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ANTIQUARIAN AND PHILOSOPHICAL RESEARCHES.
The following statement was given by Cassern Aga, the Tripolean Ambassador at the Court of Great Britain, about the year 1747, relative to a petrified city in the interior of Africa. It strongly brings to mind the awful circumstance recorded in the 19th chapter of Genesis, ver-e 26, and may be interesting to some of our Readers. Its reality may be coufirmed through the researches of the enterprising. traveller, Mr. Ritchie,,who proceeded, some time since, with an expedition from Tripoli, for the purpose of exploring the interior of one of that vast continent:
"As one of my friends desired me to *give him, in writing, an account of what I knew touching the petrified city, situated seventeen days journey from Tripoli, by Caravan, to the south-east, and two days journey south from Ouguela, I told him what I had heard from different persons, and particularly from the mouth of one man of credit, who had been on the spot ; that is to say that it was a spacious city, of a round form, having great and small streets therein, furnished with shops, with a large castle, magnificently built; that he bad seen there several sorts of trees, the most part olives and palms, all of stone, and of a blue, or rather lead colour.
"That he saw also, figures of men, in postures of exercising their different employments; some holding in their hands stuffs, others bread; every one doing something-even women suckling their children, all of stone.
"That he went into the castle by three different gates, though there were many more; that there were guards at these gates, with pikes and javelins in their hands.
“In short, that he saw in this wonderful city, many sorts of animals, as camels, oxen, horses, asses, and sheep and various birds, all of stone, and of the colour above mentioned."
EGYPTIAN NUMERALS EXPLAINED.
M. Jomard, of the Academy of Inscriptions and Belles Lettres, has published a "Notice on the Numerical Signs of the Ancient Egyptians," which is preceded by the plan of a work, intitled, "Observations and New Researches on Hierogly phics, accompanied by a Methodical Arrangement of the Numerical Signs." In this performance the author explains the figures employed by the Egyptians, to express all the numbers from one to ten thousand. Should this prove to be correct, we may yet indulge the hope of further discoveries in this abstruse science.
These papers have already been read in the sittings of that learned body of which the author is a member.
On the last meeting of this Society, Mr. Brande commenced his Bakerian lecture, "On the Composition and Analysis of the Inflammable Gaseous Compounds resulting from the destructive Distillation of Coal and Oil, with some Remarks on their relative beating and illuminating Powers."
In the first part of this lecture, the author attempted to show that no other compound of carbon and hydrogen can be demonstrated to exist than what is usually demonstrated olefiant gas, consisting of one proportion of carbon and one of hydrogen; and that what has been usually termed carburetted hydrogen is in reality nothing but a mixture of hydrogen and olefiant gases. In proof of this opinion a scries of experiments were detailed, made upon gaseous products obtained from coal, oil, and other substances, and in various ways, the results of all which tended to establish the truth of the above opinion.
The author advanced the supposition that many of the products usually obtained by the destructive distillation of coals, &c. are of secondary formation; viz. that they result from the mutual action of the first formed gases at high temperatures. Thus a peculiar compound of hydrogen and carbon was stated to be formed by passing pure olefiant gas througe a tube containing red-hot charcoal. This substance was similar to tar in appearance, but possessed the properties of a resin. So also by the mutual action of sulphuretted and carburetted hydrogen, sulphuret of carbon was stated to be formed. In this part of the lecture some new modes of analyzing gaseous mixtures were pointed out.
In the second section, comparative experiments were detailed on the illuminating and heating power of gases from coal and oil. The general results were, that the illuminating powers of olefiant gas, oil, and coal gases, are to one another nearly as 3, 2, and 1, and that the ratio of their heating powers is nearly similar; vis. that more heat is produced by the gas from coals than by that from oil, and by the gas from oil than by olefiant gas. In this. part of the lecture was also strikingly illustrated by experiments the great advantage obtained in point of illuminating power, by forming the burners of many jets, in preference to a single one, especially when the jets are made so near to oue another that the different flames can unite.
The lecture was concluded by some comparative experiments on the properties of terrestrial and solar lights. The light produced by gases, even when concentrated so as to produce a sensible degree of heat, was found to occasion no change in the colour of muriate of silver, nor upon a mixture of chlorine and hydrogen gases, while, on the other hand, the concentrated brilliant light emitted from char coal when submitted to galvanic action, not only speedily affected the muriate of silver, but readily caused the above gaseous mixture to unite, sometimes silently, and often with explosion. The concentrated light of the moon, like that from the gases, did not affect either of these tests. The author, in conclusion, remarked, that having found the photometer of Mr. Leslie ineffectual in these experiments, he employed one filled with the vapour of æther (renewable from a column of that fluid), and which he found more delicale.
PERPETUAL LIGHT OF ADALIA.
On the eastern coast of Lycia and the western shore of the Gulf of Adalia, a flame called yanar is seen to issue from an opening, about three feet in diameter, in the side of a mountain, and in shape resembling the mouth of an oven. Captain. Beaufort of the royal navy, when surveying this part of the coast of Karamania, visited the spot. This mountain, like that of Cuchivano, is calcareous, being composed of crumbling serpentine rock, with loose blocks of limestone; there was not the least appearance of volcanic production; no tremor of the earth, no noise; Deither stones, nor smoke, nor noxious vapours were emitted from the cavity, but a brilliant and perpetual flame issued forth, of an intense heat, and said to be inextinguishable by water; the remains of the walls, which had formerly been built near the spot, were scarcely discoloured; and trees, brush-wood, and weeds, grew close to this little crater.
ARTS AND SCIENCES.
The discovery of the Eustachian Tube or Passage, from the Ear to the Throat, took place at a very early period of Anatomy, yet no advantage was attempted to be taken of it in a pathological point of view, till nearly a century ago, when the Sieur Guiot, being deaf, and finding no relief by applications through the external ear, threw an injection into the passage. The success of this instrument, by effecting his cure, occasioned it to be presented to the Royal Academy of Paris; and it is now brought forward, greatly im proved, by Mr. CURTIS, the Lecturer on the Diseases of the Ear, at the Royal Dispensary: who, from his success with it there, and in his private practice, considers it a valuable acquisition in cases of obstinate deafness, as it entirely supersedes the operation of penetrating the Tympanum.
NEWLY INVENTED GUN.— -A gun, of an entire novel construction, was lately exhibited in the gardens of York House, before the Duke of York, the Adjutant-General to the Forces, the Quarter-Master-General, Mar. quis Camden, and Gen. Sir H. Taylor. weighs less than the ordinary musket, though composed of seven barrels ; one of the common length; and in the same position, around it, at the breach, are the six others, of about three inches in length only. The whole being charged, and the priming for the whole being placed in the magazine hammer, which preserves it quite dry, and yields just sufficient and no more to each charge; the simple act of cocking places each of the short barrels successively in
complete connexion with the long one, and that of shutting the pan, primes it; so that seven discharges may be effected in 30 seconds; and if the long barrel be rifled, produces the effect of a rifle gun, without the labour or deformity of the ball, produced by the ordinary mode of loading. It is perfectly safe, and accurate, every part being so guarded as to prevent the possibility of danger. This invention is equally applicable to great guns, pistols, or the arms used for the borse or coachguards; in the bands of game-keepers, it must be a most formidable weapon.
GEHLENITE, NEEDLE-STONE, AND DATOLITE. Dr. E. D. Clarke has lately detected potass in this stone. The property
of forming a jelly in acids belongs to but few minerals, and the Doctor had long suspected that it was owing to the presence either of an alkali or an alkaline earth in stones containing silica. There seems to be no exception, but where zinc or lime is present with the silica. In the instances of Needle-stone and Datolite, which both yield a transparent jelly when acted on by acids, and both contain lime, he has also detected Soda.
TITANIUM FOUND IN OXIDULATED IRON ORE.-M. Robiquet has lately detected titanium in the oxidulated octoedral iron from the steatite of Corsica. This ore, dissolved completely in muriatic acid, then evaporated to dryness in a moderate heat, and re-dissolved in water, leaves a white pulverulent substance, which, when fused with potash, and afterwards dissolved in muriatic acid, gives all the characters of a
solution of titanium. In this manner, six parts have been separated from 100 of the mineral; and M. Robiquet is inclined to believe that titanium generally accompanies the oxidulated iron in nature, and that this compound is not, as has been thought, peculiar to volcanic countries.-M. Berzelius found titanium ia Elba iron ore.
NEW METHOD OF GRAFTING TREES A common method of grafting, is by making a transverse section in the bark of the stock, and a perpendicular slit below it: the bud is then pushed down to give it the position which it is to have. This method is not always successful; it is better to reverse it, by making the vertical slit above the transverse section, and pushing the bud upwards into its position-a method which rarely fails of success; because as the sap descends by the bark, as has been ascertained, and does not ascend, the bud thus placed above the transverse section, receives abundance, but when placed be
low, the sap cannot reach it.-Annales de Chimie, xi.
MACHINE FOR CROSSING RIVERS.-The mechanist, Xavier Michel, residing at Offenbach, has invented a very simple and compact machine, by the aid of which ri vers may be crossed, and even the sea attempted, without any danger of sinking. It is nearly five feet in diameter, when unfolded. An opening of about thirteen. inches in the centre is destined to receive the traveller. When dismounted, this apparatus is easily transported from place to place, for its entire weight scarcely exceeds five pounds. The inventor has made a number of experiments on the Rhine, all of which have been crowned with entire success. He can make the machine move forward, or otherwise, at pleasure, and without any great exertion. In order more fully to prove the utility of his invention, M. Michel has determined to embark at Khel, and descend the Rhine to its mouth.
To the Memory of WILLIAM THOMPSON. By the Author of "AONIAN HOURS."
Muse! take the sorrowing harp that long
Mute on the drooping willow, — and, Give it a voice of grief,-a thrilling tongue; Wake the wild chords of ecstacy and pain, Aud bid the plaintive lute betwixt complain,
For weary wear my hours; and I am now Lost to the joy of being;-the sad strain May bring, perchance, a lulling balm for [from my brow, And half unbind the wreath of night-shade My friend, can I forget thee-whilst the ray Of busy mem'ry brightens o'er the past? Whilst feeling rolls, or life's pulsations play,
My friend, can I forget thee?—to the last Thine image camne, and o'er my fancy [dwell Thoughts, such as in the pitying bosoms Of angels sorrowing o'er distress: -'tis
To catch their parting glance ;-then freely burst [long had nurs'd! The passionate flow of grief which feeling Can they but choose to weep, when be [them keep
A radiance o'er their path, and bade Vigils of gladness ;-when the voice is fled Whose words were music, can they
choose but weep?- [that sleep No!-the sweet flowers in winter's snows Spring may revisit,-their young blooms may ware [dews may steep Fresh beauty o'er thine head; - her Thy turf with greenness ;-but the hand which gave [home the grave. To Death, recalls not thee from thy chill Spring may revisit us :-the dædal earth Put forth her glories, floweret, herb, fruit, tree; [mirth; Suns shine; all things be happy in their The fountain burst its chains, aud warble free, [ing bee Rejoicing in its strength,-the murmurHail the creation on delightful wing,
And banquet on the bloom she loves ;but we,
Over thy bright remembrance sorrowing, Can taste no more the bliss which these to others bring.
But hush in that there is a mournful charm,
A long lost feeling, tempering with regret Exalted thought,-a lenitive-a balm ;— The memory of thy worth is left us yet: And though our tears gush forth, - our cheeks be wet,[sway There is a Name shall free us from the Of meaner griefs; thy star of life is set,
And guide thy steps by virtue's sacred clue Till Faith reveal'd to sight what Reason never knew.
Truth spread her awful page -what then to thee [grace?
Was Roman sweetness, or Athenian
A shadow to a sun!-eternally
To view th' Almighty Being face to face; To rove a spirit through the peopled space;
To dedicate thy energies to HIM
Who spoke creation into birth; to trace His steps, and worship with the Cherubim ; Oh! 'twas a thought might make all earthly glories dim.
From the translucent fount of bliss which wells [thirst From out the throne of God, the glorious Of knowledge didst thou slake: the song which swells [burst, Around the holy shrines, in harpings Whisp'ring enchantment in thine ear, and nurs'd
Thy glowing spirit to the high emprize Of self-correction ;-gradual truth dispers'd [the skies, Each man'cling film that barr'd thee from And op'd with Mercy's key the gates of paradise!
Then each severer trial, each pure thought, Became a lifting pinion; each warm sigh Of penitential sorrow nearer brought
Thy soul's beatitude; and hovering nigh, What if some guardian seraph of the sky Compass'd thee round, as in the wilderness Shone the bright pillar, heralding on high The pilgrim's host, through peril and distress, [bless!
A visitant from Heav'n, omnipotent to
Were but as fleeting visions of a night, Which, vanish'd, leave thy track, Eternity, more bright!
What lovelier garland canAffection bringWhat nobler tribute Admiration payWhat sweeter requiem can the Poet singTo hallow man, the "pilgrim of a day," Than this:" he sorrow'd, trembled,
And harmoniz'd, as thou, sweet spirit, bast, With those whose life was truth,-their
OXFORD WATCHMAN'S ADDRESS,
For CHRISTMAS, 1819.
The following very ingenious ADDRESS has been sent us for insertion by an old Correspondent and Friend. It is supposed, as he tells us, to proceed from the pen of a Member of the University, greatly esteemed for his learning, wit, and amiable qualities. EDIT. 'TIS mornaloft the vapours curl'd
Melt into light, and wake the world; The cock crows loud in Oxford streets, The chattering sparrow morning greetsThe dummel ass his trumpet blows, For well Aurora's air he knows; The heifer breaks her fast on clover, And the light twit-lark, on Shotover, Uprises quick with quivering wing And lyric notes, high towering! Before the Sun, whose glories spread, Each rushlight hides its 'minished head, And other sounds are heard than those Which echo through the watchman's nose, Whilst be himself, (his trusty stick, And feebly glimmering lantborn's wick, Now thrown aside,) goes forth to share The perfumes of the morning air, With quidnunc gossips prone to mix, And pluck a sprig of politics.
Abroad War's blood-red banner furled,
The crant that lurks within his eye,
To Vitue, Truth, and Honour, aliens,
All scampering to the full-thronged spot
Well pleased and satisfied with it, when