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a surgeon to old shoes; when they are in great danger, I re-cover them. As proper men as ever trod upon neats-leather, have gone upon my handywork.

FLAV. But wherefore art not in thy shop to-day? Why dost thou lead these men about the streets ? 2 CIT. Truly, sir, to wear out their shoes, to get myself into more work. But, indeed, sir, we make holiday, to see Cæsar, and to rejoice in his triumph. MAR. Wherefore rejoice? What conquest brings he home?

What tributaries follow him to Rome,

To grace in captive bonds his chariot wheels?
You blocks, you stones, you worse than senseless

O, you hard hearts, you cruel men of Rome,
Knew you not Pompey? Many a time and oft
Have you climb'd up to walls and battlements,
To towers and windows, yea, to chimney-tops,
Your infants in your arms, and there have sat
The live-long day, with patient expectation,
To see great Pompey pass the streets of Rome :
And when you saw his chariot but appear,
Have you not made an universal shout,
That Tyber trembled underneath her banks,

ceding page, bad soals, instead of-bad souls, the reading of the original copy.

The allusion contained in the second clause of this sentence, is again repeated in Coriolanus, Act IV. Sc. V. :-"3 Serv. How, sir, do you meddle with my master? Cor. Ay, 'tis an honester service than to meddle with thy mistress." MALONE.

6 HER banks,] As Tyber is always represented by the figure of a man, the feminine gender is improper. Milton says, that

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"Rolls o'er Elysian flowers her amber stream."

But he is speaking of the water, and not of its presiding power or genius. STEEVENS.

Drayton, in his Polyolbion, frequently describes the rivers of

To hear the replication of your sounds,
Made in her concave shores ?

And do you now put on your best attire?
And do you now cull out a holiday?

And do you now strew flowers in his way,
That comes in triumph over Pompey's blood?
Be gone;

Run to your houses, fall upon your knees,

Pray to the gods to intermit the plague
That needs must light on this ingratitude.

FLAV. Go, go, good countrymen, and, for this fault,

Assemble all the poor men of your sort;
Draw them to Tyber banks, and weep your tears
Into the channel, till the lowest stream
Do kiss the most exalted shores of all.

[Exeunt Citizens.
See, whe'r' their basest metal be not mov'd;
They vanish tongue-tied in their guiltiness.
Go you down that way towards the Capitol;
This way will I: Disrobe the images,
If you do find them deck'd with ceremonies 8.
MAR. May we do so?

You know, it is the feast of Lupercal.
FLAV. It is no matter; let no images

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England as females, even when he speaks of the presiding power of the stream. Spenser, on the other hand, represents them more classically, as males. MALONE.

The presiding power of some of Drayton's rivers were females; like Sabrina, &c. STEEVENS.

7 See, WHE'R-] Whether, thus abbreviated, is used by Ben Jonson :


"Who shall doubt, Donne, whe'r I a poet be,

"When I dare send my epigrams to thee." STEEVENS. deck'd with CEREMONIES.] Ceremonies, for religious ornaments. Thus afterwards he explains them by Cæsar's Trophies ; i. e. such as he had dedicated to the gods. WARBURTON. Ceremonies are honorary ornaments; tokens of respect.


Be hung with Cæsar's trophies 9. I'll about,
And drive away the vulgar from the streets:
So do you too, where you perceive them thick.
These growing feathers pluck'd from Cæsar's wing,
Will make him fly an ordinary pitch;

Who else would soar above the view of men,

And keep us all in servile fearfulness.


The Same. A publick Place.


Enter, in Procession, with Musick, CESAR; AN-
TONY, for the course; CALPHURnia, Portia, De-
great Croud following; among them a Soothsayer.
CES. Calphurnia,—

Peace, ho! Cæsar speaks.
[Musick ceases.


9 Be hung with Cæsar's TROPHIES. s.] Cæsar's trophies, are, I believe, the crowns which were placed on his statues. So, in Sir Thomas North's translation: There were set up images of Cæsar in the city with diadems on their heads, like kings. Those the two tribunes went and pulled down." STEEVENS.

What these trophies really were, is explained by a passage in the next scene, where Casca informs Cassius, that "Marullus and Flavius, for pulling scarfs off Cæsar's images, are put to silence." M. MASON.

1. This person was not Decius, but Decimus Brutus. The poet (as Voltaire has done since) confounds the characters of Marcus and Decimus. Decimus Brutus was the most cherished by Cæsar of all his friends, while Marcus kept aloof, and declined so large a share of his favours and honours, as the other had constantly accepted. Velleius Paterculus, speaking of Decimus Brutus, says :-" ab iis, quos miserat Antonius, jugulatus est; justissimasque optimè de se merito viro C. Cæsari pœnas dedit. Cujus cum primus omnium amicorum fuisset, interfector fuit, et fortunæ ex qua fructum tulerat, invidiam in auctorem relegabat, censebatque æquum, quæ acceperat à Cæsare retinere : Cæsarem, quia illa dederat, perisse." Lib. ii. c. lxiv. :




CAL. Here, my lord.

CES. Stand you directly in Antonius' way 2, When he doth run his course.-Antonius.

ANT. Cæsar, my lord.

CES. Forget not, in your speed, Antonius,

Jungitur his Decimus, notissimus inter amicos
Cæsaris, ingratus, cui trans-Alpina fuisset
Gallia Cæsareo nuper commissa favore.
Non illum conjuncta fides, non nomen amici
Deterrere potest.—

Ante alios Decimus, cui fallere, nomen amici
Præcipue dederat, ductorem sæpe morantem
Incitat.- ·Supplem. Lucani. STEEVENS.

Shakspeare's mistake of Decius for Decimus, arose from the old translation of Plutarch. FARMER.

Lord Sterline has committed the same mistake in his Julius Cæsar; and in Holland's translation of Suetonius, 1606, which I believe Shakspeare had read, this person is likewise called Decius Brutus. MALONE.

2-in ANTONIUS' way,] The old copy generally reads—Antorio, Octavio, Flavio. The players were more accustomed to Italian than Roman terminations, on account of the many versions from Italian novels, and the many Italian characters in dramatick pieces formed on the same originals. STEEVENS.

The correction was made by Mr. Pope." At that time, (says Plutarch,) the feast Lupercalia was celebrated, the which in olde time men say was the feast of Shepheards or heardsmen, and is much like unto the feast of Lyceians in Arcadia. But howsoever it is, that day there are diverse noble men's sonnes, young men, (and some of them magistrates themselves that govern them,) which run naked through the city, striking in sport them they meet in their way with leather thongs.-And many noble women and gentlewomen also go of purpose to stand in their way, and doe put forth their handes to be stricken, persuading themselves that being with childe, they shall have good deliverie; and also, being barren, that it will make them conceive with child. Cæsar sat to behold that sport vpon the pulpit for orations, in a chayre of gold, apparelled in triumphant manner. Antonius, who was consul at that time, was one of them that ronne this holy course." North's translation. We learn from Cicero that Cæsar constituted a new kind of these Luperci, whom he called after his own name, Juliani; and Mark Antony was the first who was so entitled. MALONE.

To touch Calphurnia: for our elders say,
The barren, touched in this holy chase,
Shake off their steril curse.

I shall remember:

When Cæsar says, Do this, it is perform'd.
CES. Set on; and leave no ceremony out.

SOOTH. Cæsar.

CES. Ha! Who calls?


CASCA. Bid every noise be still:-Peace yet


[Musick ceases. CES. Who is it in the press, that calls on me? I hear a tongue, shriller than all the musick, Cry, Cæsar Speak; Cæsar is turn'd to hear. SOOTH. Beware the ides of March. CES. BRU. A soothsayer, bids you beware the ides of


What man is that?

CES. Set him before me, let me see his face.
CAS. Fellow, come from the throng: Look upon


CES. What say'st thou to me now? Speak once again.

SOOTH. Beware the ides of March.

CES. He is a dreamer; let us leave him ;-pass. [Sennet3. Exeunt all but BRʊ. and Cas.

3 [Sennet.] I have been informed that sennet is derived from senneste, an antiquated French tune formerly used in the army; but the Dictionaries which I have consulted exhibit no such word, In Decker's Satiromastix, 1602 :


Trumpets sound a flourish, and then a sennet." In The Dumo Show, preceding the first part of Jeronimo, 1605, is

"Sound a signate and pass ouer the stage."

In Beaumont and Fletcher's Knight of Malta, a synnet is called a flourish of trumpets, but I know not on what authority. See a note on King Henry VIII. Act II. Sc. IV. Sennet may be a corruption from sonata, Ital. STEEVENS.

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