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lisbury, and upon the 8th of July, in the 19th year of his reign, the titles of Earl of March and Pembroke.
RICHARD, of York, surnamed of Shrewsbury, second son of King Edward the Fourth, was, on the 28th of May, 1474, anno 14 Edw. IV. created Duke of York; in the 16th of Edward the Fourth he was created Earl of Nottingham; and on the 7th of February, the same year, this Prince was also created Duke of Norfolk, and Earl Warren.
GEORGE, of York, third son of King Edward the Fourth, was created (while very young) Duke of Bedford, but died in his infancy soon after.
EDWARD, of York, only son of King Richard the Third, was in 17 Edw. IV. (being then not four years old) created Earl of Salisbury, and in 1 Ric. III. (his father) he was created Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester.
ARTHUR, Duke of Cornwall, eldest son of King Henry the Seventh, was on the 1st of October, 1489, anno 5 Hen. VII. created Prince of Wales, and Earl of Chester.
HENRY, second son of King Henry the Seventh, was, on the 31st of October, anno 10 Hen. VII. created Duke of York, in Parliament, and after the death of his brother, Prince Arthur (being then twelve years old) he was created Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester, and succeeded his father by the name of King Henry the Eighth.
EDMOND, third and youngest son of King Henry the Seventh, was created Duke of Somerset in his infancy, aud died soon after.
EDWARD, Duke of Cornwall, only surviving son of King Henry VIII. was never created Prince of Wales, the King his father dying just when all things were prepared for his creation, so that instead of a principality, he succeeded to the Crown by the name of King Edward the Sixth.
HENRY FREDERICK, of Great Britain, eldest son of King James the First, was on the 30th of May, 1610, anno 8 Jac. 1. created Prince of Wales.
CHARLES, second son surviving of King James the First, was in the second year of his age (before his arrival in England) anno 1601, created Duke of Albany, Marquis of Ormond,
Earl of Ross, and Lord Ardmannoch ; and on the 8th of January, 1604, he was created Duke of York, at Whitehall, with public solemnity, at whose creation the King made 25 Knights of the Bath. This Prince, after the death of his elder brother, Prince Henry, was, anno 1616, created Prince of Wales, Earl of Chester, and Flint, and succeeded his father by the name of King Charles the First.
CHARLES, of Great Britain, eldest son of King Charles the First, was, in the year 1638, by order, not creation, called Prince of Wales, and had the whole profits of that principality, &c. and the Earldom of Chester granted to him. He succeeded his father by the name of King Charles the Second.
JAMES, of Great Britain, second son of King Charles the First, was born at St. James's, the 14th of Oct. 1633, and forthwith proclaimed at the Court Gates, Duke of York, into which title he was afterwards created by patent, dated at Oxford 27 Jan. anno 1643, 19 Car. I.; and by other letters patents, 10 May, anno 11 Car. II. he was created Earl of Ulster, in Ireland, and succeeded his said brother, King Charles, by the name of King James the Second.
HENRY, of Great Britain, third son of King Charles the First, was by letters patent, bearing date the 13th of May, 1659, anno 11 Car. II. created Duke of Gloucester, and Earl of Cambridge.
CHARLES, of York, eldest son of James Duke of York, was declared Duke of Cambridge, but deceasing under seven months old, it prevented the passing of a patent, which was to have created him Earl and Duke of Cambridge.
JAMES, of York, second son of James Duke of York, was created Baron of Dauntsey, and Earl and Duke of Cambridge by patent, 23 August 1664, anno 16 Car. II.
Charles of York, third son of James Duke of York, was called Duke of Kendal, but dying under a year old, had no letters patent passed for that
EDGAR, of York, fourth son of James Duke of York, was called Duke of Cambridge, but deceased very young, before he was created into that title.
CHARLES, of York, son of James
Duke of York, by his second wife, was called Duke of Cambridge, but died very young, before creation.
WILLIAM, Son of the Princess Anne, by Prince George of Denmark, was at the time of his baptism, scil. 27 July, 1689, declared by his Majesty King William the Third, Duke of Gloucester, but for want of creation into that dignity, when the said Prince was elected into the most noble Order of the Garter, the Sovereign directed the Register of the said order to enter his said dear Nephew in the Register by the aforesaid name of William, son to the Princess Anne by Prince George of Denmark, and to instal him by that name, after which the Prince died without any creation.
ticular Providence have been so frequently discussed, that in the following observations I shall take for granted the admission of them; for to me they appear to be fully proved by Nature and Revelation. It may be therefore established, that there is, 1st. a general Providence, or rule over the whole grand system of Nature:-2nd. a particular Providence superintending individuals:—and 3d. a special or National Providence governing the public measures and durations of kingdoms and people. The universal order in creation, the miraculous interpositions also stated in Holy Scripture, the process of moral duty, prayer, and redemption, are ample evidence of them both; they are the strong testimonies that the Lord God omnipotent reigneth! But what I wish to consider is, the case of Kingdoms and Societies of Mankind, which "rise and fall, flourish and decay," as purely sublunary, without any prospect of future judgment.
The whole history of the progress of mankind, from their earliest state to maturity, associated for mutual support and benefit, exemplifies the Creator's benevolent design, that the human mind should be constituted for the social participation of its powers; that each individual being brought into life, not for himself alone, but for the good of his fellow-creatures, as well as himself, should bring into the common stock the whole of his
capacities, mental and bodily, both the ingenuity of his mind and the physical strength of his body, towards the union and efficiency of the common bond by which society is compacted; so that not any individual, whatsoever be his acquired station, should be justly able to say to another, "I have no need of thee." Upon this basis, were it always observed, disunion and anarchy would be entirely excluded; the superstruc ture would rest upon so firm a fourdation as that an untainted fellowship would at all times prevail. But the essence of all such association is sublunary, and therefore transient; its individuals remain accountable for the deeds done in the body, but the kingdom, although fitly united, must, like every other human constitution, and the vegetable kingdom also, take its destined course to prosperity, and thence to its decline and fall; and, as in the case of the four great kingdoms of the world, be no more seen.
These have, notwithstanding, a considerable interest in the wise dispensations of Providence; for each of them are abstracts of the whole race of mankind. The raising the whole of any community to prosperous fortune, affects and circulates its benefits, not only through the veins of all its people, but also through the rest of the world, for it thereby becomes an important engine in the hands of Providence of effecting the great purposes of the social union of man, and diffuses the benefits which it has acquired by its united valour or ingenuity, or the wisdom of its govern ment. These, likewise, are the means of propagating through all the ranks of civilized life, the blessings of Liberty, Justice, and Religion, without which no state can exist; and it extends through all the uncivilized and darkened regions of savage ignorance the influence and example which stirs them to seek and to learn the supe rior advantages of becoming useful to each other, and thus, by civilization, to know and to adore the Lord of Creation! An overruling Provi dence of the affairs of Nations is here most apparent; England now the envy of the greatest kingdoms of the world, was once in darkness and Paganism; England, which once stood alone in the ranks of Europe, and even then performed her wonders,
now united with her two sister kingdoms, gives the word in battle, and the law in peace! She could not have acquired this lofty pre-eminence by her own efforts; she had ever too much reverence to boast that it was by her own arm that she had attain ed her victories; but, in the language of Nelson, it was by the rule and interposition of Almighty God! Conscious, that of ourselves we can do nothing, we have duteously acknowledged that we are subject to his direction.
Kingdoms and bodies politic can, says the learned and Rev. Dr. Foster, only be rewarded or punished as such in the present life. Every particular person in the community is, indeed, accountable to God, not only for his more private conduct, but for his behaviour as a member of the community; and yet, there are wise reasons why Providence should distinguish public communities in the present world; all which reasons are included in this one, the good of society. For the happiness of societies, as such, being only present good, they are to be considered in a quite different light from the several members in their private capacity; and therefore God may render to these singly, according to every man's work hereafter; and yet it may be necessary, to preserve the external order and happiness of the world, to give them, in the main, equal retribution, as collective bodies here. Besides, God has given laws to nations, without which they could not subsist, nor their mutual interests be rightly adjusted; and laws, without the sanction of reward and punishment, are absolutely inef fectual to promote the ends of Government. From all which, we may with the greatest probability conclude, that national and political events are under a peculiar influence and direction of Providence; that righteousness is the stated means, as by its natural tendency, so by recommending a civil community to the favour of Almighty God, to raise its grandeur and establish its prosperity.
The Holy Scriptures are full of the most direct annunciations of God's superintendance of nations, for the general benefit; for his Kingdom ruleth over all, Psalm ciii. 19. That he is Governor among the Nations, GENT. MAG. Suppl. XC. PART I.
he encreaseth and destroyeth them, he enlargeth them and straiteneth them again, Job xii. 23; he doeth according to his will in heaven and in the earth, in the seas, and in all deep places, Psalm cxxxv. 6. This is the strong expressive style of Scripture, in all which, and in various other passages of the same import, it only confirms and renders more authoritative the sense and voice of reason. If we can suppose a community, or a family, without his superintendance, or even when any such an one has misused the power which he has vouchsafed to it, and served other gods, the idolatries of dominion, the tyranny of uncontrouled ambition, the sin of unjust usurpation; disorder, weakness, confusion, and bloodshed, consequently follow. Violent and uncivilized nations, as Scourges for intemperance, are sent down upon it for its sublunary pu nishment, and internal commotion accelerates its decline and fall!
And here its fate seems to closedissolved as a Nation, its Constitution is subverted-the magnificence of its municipal Institutions is melted, as in a crucible, and scattered upon its arid surface-the influence and authority with which it dictated to surrounding countries treaties for implicit obedience, scarcely find a record on the perishing rolls of transitory fame-its imperial mandate, and its terrific threat, no longer excite the dread of the guilty, or the reparation of its foes-her Commerce no longer unfurls her sailsthe compass of her Navigation is broken-and nothing is seen or heard in her once overcrowded citadel, but the vexations of mortified pride, cloaked in the listless indolence of despair! Such is the punishment of guilty nations suffered to decline without the visitation of conquest! These visitations, if virtue can avert evil, may not unnecessarily close the career of any community. Glory and honour will find their course through all the vicissitudes of public welfare; then, where the strength committed to its charge shall have been exerted and immortalized by the protection of distress-when enlarged knowledge shall have diffused its blessings over lands of darkness and error when the Divine essence
of revealed religion shall have been
MAN you, or any of your Correspondents, favour me with information respecting the two following Tracts?
The first is entitled "The Quarrel of the School-Boys at Athens, as lately acted at a school near Westminster." London, 1717: and seems to treat of a rebellion against the discipline and Masters, together with the characters of the heads of the school at that period.
"One of these (p. 10) was Captain of the Mathematical Form or Class; which being the first in the whole school, he was by consequence called Captain General of all the Boys. He was of an antient race among the Greeks, a sprightly, vigorous youth, of wonderful vivacity and spirit; he had a genius for great things, and his particular study was in those parts of the Mathematics, which relate to the Art of War; such as fortifying of Towns, encamping of Armies, and managing great enterprizes; he had obtained such a great character in his studies, that it was thought he was fit to have led on the greatest armies; he had a cool head, and a warm heart. He had been furiously chastised by the former Schoolmasters and Ushers, and they not only expelled him from the School" (rusticated query), "but obliged him to fly out of his native city; and all this ill usage befel him principally, because he very early declared himself for the new Schoolmaster, even from his first nomination, and continued immove able to his interest to the last."
This person I conjecture to be Edward, second son of Sir Jonathan Trelawny, bart. then Captain of Westminster. He was afterwards M.P. for West Loo, in Cornwall, 1722, and Governor of Jamaica, 1738.
"Next to him was a youth of Northern extract, of antient Gothic race, who coming from among the Barbarians, had pretended to be civilized in the School of Wisdom among the Greeks: he was of a fiery disposition, and a most impetuous courage, as is the known character of those nations; but wanted temper to manage that spirit, which would otherwise have been an ornament to him. He was ambitious and avaricious, but managed both with more poliey than he did his passion. He had long envied the Captain of the Mathematic Class, and aspired to be Captain General of all the School; nay, in a word, he had upon many occasions given to understand, that nothing less would content him: after this, being of a sprightly temper, and addicted much to his pleasures, he lived very gay and courtly, and with an uncommon art, got himself particu larly into the favour of the Usher, by whose support he kept himself very well also with the Schoolmaster for a great while." He was subsequently expelled the School.
Probably Cook Tollett, son to Mr. George Tollett, second master; he was born in 1699, and became scholar of St. Peter's, 1713, but quitted it before 1717, when he might have been elected to one of the Universities.
"The Schoolmaster had yet a third favourite among his scholars, of whom it is needful to say something. He was a native of the country, and one the Schoolmaster had heard much of, though he had no knowledge of him, as he had of the other two who came over; he was not equal to the other two in birth and dignity of family, but superior to many in his capacities; he had signalized himself by his extraordinary conduct, and early ap pearing in the interest of the present Schoolmaster, as much as any boy in the school, which were invaded during the government of former Schoolmasters and Ushers; he had appeared very boldly, and indeed had been illused by them for it; for they had him soundly whipped, put into Dunce's Hole, and at last expelled the School:
in a word, they put all the indignity possible upon him. When he was turned out of the school, he came up to the very school-door, and insulted them all; and thus he continued to behave to the last, till the vacancy came, and the new Schoolmaster took possession, and then it was his turn. The Schoolmaster did not make him Captain of the Ordinary Classes, which some think had been a more suitable situation for one of his temper, but made him head of those selected boys, whom he employed for the greatest trust, viz. to keep, receive, and direct the common cash of the school." This office was abolished in 1819.
John Barber, who delivered a Latia oration over the corpse of Dr. South, in the College Hall, 1716.
"In the mean time the School was a meer Bedlam: books and business seemed all laid aside: every mean scholar, that had scarce entered into the verges of Philosophy, was over head and ears in politics, and attached to his party. The forms were all up in arins against one another; as the Heads or Captains guided them, they fell into the warmest disputes imaginable; nay, sometimes they were so hot that they were ready to throw their books at one another's heads.
"In the very crisis of this feud, and just as they were all going mad, being, as it may be said, just got out of the government of themselves, comes the Schoolmaster on shore, and making no stay, he went directly to the School. He found by the noise, there was no room for words, persuasions, expositions” (impositions were better suited to the case)"&c. wherefore with an awful frown upon his brow, and holding up his rod in his hand, he enters the school, and being just within the door, looked sternly round him, not speaking a word. The boys no sooner saw the master and the rod, but they all sat down as quiet and still, as if nothing had happened at all; not a word was spoken, not the least noise heard, all was perfectly calm and quiet in a moment; the Master went peaceably up to his Chair of Instruction, and laid down his rod; the Scholars fell very lovingly to their books, and have been very good boys ever since.”
Dr. Freind was then Head-Master of Westminster : quere, whether a son of his was Usher there? as it appears
(p. 6.) that " he made his only son Usher of the School."
The title of the second Tract runs thus, "The Opera of 11 Pensero o, a performance both Vocal and Instrumental, as it is acted with authority at the Royal Theatres of Eton and Westminster. The principal parts by Mr. Twigg-Him, Mr. Monitor, Miss Birch, and others," no date, but not connected with the publication abovementioned, and probably printed about 1760, as appears by the "Vivat Rex."
This performance has had a longer run than any thing yet exhibited on the Stage, as it has always been acted for the benefit (though not the entertainment) of several juvenile societies.
"The Rod is a subject both interesting and important, if properly handled."
"To this the greatest men in Church and State (if they have honesty enough to acknowledge old friends) must allow themselves greatly indebted."
The argument is by no means illwritten; but the Drama itself is a blank, probably out of respect to the scene supposed to be exhibited, and the whole concludes with the following animated lines, set to music by Mr. John Hilton:
"Birch and green Holly;
Any information serving to throw light on these curious pamphlets will greatly oblige yours, &c.
May 13. HE object of my present ad
dress is to project a new mode of Licensing Innkeepers and others, whereby the present inequality prac tised in imposing the duty, namely, by the rates, might be proceeded on with greater advantage to the revenue, and on a more equitable footing to the holders of licences themselves.
The plan which I would propose is this: instead of looking to the rates as to the land-mark from whence your regulations of the duty are to be drawn, a method by enforcing which you subject the poor Victualler or Innkeeper, who scarcely sells a bottle of wine per day, to the same bur