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Fifthly, You ought not to endeavour to amuse and deceive your adversary, by pretending to have made bad moves, and saying that you have now lost the ganie, in order to make him secure and careless, and inattentive to your schemes; for this is fraud and deceit, not skill in the game.
Sixthly, You must not, when you have gained a victory, use any triumphing or insulting expression, nor show too much pleasure ; but endeavor to console your adversary, and make him less dissatisfied with himself, by every kind of civil expressiou that may be used with truth, such as, “ You understand the game better than 1, but you are little inattentive ;" or "you play too fast;" or, “ you had the best of the game, but something happened to divert your thoughts, and that turned it in my favovr."
Seventhly, If you are a spectator while others play, observe the most perfect silence. For if you give advice, you offeud both parties; him against whom you give it, because it may cause the loss of his game ; him in wliose favor you give it, because, though it be good and he follows it, he loses the pleasure he- might have had, if you had permitted hiin to think until it had occurred to himself. - Even after a movė, or moves, you must not, by placing the pieces, show how it might have been placed better: for that displeases, and may occasion disputes and doubts about their trúc situation. Ali iubbing to the players lesseus or diverts their attenijon, and is therefore unpleasing. Nor shoukl you give the least hint to either party, by any kind of noise, oi motion. If you do, you are unworthy to be a spectator. If you have a mind to exercise or shew your judgment, do it in playing your own game, when you have an opportunity, not in criticising, or meddling witing or counselling the play of others.
Lastly, If the game is not to be played rigorously, according to tie rules above mentioned, then moderate your desire of victory over your adversary, and be pleased with one over you scli. Snatch noieagerly at every ad
vantage offered by his unskilfulness orinattention ; but point out to him kindly, that by such a move he place's or leaves a piece in danger or unsupported; that by an. , . other he will put his king in a' perilous situation, &c. By this generous civility (so opposite to the unfairness above forbidden) you may, indeed happen to lose the game to your opponent, but you will win what is beta ter, bis esteem, his respect, and his affection ; together with the silent approbation and good-will of impartial spectators.
The Art of procuring pleasant Dreams,
INSCRIBED TO MISS ***,
Being written at her requiest. As a great part of our life is spent in sleep, during which he have sometimes pleasing, and sometimes, paintul dreams, it becomes of some consequence to obtain the one kind, and avoid the other; for whether real or imaginary, pain is pain, and pleasure is pleasure. If we can sleep witliout dreaming. it is well that painful dreams are avoided. If, while we sleep, we can have any plea ing dreams, it is, as the french say, tant gugne, so much added to the pleasure of life.
To this end it is, in the first place, bec ssary to be careful in preserving health, by due exercise', and great temperance; for, in sickness the imagination is disturbed; and disagrecble, sometimes terrible ideas are apt to present themselves. Exercise should precede meals, not i n dialely follow them: the first promotes the latter, unless moderate'. obstructs digestion. If, after exercise', we feed sparingly the digestion will be ea.
sy and good, the body lighisome, the semiper cheerful, · and all the animal functions perfo, med agrecably.
Sleep, when it follows, will be natural and uridisturbed. While indolunce, with fuil fiuding, occasion night. mares and horrors inexpressible; we full from precipi
ees, are assaulted by wild beasts, murderers, and demons, and experience every variety of distress. Oba serve, however, that the quantities of food and exercise are relative things: those who move much may, and indeed ought to eat more; those who use little exercise should eat little. In general, mankind, since the improvement of cookery, eat about twice as much as nature requires. Suppers are not bad, if we haye net dined; but restless nights naturally follow hearty sup. pers, after full dinners. Indeed, as there is a difference in constitutions, some rest well after these meals ; it costs them only a frightful dream, and an apoplexy, after which they sleep till doomsday. Nothing is more common in the newspapers, than instaliles of people, who, after eating a hearty supper, are found dead a-bed in the morning.
Another means of preserving health, to be attended to, is the having a constant supply of fresh air in your bid-chamber. It has been a great mistake, the sl eping in rooms exactly closed and i beds surrounded by curtains. No outward air, that may come into you, is 80 uswhol-some as the unchaliged air, ofien bi'cathed, of a close chambel. As boiling water does not grow holter by longer boiling, if ihe particles that receive greater heal cau escape ; so livi s bodies do no put'ifv, if the parti les, as fast as they become putrid, can bilbrowu off. Nature expels tiesu by the pores of the skin and lungs, and in a fiee open air, they are carried. ofl'; but, in a close room, we receive them again and agaiii, thongh they become more and more corrup.com A number of persons crowded i010 a small room, bus spoil the air in a few ininutes, and even render it most tid, as in the Black Hole at Calcutta. A single peisiin is said 10 spoil only a gallon of air per minute, and therefore requires a longer time to spoil a chamber full; but it is done, however, in proportion), and many putrid disorders hence have their origin. It is record. 00: of Methusalem, who, being the longest liver, may be supposed to have best preseryed his health, that he slept
always in the open air; for, when he had lived five hurto dred year's, an angel said to him: " Arise, Methusa lem; and build thee an house, for thou shalt live yet five hundred years longer." But Methusalem answer. ed and said: “If I am to live bu five hundred years longer, it is not worth whilo to build me an house will sleep in the air as I have been used to do." Phy: sicians, after having for ages contenued that the sick should not be indulged with fresh air, have at length discoverd that it may do them good. It is therefore to be hoped that it is not hurtful to those who are in health and that we may be then cured of the aerophobia that at present distresses weak minds, and makes them choose to be stilled and poisoned, rather than leave open the windows of a bed-chamber, or put down the glass of a coach.
Confined air, when saturated with perspirable mal- . t r.* will not receive more ; and that matter must remain in our bodies, and occasion diseases: but it gives some previous nouice of its being about to be hurtful, by prouinciig certain uneasinesses slight indeed at first, such as, with regard to the lungs, is a trifling sensation, and to the pores of the skin a kind of restlessness which is ditlicilt to describe, and few that feel it know the calls of it. But we may recollect, that sometimes, on Waktig in the nint, we have, if warmly covered, found it asilicuiti to get asleep again. We turn often without finnast puse in any position. This tidgeliness, to usa i vulgar expression for want of a better, is occastond wholly by an uneasiness in the skin, owing to the rituntion of ihe perspirable matter the bed clothes Having received their quantity, and, being saturated, re
fusing to take any more. - To become sensible if this by an experiment, let a per on kcep his po ition in the bed, and throw off the
* What physicians cull the perspirable inatter, is that vapour which passes off from our bodies, from the lungs and through ile pores of the skin. The quantity of this is said to be five eighths of what we eat.
bed-clothes, and suffer fresh air to approach the part uncovered of his body; he will then feel that part suda denly refreshed; for the air will immediately relieve the skin, by receiving, licking up, and carrying off, the load of perspirable matter that incommoded it. Far every portion of cool air that approaches the warın skin, in receiving its part of that vapour, ruceives therewith a degree of heai, that rarifics and it nders it lighter, when it will be pushed away, with its burthen by cooler, and therefore heavier fresh air; which fur a moment, supplies its place, and then, being likewise. changed, and warmeli, gives way to a succeeding quan. tity. This is the order of nature, to prevent animals being infected by their own perspiration. He will now be sensible of the difference between the part exposed to the air, and that which, remaining sunk in the bed, denies the air access : for this part now manifests its uneasiness more distinctly by the comparison, and the seat of the uneasiness is more plainly perceived, than when the whole surface of the body was affected by ic. · Here, then, is one great and general cause of unplea. sing dreams. For when the body is uneasy, the mind will be disturb:d by it, and disagreeable ideas of vario ous kinds, will, in sleep, be the natural consequences. The remedies, preventative and curative, follow : . . 1. By eating moderately (as before advised for health's sake) less perspirable matter is produced in a given time ; hence the bed-clothes receive it longer before they are saturated; and we may, therefore, sleep long, er, before we are made uneasy by their refusing to rea ceive any more. - 2. By using thinner and more porous bed-clothes, which will suffer the perspirable matter more easily to pass through them, we are less incommoded, such being longer tolerable.
3. When you are awakened by this uneasiness, and find you canno: easily sleep again, get out of bed, beat up and turn your pillow, shake the bed clothes well