be improved by supposing, that Milton here meditated some of his juvenile poems, many of them", particularly his Latin Elegiesh, having been written by him while a student of this college, and relating to Cambridge. Here he could not hear the “threats of his hard master,” was sufficiently removed from “the murmur of the hoarse schools,” the open fields of Cambridgeshire, and the marshy slow Cam, which so haunted and tormented our youthful bard. The fancy would be still more agreeably coloured, if this college possessed any of Milton's MSS. but these are reserved for Trinity Library. One printed book, however, this Library posseses, which is curious and splendid “. . . . .
• The Justa, and Obsequies, being a Collection of Cambridge Verses, in Greek, Latin, and English, on the death of Mr. Edward King, Wä8 published at Cambridge, in 1638. 1 have perused a copy, but it is extremely scarce. Milton's Lycidas is placed last. This poem was writ. ten after Milton had left Cambridge, in his twenty-ninth year. But his Elegy to Charles Deodatus, in obitum Praeconis Acad. Cantab. ad Thomam Junium, with his Vacation Exercises, and others, were written while he was of this college.
Mr. King was fellow of this college, and ought to have been placed among our poets: for, as Mr. Warton shews, there are Latin copies of verses extant, written by him. In Warton, also, may be seen an account of the Justa. - . * The Duri minas magistri, already mentioned.
Stat quoq, juncosas Camiremeare paludes, *.
Eleg. 1. c The Nuremberg Chronicle, in Latin, printed in 1494. It is, however, rather curious, than scarce. I have seen different copies of it in England and Scotland: there are, I think, five copies in Cambridge. An Account of it may be seen copied from Baker, in Masters's Memoirs of Baker, p. 123. -
Among the MSS. I might have mentioned an Evangelisterion, being 3. Greek MS. of the Gospels divided into different portions, according to the days, on which they are read in the Greek church.
WOL, II, 2 *
ST. JOHN's CollegE arose out of the ruins of an hospital of canons” regular of St. Augustine, dedicated to St. John the Evangelist. It is sometimes pleasant to explore old times, and to investigate beginnings; and it becomes necessary here. We must distinguish the one institution from the other, so as to correct the mistakes of others at the outset, in order to keep ourselves in the right way.
Some speak of St. John's as the oldest college in Cam bridge. This arises, as already hinted, from confounding what should be distinguished, an hospital, or religious house of canons, and a literary institution, incorporated by royal charter, which, though erected, indeed, on the same site, and though designed for a public use, had a different origin, and a different designation. St. John's Hospital was founded in 1184, more than a century before. Peter House; but St. John's College not till the year 1508, nor opened till 1516. Though I do not charge Baker or Cole with making a mistake concerning the two houses, they have not sufficiently marked that distinction. But I must point out a mistake in our other historians.
* Baker's MS. “Account of St. John's House, or Hospital, being a priory of canons regular, prefixed to his History of St. John’s College, in the British Museum.” This order was called canons, quod essent descripti sv orw toyoyt, Conc. Nicen. can. 17, in canone, id est, in matricula seu Tabula Clericorum in commune wiventium. Ascetican, lib. i. chap. 12. They were afterwards supported out of a common stock of the church, and sometimes called fratres sportulantes.