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that of the cudgel ; and by an explicit faw mark the br* extent and limits : and at the same time that they secure the person of a citizen from assaults, they would Likewise provide for the security of his reputation.
The thought was happy, pertinent, and true ;
Various the papers various wants produce,
Pray note thé fop-half powder and half lacemos
Mechanics, servants, farmers, and so forth,
The wretch whom av’rice bids to pinch and spares
Take next the miser's contrast, who destroys**
The retail politician's anxious thought
What are our poets, take them as they fall,
Observe the maiden, innocently sweet,
One instance more and only one I'll bring ;
ON THE ART OF SWIMMING. In answer to some enquiries of M. Dubourg* on the
subject. I Am apprehensive that I shall not be able to find lei. sure for making all disquisitions and experiments which would be desirable on this subject. I must, therefore, content myself with a few remarks. · The specific gravity of some human bodics, in comparison to that of water, has been examined by M. Roa
• Translator of Dr. Franklin'e works into French
binson, in our Philosophical Transactions, rolume 50, page 30, for the year 1757. He asserts, that fat persons with small bones float inost easily upon water.
The diving bell is accurately described in our Transactions. .
When I was a boy, I made two oval pallets, each about ten inches long, and six broad, with a hole for the thumb, in order to retain it fast in the palm of my hand. They much resemble a painter's pallets. In swimming I pushed the edges of these forward, and I struck the water with their flat surfaces as I drew thein back. I remember I swam faster by means of these pallets, but they fatigued my wrists- I also fitted to the soles of my feet a kinds of sandals ; but I was not satisfied with them, because I observed that the stroke is partly given with the inside of the feet and the ancles, and not entirely with the soles of the feet.
We have here waistcoats for swimming, which are made of double sail cloth, with small pieces of cork quilted in between them:
I know notbing of the scuphandre of M. de la Chapelle. I know by experience that it is a great comfort to a swimmer, who has a considerable distance to go, to turn himself sometimes on his back, and to vary in other respects the means of procuring a progressive motion.
When he is seized with the cramp in the leg, the method of driving it away is to give the parts affected a sudden, vigorous, and violent shock; which he inay do in the air as he swims on bis back
During the great heat of suniner there is no danger in bathing, however warin we may be, in rivers which have been thoroughiy warmed by the sun. But to throw oneself into cold water, win the body has been heated by exercise in the sun, is an imprudence which muy prove fatal. I once knew an instance of four young men, vnd, naving worked at harvest in the heat of the day, with a view of refueshing "hemselves plunged in, to a spring of cold water: two died upon the spot, a third the pext morning, and the fourth recovered with
great difficulty. A.copious draught of cold water, in similar circumstances, is frequently attended with the same effect in North America.
The exercise of swimming is one of the most heals thy and agreeable in the world. After having swam an hour or two in the evening, one sleeps .coolly the whole night, even during the most arnent heat of sumni mer. Perhaps the pores being cleansed, the insensible perspiration increases and occasions this coolness. It is certain that much swimming is the means of stopping a diarrhea, and even of producing a constipation. With respect to those who do not know how to swim or who are affected with a diarrhea at the season in the te does not permit them to use that exercise, a warm barn,by cleansing and purifying the skin, is found very sálutary, and often effects a radical cure. I speak from my own experience, frequently repeated, and that of others to whom I have recommended this.
You will not be displeased if I conclude these hasty remarks by informing you, that as the ordinary methori of swimming is reduced to the act of rowing with ihe arms and legs, and is consequentiy a laborious and fitiguing operation when the space of water to be crossed is considerable; there is a method in which a swiininer may pass a great distance with much facility, by means of a sail. This discovery I fortunately made by accident, and in the following manner.
When I was a boy I amused myself one day with flying a paper kite; and approaching the bank of a poud, which was near a mile broad, I tied the string to a stake, and the kile ascended to a very considerable height above the pond, while I was' swimming. In a little time, being desirous of amusing myself with my kite, and enjoying at the same time the pleasure of swimming, I returned; and loosing from the stake the string with the little stick which was fastened to it, went: again ino the water, where I found, that, lying on my back and holding the stick in my hands, I was drawn along the surface of the water in a very agreeable
manner. Having then engaged another boy to carry my clothes round the pond, to a place which I pointed out to him on the other side, I began to cross the pond with my kite, which carried me quite over without the least fatigue, and with the greatest pleasure imaginable. I was only obliged occasionally to halt a little in my course, and regist its progress, when it appeared that, by following too quick, I lowered the kite too much ; by doing which occasionally I made it rise again. I have never since that time practised this singular mode. of swimming, though I think it not impossible to cross in this manner from Dover to Calais. The packet boat however, is still preferable.
NEW MODE OF BATHING.
London, July 28, 1768. ' I GREATLY approve the epithet you give, in your letter of the 8th of June, to the new method of treating the small-pox, which you call the tonic or bracing men thod; I will take occasion, from it, to mention a prac. tice to which I have accustomed myself. You know the cold bath has long been in vogue here as a tonici but the shock of the cold water has always appeared te me, generally speaking, as too violent, and I have found it much more agreeable to my constitution to bathe in another element, I mean cold air. With this view I rise early almost every morning, and sit in my chamber without any clothes, whatever half an hour or an hour, according to the season, either reading or write ing. This practice is not in the least painful, but, on the contrary, agreeable; and if I return to bed afterwards, before I dress myself, as sometimes happens, I make a suppleinent to my night's rest of one or two hours of the inost pleasing sleep that can be imagined. I find no ill consequences whatever resulting from it, and that.