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. N othHING,” it is said, “is new under the sun;” and noth ng is more changeable than man: truths so obvious, as to seem almost truisms, yet, in the practice of statesmen so strangely perplexed, and uniformly contradicted, as to appear palpable falsehoods. Let us, for a moment, forget statesmen, who, while clamorous about the public good, are apt not to forget their own. It has appeared to me, on contemplating the state of religious opinion in this society, that none in the University has been so remarkable and prominent, for variety, as G ueen's. Fisher, and Erasmus, and Bullock, were
#in King James's reign, were high Calvinism, and
t society Calvinists: Mr. John Smith's lectures, a
t. Plumptre, the late master, it inclined, with their , to Arianism and Socinianism; and Queen's-men - we - then foremost among the petitioning clergy, who met at Archbishop Tennison's library, for ameliorating the subscription to articles. Now, I understand, it has returned to the doctrine of justification by faith alone, and of the co-equality of the Son and Holy Ghost with God the Father; the doctrines taught by Luther, with some of the other first reformers, and by the modern Calvinists. Such is human opinion: thus it circulates round colleges, and round the world. Every one knows where it rested at Geneva, in the time of Calvin; but it rested only for a time—it kept moving. Some years ago it had reached the Antipodes; where it is now, is more than I can tell. If it has changed, like its government”, it has, perhaps, by this time, got round to Calvinism again. - + It is by observations on the human character that speculative men are taught some practical duties. In proportion to this diversity, they will extend their charity: to the variety of thinking they will proportion their liberality in judging. This microcosm, this little world of man, will go through its changes; and it becomes our duty to attend to them, and to be candid :
* The famous Arminian, John Goodwin, was also of Queen’sWOL. II, L.
A mighty maze, but not without a plan
Nor, indeed, do I think that either the writer or reader is, on the present occasion, called to any work of supererogation. It is evidently my duty at least to state literary o facts, not to mutilate, not to oppose, nor even to cens sure opinions. Mo, agro, Moderation is best; and the rules of fitness and propriety ought to be my polar star and guide.
But, to come to the business of the present chapter. This college claims for its foundress Margaret of Anjou, consort of our Henry VI. who, as head of the Lancas
* I allude not to its present state, but to its former frequent changes from democracy to aristocracy, and from aristocracy to democracy. See D'Ivernois’ Hist, of the Constitutions and Revolutions in Geneva,
trian party, was King of England: but though she laid the foundation, she could not complete it; though she furnished the materials at first, she could be no longer liberal, when she had nothing to give. The Lancastrian cause at length declined, the king was overwhelmed in ruin, and she who had shared the triumphs, now also shared his defeats. Margaret was of a devout mind, and the motto which she gave her foundation, became expressive of her condition: Erit Regina Nostra Regina: Margareta Dominus Refugium; et Lapis iste in Signum: that is, The Lord shall be a refuge to our lady Queen Margaret; and this stone a token of it. Such at least to those, who admired her virtues, and pitied her misfortunes, were the impressions, “that Margaret, who had known afflictions, had not been without her consolations.” The title of her new college, Queen's, was intended, no doubt, to convey the idea of sympathy with her husband, who had founded King's College : but it was dedicated to St. Bernard and Margaret; to the former, as being composed in part out of an hostle dedicated to that saint; to the latter, perhaps, out of reverence, by an association of ideas, to her guardian saint, and from compliment to her own name. Margaret was related to royalty by birth, as well as by marriage: she was daughter of Regnier, titular king of Sicily, Naples, and Jerusalem, count of Anjou, brother of Charles V. It was a title that afterwards was borne by the kings of England, though it was little more than title without much of either property or power: but she was denominated from him Margaret of Anjou. I do not study much in this work to delineate characters, any further than such delineations may be immediately connected with the foundation of the colleges, or the literary history of its members; but I cannot forbear borrowing one of the character of our foundress, drawn to my hand by Hume. “This princess (he observes) was the most accomplished of her age, both in body and mind, and seemed to possess those qualities which would exactly qualify her to acquire the ascendency over Henry, and to supply all his defects and weaknesses. Of a masculine, courageous spirit, of an enterprising temper, endowed with solidity as well as vivacity of understanding, she had not been able to conceal those great talents even in the privacy of her father's court; and it was reasonable to expect, that when she should mount a throne, they would break out with still superior lustre. “The marriage of Margaret took place just after a truce had been settled between the ministers of France and the English government. Proposals were made and adjusted by the Earl of Suffolk, one principal article agreed on, being, that the province of Maine, the northwest part of Orleans, in France, should be made over to the queen's uncle, Charles of Anjou.” The historians of Cambridge date the foundation of this college in 1448. Mr. Smyth dated the charter 1444, adding, if so, it was just after Margaret's marriage with King Henry,” which, according to Hume, was in 1443. Caius says, the first stone was laid at the eastern end of the chapel, toward the south, by John Wenloc, on the 15th of April, in the sixth year of Henry, and in the year of our Lord 1448; and this is likely to be its true date. , We may assure ourselves, at least, it must have been, when the affairs of the Lancastrians were in a flourishing condition, or their cause, at least, only in suspense; but it is remarkable, that Hume entirely passes over the circumstance of her having founded this college. Margaret was contemporary with the renowned Maid of Orleans, and endued with a portion of her spirit. As the latter revived the hopes of Charles and the French, the former was the soul of the Lancastrian party in England: her wisdom not only directed the councils of Henry, but her address recruited his armies: her vigour gave energy to the Lancastrian army, at the battle of St. Alban's and Northampton, and raised an army of '80,000 men, that encamped near Battle-bridge, in Yorkshire. After the battles of Touton and Hexham, the Lancastrian cause never flourished, and Margaret retired to Flanders: the York party had now gained the ascendency; and the few feeble efforts made by Margaret, in’ an attempt on England, were defeated. The Lancastrians were still more on the decline, after the decisive battle of Tewkesbury; Henry was confined in the Tower, where he died :—according to some, he was murdered: Margaret, too, became a prisoner, though, after some years confinement, she was ransomed, at a considerable price, by Lewis, King of France. At length, after a few years passed in great privacy, she died in the year 1482. Queen Margaret made over to her new college possessions to the amount of 200l. which, though no mean sum in those days, was but a slender endowment: but her liberal designs towards the foundation were not frustrated; what she began, was continued and completed by the most distinguished personages of the York party; particularly the Lady Queen Elizabeth, consort to King Edward IV. She, in the year 1465, finished this college, and obtained for it many privileges. Richard,