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the present House of Lords. The Sovereign is placed upon a raised platform, with the antient ensigns of dignity, a canopy and footstool, and the peers sit in front upon forms. But Henry V. was approached between standing files of warriors in bright armour, of which with more constitutional propriety, but of far inferior dramatic effect, the Gentlemen Pensioners are an imitation. The pa geantry of our antient Courts was indeed of a very Old Bailey aspect, and was evidently derived from the Northern Barbarians; and had not the smallest assimilation to the Fairy splendour of the East. It was imitated indeed in its gorgeousness after the Crusades, but in a very heavy stile, nothing of its picturesque effect and accompaniments, which how ever are very successfully blended with Grecian elegances, and the Antique in the present day.
We have next to quote a sentence, in the latter part, from the nomina tive being an abstract substantive, exactly in a stile of Mons. Zhibbon, as the French denominate our Gib boo.
"Shiracouch thinking that the Latins would press upon the centre with all their force, in the expectation of his being at his usual station, gave orders that it should yield; and he placed himself at the right with the bravest part of his army. The prescience of Shiracouch was soon apparent. The attack was made and succeeded; and the Franks, disappointed that the right wing was not equally penetrable, fell into a brief, but fatal confusion." p. 412.
This is a curious fact, for it shows that Shiracouch had studied and copied the manœuvres of Hannibal at Canne. That illustrious antient, so infamously treated by his country, drew up his army with a convex front, of which the centre was the weakest. It fell back, and when the line became concave, the wings acted upon each flank of the Romans; and a chosen force attacked them simultaneously in the rear. In short, the close columns, which pierced the centre, were surrounded. So much for the popular plan of breaking the centre, which is doubtful, unless it occasions such a substraction of force from the wings to prevent penetration of the suffering centre, as ultimately to reduce the whole line to a
thread, as slight as gossamer. This is the untechnical character of the battles of Salamanca and Viftoria, and of nearly all the battles of Marlborough. He made his attack upon the weakest point, but did not press the centre till he could afford to concentrate a double force to bear upon it: and all danger of being surrounded was out of the qustion. Napoleon, his copyist, knew from his superiority of cavalry, that he could safely make the attempt to break the centre at Waterloo, and that, through the same advantage of cavalry, his enemy could not make an offensive movement; nor can there be a reasonable presumption, but that the army of the Duke of Wellington, if our illustrious General had acted otherwise than he did, must have been either defeated, or crippled. As he is lightly, from envy, maltreated by French vanity, it is sufficient to say, that the squares were no more than the defences of Dessaix against the Mameluke cavalry; and the final attack, en masse, the undeviating practice of Buonaparte, with his Inperial Guard in front, and the others So much for rallied in the rear. breaking the centre, an old story, but one that may be well told, when risk is removed of its ending, like a libel, with damages. We have next to give an account belonging to the Oriental Post-office.
"By the means of carrying-pigeons, he was quickly made acquainted with every transaction in his vast empire." p. 422.
Among the Hieroglyphic figures of Denon, is a pigeon with a letter tied to his neck, and we see no solid reason why, at the great ports of Plymouth and Portsmouth, such a feathered establishment should not accompany that of the Telegraph. Time is of incalculable importance in all affairs of business, and the Telegraph could report, "The Pigeon is ar rived." Noah, the first Lord High Admiral ever known, used a similar signal, full as good, as lanterns, roc kets, and strips of various coloured cloth. There was a time, when the Prime Ministers of Europe dismounted their horses at the gates of the Sovereign's Palace, and then turned them loose to trot home, which they never failed to do.-The misfortune is, that the plan looks
ridiculous; but a chance of a letter reaching its destination, with a day saved, might, under circumstances, prevent the capture of a town; and the Telegraph-inen might keep the pigeons, at a very trifling additional expence, which would be saved in messengers, with interest.
Richard Coeur de Lion was formed in mind and habits for a Grecian Hero; and the account of his captivity is very interesting.
"At the end of six weeks from his de. parture from Acre, Richard was off the Barbary shores, within three days sail of the port in the South of France, whence he had embarked for the Holy laud. His misfortunes had become known; and he heard that the French Lords had resolved to seize him, if he landed in their territories. The condition of his vessel forbade the hope of a safe return to England, and Germany was the only country, through which he expected to escape. He purchased the maritime guidance of some pirates, and the course of his vessel was changed from Marseilles to the Adriatic.
His companions were Baldwin de Betun, a priest; Anselm, the chaplain; and a few Knights Templars. The royal party landed at Zara. They wished to pursue their route to the North; and accordingly one of them went to the Governor of Goritia for passports, (p. 71,) who, unfortunately for Richard, was nephew of the late Marquis of Tyre. The messenger was desired to declare the quality of his masters. He described them as pilgrims, on their return from Jerusalem. Their names, asked the Governor. One is called Baldwin de Betun,' answered the man, and the other, Hugh the merchant, and the latter has commanded me to give you a ring, as a proof of his good dispositions towards you.' The Governor admired the beauty and splendour of the ruby; he was struck with the singularity of the transaction; he naturally thought that he who sent the gift could be no common person; and after weighing the circumstances in his mind, he exclaimed, the name of the owner of this ring is not Hugh the merchant, but King Richard: tell him, however, that although I have sworn to detain returning pilgrims, yet the magnificence of this gift and the dignity of the donors induce me to violate the rule, and to allow your master to pass.' Plantagenet heard with alarm of the discovery, which his generosity had occasioned: the knowledge of the circumstance of the dispersion of his fleet was not confined to France, and every Christian Monarch was prepared to seize (p. 72) as a prisoner, the great Champion of the Cross. chard and his friends took to their horse3
in the middle of the night, and the news was spread, that the King of England was in Germany. The fugitives were unmolested till they reached Frisack, near Saltzburgh. The Governor of that country
commanded one of his relations, a Norman Knight, to examine all Travellers. The speech and manners of Plantagenet were marked with curiosity by him, who knew the English character, and his prayers and tears produced an avowal from the King, that the object of his search was discovered. Honorary and pecuniary rewards had been offered, as incentives to diligence, but the generous Norman thought only of the safety of his liege lord, entreat. ed him to fly, and presented to him a swift horse. He then returned to his master, and told him that Baldwin de Betun and his companions were the only pilgrims in the town, and the report, that Richard was of the party, was false and ridiculous. The Governor, however, relied upon the certainty of his previous information, suspected the old knight of deceit, and issued orders for the detention of strangers. Six of the English were put into prison, but the king escaped, accompanied only by William de Stagno, and a boy, who understood the German language. After travelling (p. 73) for three days and three nights, and scarcely ever stopping for refreshments, Richard arrived at a town near Vienna. He heard that the Duke of Austria was in the place, and he knew that that haughty and impetuous Nobleman remembered him with feelings of hatred, because in the siege of Acre the English Monarch had checked his arrogance and presumption. The fugitives were so much harassed, that they could not pursue their course, The German boy was sent to the market-place in order to purchase provisions; and as he had experienced the generosity of his Master, he was usually dressed with elegance and nicety. The contrast of the vulgar demeanour and the handsome clothes of the youth, attracted the attention of the people; they demanded his name and condition; and he replied, that he was the servant of a very rich merchant, who three days before had arrived in the town. The boy saw that his story was not credited, and on his return to the king, he advised his immediate escape. But Richard was ill and weary, and totally unable to depart. The boy continued his visits to the market-place, and for some days attracted no further notice; but, on one occasion, the citizens saw in his girdle a pair of such gloves as were usually worn by kings. The poor lad was immediately seized and scourged, and the threat of cutting out his tongue, if he did not tell the truth, drew from him the secret of the real quality of his Master. The Austrian soldiers immediately surrounded
surrounded the house of Richard, and the king, knowing the fruitlessness of resistance, offered to resign his sword, The Duke advanced and received it, p, 75. He afterwards sold Richard, as usual in those days, to the Emperor, aud, says
Mr. Mills, à la Gibbon, Imperial Cruelty' [not the Emperor] commanded, that armed men should always be present in the chamber of Richard, and that he should never speak in private to any of his companions." p. 76.
Now, if this man of unroyal mind had supposed that he should have gained two-pence more, by fatting Richard, like a Christmas Turkey, he would have tried to do it. The ransom was the object. Prisoners of war were matters of commerce. No money could purchase the liberation of Buonaparte: and the principle was Jewish extortion. Under present circumstances, the powers of Europe would arm against a potentate, detaining a Sovereign, not engaged in warfare against such potentate.
We have no room for further extracts, and we certainly recommend Mr. Mills's book as a proper and respectable companion to the Historical Collections in our Libraries. But we must again observe, that it was the Philosophical Knowledge of Mr. Gibbon, (who was also a man of vanity) which rendered his work one of superior cast. Mr. Fox proved, that he only dipped for incidents; and what Horace Walpole was in Connoisseurship and Antiquities, a fop; such was Mr. Gibbon in Philosophy. But, as it does not follow from such a character, that he does not actually wear a capitally made coat; (on the contrary, it is probable, that he really does ;) we shall make up a sentence for the purpose, viz. that Mr. Gibbon, in a long Otaheite and Grecismal mode of expression Philosophically-Bondstreet-lounged the Decline and Fall, in a style worthy the first Dancingmaster in Philosophy ever known. The serious and unnecessarily insulted Christian has a right to this just ob servation. His introduction of that subject was pure coxcombery and folly.
WE are decidedly of opinion with Captain Burney, that the Phænomena of the Solar System are not wholly to be explained by the principles which are known; for instance, there are, rating on the atmospheres of the sewe think, some unknown causes opeveral planets, which produce irregularity of season, meteoric stones, &c.
What is the property of space (as it is called) in the medium in which these large orbs move. According to Capt. Burney," matter may be supposed to collect in the superior air, or medium, and be changed into an infant planet, by an instantaneous fusion from some electric power, and so from acquiring weight descend.” (pp. 55, 56.) We say no more, because we agree with Capt. Burney, (P. 54) "that all matter seems to be in perpetual action of interchange," but we should rather say, that there is a chemical co-operation of causes between space and planets, but that these are not known, ordefined. Capt. Burney's work consists of suggestions for very deep professional investigations: investigations only next in character to the theological disquisitions concerning the attributes of Deity.
129. The Practice of Elocution, or a short course of Exercises for acquiring the several requisites of a good delivery, arranged to correspond with "The Theory of Elocution." By B. H. Smart, Public Reader of Shakspeare. 8vo. pp. 158. Richard
THE opinions which we promulgated concerning the proper method of teaching Elocution, in our Review of this Author's "Theory" of the subject, consisted in recommending the notation of the emphasis, with simple distinctive marks of the proper tone and pauses, and time and we still think that such a plain humble method would be most efficient. We shall only alter the type of two lines quoted by Mr. Smart, p. 121, to exhibit our meaning:
"Thy SPIRIT INDEPENDENCE- let me share
Lord of the LION HEART and EAGLE EYE."
Mr. Smart's rules in this tract are certainly very well adapted to correct bad enunciation; but, as he charges us with mistaking the Theoretical Knowledge, intended for Teachers, as meant in usum Tyrouis, we beg
But, as they seem to imply only that young people should know each other's characters well, before marriage, we were not inclined to prose upon a truism; only to observe, that each party should enter upon the study before attachment could be suspected; for, after they are once in love, the natural character is lost in the mutual desire of pleasing. How they go on after matrimony is admirably told in the Doyen de Killerine (as the French spell Coleraine) tom. vi. p. 230.
"You can never conceive how strong is the force of habit, between two persons, who have used for a long time the same house, the same table, the same occu
pations, the same pleasures, and who pass in one word the day and the night without separation almost for a moment, have learned mutually to know their faults, to pass them over, to look upon one with reference to the other, as well as to dispense with all forms of politeness and constraint, to speak, or be silent when they like, to hide none of their thoughts, and to put their satisfactions and their pains into a common stock. It is not interest which binds them, for they could lead an easy life, without any aid from each other; it is not precisely a taste for the same pleasures, for they do not find
them very lively, and half of their time is passed in discovering the weakness of all which bears the name; it is not any inclination for good living; for though nothing is wanting upon their table, they have no more appetite, and very often they leave it without having touched the best dishes; it is still less love, for they behold each other without eagerness, ab. sent themselves without chagrin, scarcely say a single word of tenderness, often refuse the simplest tokens of complaisance which they would show to the greatest stranger, and though they occupy the same bed, lie down and get up with indifference. Notwithstanding all this, try, if you think it possible, to make them renounce cohabitancy; you will see, that they will deride all your efforts."
131. An Historical Map of Palestine, or the Holy Land: exhibiting a correct and masterly delineation of the peculiar Geographical Features of the Country, and of all places therein connected with Scripture History; interspersed with Ninetysix Vignettes, illustrative of the most important and interesting circumstances recorded in the Old and New Testaments, introduced Topographically, from the best Historical and Geographical Authorities: drawn by Asheton; engraved by Hall, on a very large Sheet, 40 inches by 274. S. Leigh.
TO render the Holy Scriptures inof Readers; to attract the young and telligible and familiar to every class the old, the rich and the poor to a constant and attentive study of them; to open to every one those treasures all the riches of Salvation, is an emof Divine knowledge which contain ployment so important and so beneficial, that every attempt to assist in and praiseworthy. the good work is highly creditable
In this light it is, that a MAP of PALESTINE, illustrated by references to the most remarkable events described in sacred History, and rendered interesting by the elegance and novelty of its embellishments, deserves to be regarded amongst the most useful aids which ingenuity has supplied to those who read with attention, and desire to retain the memory of that which they have read.
This Map is accompanied by a sheet of Explanatory References to the Vignettes :- a general view of the principal districts and most remarkable places contained therein: and an economical calendar of Palestine, which supplies a curious and enter
taining account of the climate, seasons, habits, employments, and customs of its antient and present inha bitants.
What other climes far fam'd, could ne'er impart, [arms to ope. Penzance here breathes *, and smiles her Yes, for himself the bard her fame shall tell : [breeze,
132. Penzance, a Descriptive Poem. 12mo. Say how he pensive sought her healing
pp. 15. T. Vigurs.
THE Author of this neat little Poem assures the Publick that he has been faithful in his description of the climate of Penzance, and endeavour ed to be as exact as possible in the picture of the beautiful country around it.
"From India-heats who sought the temperate clime
To revel in the gale, which warmer blood (Ah sweet remembrance of his youthful prime!)
Rosy, and wild in vigorous toil withstood. Now deem'd each heath and dale but [could move, For scarce, sore chill'd, his labouring pulse Where should the bard his shivering footsteps haste [prove? To warmer suns, yet freedom's blessing Canst thou not, muse, that happy coast pourtray [rest? Where genial breezes bade this wanderer Tell of mild airs that cheer his short'ning day?
Of British fields in brighter verdure drest? Tonkin, to thee she'd give the pencil due: Thou native genius bright in russet rude, Whose strokes e'en Cornwall's Opie lov'd [sued. Who wild like thee his self-led way purSay might Montpelier high, or Naples
* "Mr. James Tonkin of Penzance, whose Views of the Bay are so much admired; from one of which a Print has been taken :-we understand he purposes to publish a set of Views of Mountsbay.Mr. Tonkin excels also in Miniature Portrait painting."
+"St. Michael's Mount, once famous for the resort of pilgrims, and now the property of Sir John St. Aubyn, Bart. has between two or three hundred inhabitants; is about 250 feet high; with a castle on the summit, which serves as a mansion; it has also a chapel with a fine organ. But we will say with Spenser, 'St. Michael's Mount who does not know?' See also Milton's Lycidas."
When, sad forboding, sharp defluction fell, She set a Wife's, and Daughter's heart at ease."
Most of the principal Seats in the neighbourhood are introduced in this little Poem.
133. A Letter to the most noble the Marquis of Hertford, Lord Chamberlain of his Majesty's Household, and Master of the Revels, on the Subject of a Dramatic Institution. By James Plumptre, B.D. Vicar of Great Gransden, Huntingdonshire. 8vo. pp. 13. Rivingtons.
TO this respectable Peer, as Master of the Revels, the present Letter is properly addressed by a pious and exemplary Divine. [See p. 511.]
this important, this awful trust, I take the "To you, then, my Lord, occupying liberty of addressing this Letter, on a subject which so nearly concerns, not only yourself, but the nation at large. We, my Lord, of the clerical profession, who have entrusted to us what is called the cure,' or care, of souls,' are considered as standing in a most awful and perilous situation. Is not your Lordship's of a similar, but much more extensive, nature? We promulgate doctrines and morals to a few hundred, or at most a few thousand
souls, mostly but once a week; whilst those sanctioned by your Lordship are promulgated to many thousands, for six nights in the week, to many congregations throughout the kingdom; and they are not confined merely to one age and nation, but are perpetuated from generation to generation, and are extended, in some considerable measure, throughout the four quarters of the globe."
"An Harmonic Institution has been lately established, under the patronage of his present Majesty, while Prince Regent, for the Advancement of the Science of Music, for the encouragement of Composers, for the delivery of Lectures, for collecting a Library, &c. &c.; and it strikes me, that it is very desirable to establish a similar Institution for the improvement and advancement of the Drama; that your Lordship should undertake the Presidency, and, perhaps, his Majesty might be graciously pleased to take it under his protection as the Patron."