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ground; and so to save his own reputation, he slily fathers his construction of James's words upold Hesychius.* But in opposition to Cyprian, and the Layman, and archbishop Potter, and Hesychius too, we shall show, 1. That there is nothing in the language of James, from which it can be inferred that he, as the superiour officer, pronounced an authoritative sentence, and, 2. That it was impossible for him to pronounce such a sentence. - The first point is to be settled by a critical examination of his phraseology. His words are, Auo sya, KPINQ, which our translators have rendered “Wherefore My SENTENCE is.” The primitive meaning of the word is to discriminate, to separate, to select, to arrange. Thus Homer, —Amonrng
* Discourse on Church Government, p. 91. In a note, the learned prelate cites Hesychius as thus distinguishing—“Peter addresses the council; but James enacts the law.” IIerpos &mpmyopet, a\\' Iako60; vopo6eret. Potter's precaution passed unobserved. The reason probably is, that it was locked up in the quotation from Hesychius, “Graecum est; et non potest legis” said the Trojans of Oxford, whenever a line of Greek came in their way.
“...Arrange the men according to their nations.”
From this primitive notion, the word, by a very natural transition, came to signify the formation of an opinion, or judgment, and the expression of it when formed, because no opinion or judgment can exist without a previous process by which the mind discriminates between its own perceptions. And thus the word is familiarly used by writers both profane and sacred.
—pigs, 65 or soy m \izm KPINANTEX. “Forming their opinion rather from hatred than
justice,” says Thucydides of the Plataeans, with respect to their judgment of the Thebans.”
art thou of this opinion ?”; In the speech of Hermocrates to the Syracusans, as recorded by Thucydides, there is a perfect parallel to the expression of James. “We shall consult,” says he, “if we be in our right minds, not only our own immediate interests; but whether we shall be able still to preserve all Sicily, against which, in my judgment, the Athenians are plotting.” The same use of the word is so common in the New Testament, that examples are almost superfluous. We shall, however, subjoin a few, because they will bring our criticism more directly within the reach of the unlearned reader. Luke vii. 43. Simon said—I suppose that he to whom he forgave most. And he said unto him, Thou hast rightly judged (0900g EKPIVAX.) Simon's judgment was surely not an official one. It was simply his opinion, or conclusion, from the case proposed to him. John vii. 24. Judge not (M, KPINETE) according to the appearance, but JUDGE righteous JUDGMENT (KPLSIM KPIVATE.) No “authoritative sentence” is contemplated here. Acts xii. 46. Seeing—ye JUDGE yourselves (KPI. NETE) unworthy, &c. 2 Cor. v. 14, 15. The love of Christ constraineth us, because we thus JUDGE (KPIVAWTAS covro.) &c. “Concerning the love of Christ,” saith Paul,
* Thucyd. III.67, p. 209. ed Dukeri. # Diod. Sic. Lib. xii. 84. Tom. I. p. 491. ed Wessel. # Aristoph. Plut v. 48, p. 9. ed Kusteri.
“this is our sentiment, our mode of reasoning, that if one died for all,” &c. In every one of the preceding quotations, the very same word is used which occurs in the speech of James, and, in the very same sense. It is the plainest Greek imaginable to express the result of one's reflections. This is all that the words of James imply. He spoke among the last; he availed himself of the discussion which had already taken place: And when his opinion was matured, he submitted it to the council in the form of a temperate and conciliatory proposition. We ask any man of plain sense, to look over the chapter, and say whether this is not a natural and satisfactory account of the whole affair. Little did the guileless disciple suspect that his familiar and innocent expression, would be converted, in these latter days, into a certificate of his being a diocesan bishop ! And had not the “proofs” of the hierarchy been, like lords' wits, rather “thinly sown,” she would never have attempted to cull one from a form of speech which might have been adopted by the obscurest member of the council, with as much propriety as by James himself. We have neither interest nor disposition to conceal what is well known to even Smatterers in Greek, that the term which we have shown to be familiarly used to signify the expression of opinion generally, is also used, and with equal familiarity, in a more restricted sense, of a judicial opinion; or,
if you prefer it, an “authoritative sentence.” But then it always presupposes the judicial or authoritative character of the person to whom it is applied. Thus the senses of the word rank. 1. To discriminate—to select—to arrange.— Thence, 2. To form a judgment—to express an opinion, —and thence, 3. To pronounce an official judgment; or “an authoritative sentence.” But who does not see that you must first know under what circumstances a person is represented as speaking or acting, before you can determine whether the writer intends, by the word we are considering, a mere selection of one thing from a number of others P or an opinion as expressed in conversation or debate 2 or a solemn judicial sentence 2 Had the prelatic dignity of James been first established; and had the synod at Jerusalem been a convocation of his clergy, there would have been a propriety in attributing to him an “authoritative” decision, and interpreting his words accordingly. But to argue from his “my sentence is,” that he was a prelate, is completely begging the question. The argument assumes that he was the bishop of Jerusalem; for this is indispensable to that “authority” which Cyprian ascribes to his words; and it is exactly taking for granted, the thing to be proved. Another unfortunate circumstance for the Epis