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mary, because an idea is manifestly incorporeal, and acts upon the material body with the same power as the Fiat of the Almighty upon the Universe. It is, in short, the "Divine particula aura" of Horace; and whether it is a "subtle essence," or what, we know not, and regard not, because it has self-agency, which can alone be a divine communication. The error of Materialism is, that it makes properties dependent upon organs, which is as much as to say, that the creation of the eye generates vision; or of the legs, motion. It makes the tools beget the workman. We again repeat, that all being must be an integral part of the great primary being, and the "molem spiritus intus alit" of Virgil is a selfevident truism. We therefore think that life, with all its properties, is no more than the Vis Divina acting variously, according to the organization of the matter, which it animates; for what else but the primary and only original being can confer selfagency? It is also certain that nothing can possibly perish, though it may alter its modes of existence; for if complete annihilation were possible, there might be a place, where being is not, which is absurd. Even in an apparent vacuum, the Vis Divina exists, for it pervades all space; only, it does not exhibit itself, because it does not animate any substance. A single faculty of the mind is only a limb. The soul or mind is the whole man, composed of these faculties, abstractedly considered, distinct from the matter upon which they act; and Scripture only says, that the Vis Divina, after death, confers upon them a personification suitable to the character which they bore in material e. To explain this, it is necessary to quote a masterly Logician and Sound Philosopher and deep Theolo gist, namely, the late Dr. Wheeler, Regius Professor of Divinity at Oxford. The common opinion (and it has produced infidelity incalculable) is, that the punishment of the damned consists in torments by fire, the physical fire, with which we are acquainted. The Professor, however, says, "We are not authorized in Scripture to say any thing positively with regard to the precise nature of either GENT. MAC. January, 1820.

future happiness or misery." We are, therefore, permitted to think that Scripture here speaks metaphorically; and the Professor, from the impracticability of repentance after death, presumes that our good or bad qualities will respectively, as they form the character at the time of decease, be enlarged either into divine or dæmoniacal assimilations. "The mao,” he says, "who is addicted to violent passions, even in this life, especially of the black kind, may be best enabled to form an idea of the misery of that state, which is attended with an uninterrupted variety of such passions in a large degree and extent +."

Now all this is strictly analogical, the only mode of ratiocination where data cannot be obtained. Enormous corruption of principle follows habitual guilty indulgence; and even dreams will sometimes occasion the borrid state described by the Professor. The mind is susceptible of excess of misery, without any instigation from the body, as appears by violent grief. Even the common faculty of associating ideas, under disappointment, may render life automatical and incapable of pleasing, like the mere going of a watch. In short, the Hell of Scripture seems to denote a situation incapable of any pleasurable sensation whatever, and that through the perpetual grief-like state of the faculties. "For," says Dr. Wheeler," the rivers of pleasure on the one hand, spoken of in Scripture, however misrepresented by the sensual Mahometan, must be metaphorically understood; and the worn never dying, and the fire never consuming, on the other, must also be intended to intimate the infinite degree of inward misery in general, that will be experienced by the bad." We also believe, with Dr. Wheeler ‡, differently from Mr. Polwhele (p. 32, seq.) that Christ's preaching to the spirits in prison (1 Pet. iii. 18, 19) does not imply that he went into

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Hell, or the place of torment, after his crucifixion; but only his having, as the Logos, or Divine Word, gone himself or sent his prophet Noah, by the Spirit, to preach to the profligate sinners of the antediluvian world.

There is another popular opinion, with that of the physical fire of Hell, viz. that there is a gradation of beings above man in the scale of intelligence. Now we have a right to infer from analogical discoveries by the telescope, that the inhabitants of such planets as we know, have souls like the human, because, from the external face of such worlds, they subsist apparently in the same or similar manner; but from the amazing momentum of light, when conspissated, we think that the natives of the Sun, fixed stars, or central orbs of systems, whether such light proceeds from ignited matter, or a luminous atmosphere, must have a different conformation; but what we cannot conjecture; for our chemical knowledge does not reach to the possible existence of any animated beings in fire like our own, and no other fire we know. However this be, we believe that the bunan mind, abstractedly considered, is on a par with that of the highest order of created beings, because it is permitted to acquire branches of knowledge, deducible by abstract reason alone: and believing also, that light is the most glorious visible exhibition of the Vis Divina, we see no reason why it may not be condensated into a bodily pattern, be impregnated with mind, and from the astonishing velocity of its

progress, realize poetical fiction, and form "angelic messengers of the All-Supreme." Changes of nature far more miraculous, exist in our present world. By seeing God, as he is, we understand in part, seeing the very principles of being and action, not only a wheel revolving, but the very power by which

it turns.

One important corollary may be drawn from Dr. Wheeler's doctrine concerning the future state, viz. that it is purity, probity, and godlike benevolence, which can alone render us capable of celestial happiness; not fanatical exhibitions of religion, because impossible to be disunited from anger, bigotry, and various bad human passions. Holiness (in its very

definition) knows no impure, or even
perturbed sentiment. It is a sublime,
dignified representation of divine be-
nevolence, exhibited in a character
pure as crystal, far different from
noisy electioneering agency. Passion
is not admissible into the blessed re-
gions of Immortality and Peace, go-
verned by divine Wisdom. To think
otherwise would be low, vulgar con-

15. Homeri Ilias, ex Recensione C. G.
Heynii fere impressa; cum Notis Anglicis,
in usum Scholarum. Londini, in Edibus
Valpianis. 80
pp. 644.

THIS is a neat and correct edition
of "the most ancient book in the
world next to the Bible;" and, "to
form a proper judgment of its excel-
lence, (says Dr. Blair) the reader.
should transport his imagination al-
most 3000 years back in the history
of mankind."

The present edition in enriched by many excellent Notes in English.

"These are offered both to the teacher

and scholar, as a mere selection from va-
rious writers and commentators, and the
result of some experience. They were
intended for the use of a School, into
which they were introduced with great

18. Caution and Information to Life In-
surers, in a Correspondence between one
of the Insured and the Secretary of the
West of England Assurance Company.

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THIS very small Pamphlet is entitled to the notice and attention of those who have insured, or mean to insure, their lives. It consists of a correspondence, as its title professes, between one of the insured and the life in that Society for 3000l. to which Secretary. The author insured his he was induced by an advertisement, signifying that the advantages of this institution would give it a decided preference, professing to insure lives on the same terms as establishments of a similar kind in London.

Without professing to know any thing more of this Institution than the publication before us communicales, we recommend it to the attention of our readers. They may receive from it much useful information, and may be thereby enabled to make a better provision for their families.



Ready for Publication.

An entire new and complete Concordance to the Scriptures of the Old and New Testament. By the Rev. T. SMITH. Mr. GORHAM'S History of St. Neot's, in one thick vol. 8vo.

The XIIth Number of Mr. SKELTON'S "Ozonia Antiqua Illustrata."

A Chronological Chart, shewing, in one view, the contemporary Sovereigns of Europe, from the Norman Conquest of England to the present time.

The Eleventh Part of the Journal of new Voyages and Travels, consisting of Admiral CORDOVA's late Voyage of Discovery to the Strait of Magellan.

A Translation of the Works of Virgil, partly original, and partly altered from Dryden and Pitt. By JOHN Ring.

An Historical Map of Palestine, or the Holy Land. Engraved by Mr. Hall, from a Drawing by Mr. ASSHETON.

A Treatise on Trolling, by T. F. SALTER, Author of the Angler's Guide.

The second Outinian Lecture; being also the second on the Married State.Edited by JOHN PENN, Esq.

Letter to the Hon. Charles B. Bathurst, M. P. on the subject of the Poor Laws, by RICHARD BLACKMORE.

The First Volume of the proposed Periodical Series of new Novels; consisting of an Edinburgh Tale, under the title of "Glenfell; or, the Macdonalds and Campbells."

Patronage.-A Poem, suggested by the Prince Regent's Treatment of the late Mr. Sheridan. By J. BROWN, Esq. author of the Stage.

Poems descriptive of Rural Life and Scenery. By JOHN CLARE, a Northamptonshire Peasant.

Preparing for Publication.

A Catechist of the Evidences of Christianity. To be used as a Sequel to the Catechism of the Church of England, and drawn up so as to supply Answers to the most common Objections. By RICHARD YATES, D. D. and dedicated, by permission, to the Prince Regent, the Earl of Liverpool, and other distinguished Members of the National Society; and the profits of the sale to be given to that excellent Institution.

A New Plan for Social and Domestic Worship, wherein all who love the Gospel may unite together; with the Feasts and Fasts of the Established Church. By the Rev. WILLIAM SMITH, Author of "The Domestic Altar," &c.

Sacred Lyrics. By JAMES FDMESTONE. Burnham's Pious Memorials. By the Rev. GEORGE BURDER.

Memoirs of M. Obelin, Lutheran Pas

tor of Walsbach. By the Rev. MARK WILKS.

The Heraldic Visitation of the County Palatine of Durham, by William Flower, Esq. in 1575; containing upwards of fifty Pedigrees of the principal Families of the County, each embellished with a Woodcut of the Arms and Quarterings then entered, and a beautifully engraved TitlePage, from a design by Williment.— Edited by NICHOLAS JOHN PHILIPSON, Esq. of Newcastle-upon-Tyne.

Tour through Normandy; to be illustrated by numerous Etchings of Antiquities, and other interesting subjects. By DAWSON TURNER, Esq. of Yarmouth.

A FOURTH VOLUME of Mr. NICHOLS'S Illustrations of the Literary History of the Eighteenth Century.

A Translation of Amyntas, from the Italian of Torquato Tasso, aud an Essay on the Pastoral Poetry of Italy, by Mr. Leigh Hunt.

An English Translation of O. Von Kotzebue's Voyage round the World, in the Years 1816, 1817, 1818. In 3 vols. 8vo, with Maps and Plates.

The Canadian Settler; being a Series of Letters from Lower and Upper Canada, in June, July, and Aug. 1819. By T. CARR.

The Essentials of Modern and Ancient Geography, on an entire new Plan, and adapted to the following Maps; viz. Europe, Asia, Africa, North America, South America, England and Wales, Scotland, Ireland, the East Indies, West Indies, Ancient Greece, the Roman Empire, and Canaan.

Abridgment of Popular Voyages and Travels, forming the Tour of Asia.

Illustrations of Dr. BARON's Inquiry respecting the Origin of Tubercles and Tumours. The Work will be printed in quarto, and contain Engravings, several of which will be accurately coloured, shewing in a particular manner the Progress of Tubercles in the Lungs, the Liver, and the serous Membranes.

The Mother's Medical Assistant, containing Instructions for the Prevention and Treatment of the Diseases of Infants and Children. By Sir ARTHUR CLARKE.

A Volume Supplementary to the differential and integral Calculus of LACROIX, containing a collection of Examples, &c. intended as Exercises for the Use of the Student.

Sunday School Sketches: a Memoir descriptive of the benign Operation of those Institutions.

An elegant Translation of "Marie de Courtenay," written by a FRENCH COUNTESS, nearly related to the celebrated Mirabeau.


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The literary collection of the Imperial Academy of Sciences at St. Petersburg has been enriched with a treasure which deserves particular mention in the annals of the Academy, not only on account of its uovelty and value, but also of its importance, and the great influence which it may have in future, on the cultivation of a department of science which has long been neglected in Russia. A collection of near 500 Persian, Arabic, and Turkish MSS. has been added at once to the treasures already possessed by the Asiatic Museum of the Academy. They were collected in Syria, Mesopotamia, and Persia, by a person versed in those languages; namely, M. Rousseau, formerly the Consul General of France at Aleppo, and since at Bagdad, and taken to France, where they were immediately purchased for Russia before any competition arose from other countries. His Majesty the Emperor has now made a present of them to the Academy of Sciences. It is deserved to be acquired for Russia, and the first learned Institution of the Empire may be proud of having this treasure confided to its care. Its Asiatic Museum, which was already distinguished by its fine collection of Chinese, Japanese, Mantchou, Mongol, Kalmuck, and Tungusian writings, as well as of Oriental coins and antiquities, has by this sudden and great addition of Musselman MSS. gained in utility as much as it has acquired in higher rank among similar collections in foreign countries. For this new collection contains, in each of the three languages, and in almost every science, a number of the most distinguished and classical works of Islamism, which it would be in vain to look for in the whole continent of the Russian empire, in the libraries of the most learned Mollahi, among its Mahometan inhabitants. Professor Froehn has published, in an extraordinary Supplement to the St. Petersburg Gazette, a valuable report upon this measure, of which the above is the introduction. GREECE.

The reigning prince of Wallachia, Alexander Soutzos, who is a Greek by birth, desirous of distinguishing his patriotism by actions, and especially by promoting of letters and civilization, has determined to seud to the most eminent schools of Eu. rope several young Greeks, who may there finish their studies at his expense, and then return home to give their native country the advantage of the knowledge they have

acquired. A plan is also in forwardness for the establishment of a grand college at Adrianople. It has been patronized with zeal by Baron George Sakellarios, one of the richest Greek merchants settled in the dominions of the Emperor of Austria. The Baron is a native of Adrianople, and having opened the list by a liberal subscription, he has excited the emulation of his compatriots, to whom he has written in strong terms on the subject. The Archbishop of Adrianople, M. Proïos, native of Chios, a man of great learning, and who long resided at Paris, has employed all his patriotic eloquence in behalf of this College; and a person unknown has bequeathed a landed estate valued at 10007, By such means, in the first instance, the Greeks are endeavouring to deliver themselves from that state of degradation in which they have been so long enthralled. EGYPT.

Les Annales des Lagides, lately published at Paris, announces a fact that the Learned in general are not acquainted with. The number of reigns of the Greek Egyptian kings, successors to Alexander the Great, has been generally fixed at ten; but proof is here adduced, that they amounted to twenty-one. This work was crowned last year with the particular sanction of the Royal Academy of Inscriptions and Belles Lettres, at the competition for prizes; and it has been justly recommended in various French periodical publications, as one of the most important that have appeared on ancient history for many years.

It contains, in fact, the history of Egypt under the Ptolemies, from Alexander to Augustus; and, as those kings had a share in almost all the great events that occurred either in Europe or Asia for about three centuries, a chronological synopsis of their history serves also to illustrate that of the princes or states that were their contemporaries. A number of chronological tables are annexed, with two cuts, or plates, of medals. The author is M. Figeac.


Through the indefatigable attention of Professor Kieffer, the editor, aided by the advice of Baron Sylvester de Cacy, the New Testament having been completed at Paris, preparations are making to accomplish the printing of the whole Bible under the same superintendence, with all practicable dispatch.


It appears from the Eighth Report of the National Society, that there are 1467 schools on Dr. Bell's system; and from the Fourteenth Report of the British and Foreign School Society, that there are 297 schools upon the Lancasterian plau; making a total, upon the new system, of 1764 schools.



The following statement was given by Cassern Aga, the Tripolean Ambassador at the Court of Great Britain, about the year 1747, relative to a petrified city in the interior of Africa. It strongly brings to mind the awful circumstance recorded in the 19th chapter of Genesis, ver›e 26, and may be interesting to some of our Readers. Its reality may be coufirmed through the researches of the enterprising. traveller, Mr. Ritchie, who proceeded, some time since, with an expedition from Tripoli, for the purpose of exploring the interior of one of that vast continent :

"As one of my friends desired me to "give him, in writing, an account of what I knew touching the petrified city, situated seventeen days journey from Tripoli, by Caravan, to the south-east, and two days journey south from Ouguela, I told him what I had heard from different persons, and particularly from the mouth of one man of credit, who had been on the spot; that is to say that it was a spacious city, of a round form, having great and small streets therein, furnished with shops, with a large castle, magnificently built; that he bad seen there several sorts of trees, the most part olives and palms, all of stone, and of a blue, or rather lead colour.

"That he saw also, figures of men, in postures of exercising their different employments; some holding in their hands stuffs, others bread; every one doing something-even women suckling their children, all of stone.

"That he went into the castle by three different gates, though there were many more; that there were guards at these gates, with pikes and javelins in their hands.

"In short, that he saw in this wonderful city, many sorts of animals, as camels, oxen, horses, asses, and sheep and various birds, all of stone, and of the colour above mentioned."


M. Jomard, of the Academy of Inscriptions and Belles Lettres, has published a "Notice on the Numerical Signs of the Ancient Egyptians," which is preceded by the plan of a work, intitled, "Observations and New Researches on Hieroglyphics, accompanied by a Methodical Arrangement of the Numerical Signs." In this performance the author explains the figures employed by the Egyptians, to express all the numbers from one to ten thousand. Should this prove to be correct, we may yet indulge the hope of further discoveries in this abstruse science.

the sittings of that learned body of which These papers have already been read in the author is a member.


On the last meeting of this Society, Mr. Brande commenced his Bakerian lecture, "On the Composition and Analysis of the Inflammable Gaseous Compounds resulting from the destructive Distillation of Coal and Oil, with some Remarks on their relative beating and illuminating Powers."

In the first part of this lecture, the author attempted to show that no other compound of carbon and hydrogen can be demonstrated to exist than what is usually demonstrated olefiant gas, consisting of one proportion of carbon and one of hydrogen; and that what has been usually termed carburetted hydrogen is in reality nothing but a mixture of hydrogen and olefiant gases. In proof of this opinion a series of experiments were detailed, made upon gaseous products obtained from coal, oil, and other substances, and in various ways, the results of all which tended to establish the truth of the above opinion.

The author advanced the supposition that many of the products usually obtained by the destructive distillation of coals, &c. are of secondary formation; viz. that they result from the mutual action of the first formed gases at high temperatures. Thus a peculiar compound of hydrogen and carbon was stated to be formed by passing pure olefiant gas througe a tube containing red-hot charcoal. This substance was similar to tar in appearance, but possessed the properties of a resin. So also by the mutual action of sulphuretted and carburetted hydrogen, sulphuret of carbon was stated to be formed. In this part of the lecture some new modes of analyzing gaseous mixtures were pointed out.

In the second section, comparative experiments were detailed on the illuminating and heating power of gases from coal and oil. The general results were, that the ilcoal gases, are to one another nearly as luminating powers of olefiant gas, oil, and heating powers is nearly similar; vis. that 3, 2, and 1, and that the ratio of their coals than by that from oil, and by the more heat is produced by the gas from gas from oil than by olefiant gas. In this part of the lecture was also strikingly illustrated by experiments the great advantage obtained in point of illuminating jets, in preference to a single one, espepower, by forming the burners of many cially when the jets are made so near to one another that the different flames can unite.


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