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reserve in speaking of others. Unquestionably there is an elevation of style, which genius itself does not always employ: but at least as a work, in which every thing breathes goodness without weakness, philosophy without ostentation, and a prudent though courageous freedom, we venture to affirm, it cannot fail to be justly valued by its readers; and will be considered as a record, at once curious and authentic, of a period for ever memorable. Of this we shall take an early opportunity of enabling our Readers to form a judgment.
114. A Cursory Disquisition on the Conventual Church of Tewkesbury, &c.
[Concluded from p. 330]
IT is with pleasure we resume our account of this elegant Work. We copy the following paragraph, as a
curious piece of history, with the greater gratification, as by the kind. ness of the Author's Representatives, we are enabled to illustrate it by a very excellent engraving in wood.
yard, a square strong building, which had "There was till lately in the churchevery appearance of having been buil, at a later period than the church itself, as a Campanile *, an edifice often placed apart, and so called from the purpose it was applied to of holding the bells; for, in the oldest cruciform churches, the convenience of their affording a belfry was but an after-thought, or at least a secondary object in the construction of towers; as the great additional strength which they gave, by their incumbent weight, to the main arches of the building, would be alone sufficient to recommend them+:that they soon came to be employed as they now are, and had bells placed in them, is indisputable."
"The rents or fissure, from the top to the bottom of this building, was probably effected by the too powerful vibration of the bells, which have occasioned their removal into the tower."
+"In an old history of Ramsay Abbey, this use of a central tower is exclasively adverted to: having mentioned a lesser tower in another part of the Church, the Author proceeds, Major verò (sc. turris) in quadrifide structura medio columnas quatuor, porrectis de alia ad aliam arcubus, sibi invicem connexas, nè latè defurent deprimebat.' Sir Christopher Wren likewise speaks of towers erected in the middle, not only for ornament, but to confirm the middle pillars against the thrust of the several rows of arches every way forcing against them.'"
See our Miscellaneous Department for the present Month, p. 502.
A very guarded remark of the Author, pp. 25 to 28, respecting the adoption of pinnacles by the Norman architects is confirmed by Ducarel, in his "Anglo-Norman Antiquities," edit. 1767, p 51; where he is speak ing of the West tower of St. Stephen's, at Caen; a rich Benedictine Abbey, which appears in many re spects a prototype of Tewkesbury. It was endowed by William the Con queror, who lay buried there till dug up by the Calvinists in 1562.
The description of the antient tombs (several of which, after being plundered of their rich ornaments, bave been removed from their ori
ginal situations), is in the highest
frigid apathy and indifference: we could
him the promiscuous assemblage of all
commendable. Some of the deduc-
ages, and all ranks, alike "obedient unto
The death of the worthy Author *, and the loss of nearly the whole im pression of his book by a calamitous fire at Mr. Bensley's †, have induced us to dwell longer on this volume than we should otherwise have done; and to copy the affecting paragraph by which the work is concluded:
"A vindication of the subject of this little disquisition,"-apart from all consideration of the merits, or demerits, of the performance," may appear necessary to those who condemn the study of antiquities as useless and uncertain:" but, in the words of an elegant writer whose sentiments and language we are proud to borrow," those pursuits which add to the innocent happiness of life, are too respectable to require defence:" we venture to add, they are not only a legitimate source of innocent pleasure;" but, should they be denied, in the strictest sense, to be essential marks of virtue and religion, they certainly may lend their aid to the furtherance of both: we pity the constitution of that man's mind, who can return from the perambulation of these " courts of the Lord's house" with
See vol. LXXXIX. ii. p. 377. + See Ibid. i. p. 575.
1 "Dr. Fertiar.”
"Like leaves on trees the race of man
115. Memoirs of the Court of Westphalia, under Jerome Buonaparte; with Anecdotes of his Favourites, Ministers, &c. 8vo. pp. 271.
BY the Treaty of Tilsit, several provinces of the Germanic empire were dismembered, and created into the kingdom of Westphalia; over Napoleon, was proclaimed King. The which Jerome, youngest brother of present Work contains the events which characterised the public and private life of Jerome and his Minis ters, from his first entry into Cassel, in December 1807, till his final expul sion in November 1813. The whole History displays such a succession of intrigue, dissipation, and folly, as can scarcely be paralleled in antient or modern times; and the perusal of this work will be so far useful, as it reminds us of the true character of the late French Government, under all its various ramifications.
The following character of the Intruder
truder shows how unfit a person he was to be elevated to supreme power:
"Jerome loves the truth, said his subjects, but he does not seek it. Lively and volatile, like a boy escaped from school, he had the mania of aping his brother in public; but while at mirth in the palace, gave himself up without restraint, to all the idle gaiety of childhood. Having laid aside all his gravity, Jerome put on an undress, for the purpose of being able to perform his part in a game of leap-frog; while in the midst of this amusement, his Majesty observed several persons in an opposite window, who seemed to be looking towards the scene in which he was so attentively engaged. It will be readily conceived that the King was not a little annoyed at this intrusion; accordingly the house was purchased next day, and the inhabitants ordered to pro
cure another residence."
Such were the amusements of the new King of Westphalia, while his sanguinary brother was laying waste the Austrian dominions with fire and sword!
The character of the late Duke of Brunswick Oels is well delineated, and his masterly retreat through an enemy's country, surrounded with difficulties and opposed by such superior numbers, deserves to be recorded, and may be compared with the famous retreat of the ten thousand Greeks under the command of Xenophon.
"The result was that the Duke of Oels, left to himself with his troops, had the alternative of making war on his own account, or of forcing a passage through Germany and going to England, in the pay of which he was. This Prince is the same who was killed at the battle of Waterloo. It is a remarkable coincidence that his troops were placed precisely opposite to those commanded by Jerome, on that sanguinary day. He was a man about forty, of a commanding stature and martial countenance; partial to the French, speaking their language from predilection, and fighting them like a lion because they had deprived him of the Duchy of Brunswick. Amidst his companions in arms, he appeared a private soldier; a brown great coat and a cap of the same colour, composed his outward costume. From sleeping on the ground with his troops, sharing their labours, privatious, and dangers, he commanded a body of heroes; small in number, but formidable in courage and loyalty."
The tenth chapter details the events which preceded the march into Rassia, and the share which the West
phalian army took in the Russian campaign, which ended in the total destruction of the French army. Je rome afterwards returned to Cassel, and the courtiers of Westphalia, faithful to their principles of frivolity, occupied themselves with balls and plays. After the battle of Dresden, the plans of the French were every where frustrated, and nothing but disaster and defeat accompanied their projects in all parts of Germany.
The Russian General Czernichew entered Cassel by surprize; Jerome had scarcely time to dress himself and mount his horse. The courtiers, women, and all that were useless, crouded to the public roads and fled precipitately, while others quietly awaited the result, before they decided on the steps they should take. Jerome finally assembled the wreck of his army, and retired, with his Generals and Ministers, to Coblentz.
General Czernichew immediately addressed an animated proclamation to the inhabitants, in which he informed them, that the kingdom of Westphalia was dissolved, and that they were delivered entirely from the dominion of the French.
This Work is evidently the production of a Frenchman, and must be read with caution; but the events which it describes are highly interesting, and deserving of the serious consideration of every well-wisher to the future tranquillity of Europe.
116. The Life of the Most Reverend Father in God, Thomas Wilson, D. D. Lord Bishop of Sodor and Man. By the Rev. Hugh Stowell, Rector of Ballaugh, Isle of Man. With a Portrait. 8vo. pp. 419. Rivingtons.
BISHOP WILSON was a pattern character for Prelates, as to the exalted principles upon which be acted, the holy purity of his motives, the heroic inflexibility of his mind, and the sublime benevolence of his character. This Life is a book which cannot be read by thinking persons without improvement; and the friends of piety and philanthropy will derive from it the useful knowledge of being "Lights to the world." It abounds, in the language of Mr. Stowell, in "Lessons of Wisdom, and Maxims of Piety." (Pref. p. vii.) To minds of the Evangelical turn, the professed form of the work is studiously adapted,
117. Bishop Lavington's Methodists and Papists considered. By the Rev. R. Polwhele.
(Concluded from p. 431.)
IN our last, p. 430. we enumerated the various topicks discussed by Mr. Polwhele in an ample Introduction to this curious Work; and we now proceed to fulfil our promise of extracting some Biographical Anecdotes of Bp. Lavington, which were derived from a familiar correspondence with his relations and friends:
"The Author of the Enthusiasm, GEORGE LAVINGTON, Doctor of Laws, succeeded Bp. Clagget in the see of Exeter. Descended from a family long settled in Wiltshire, he was born at the parsonagehouse of Mildenhal in that county, and baptized 18th Jan. 1683; his grandfather Constable, being then rector of that parish. Joseph, father to Bishop Lavington, is supposed to have exchanged his original benefice of Broad- Hinton in Wilts, for Newton Longville, in Bucks, a living and a manor belonging to New-College in Oxford. Transplanted thither, and introduced to the acquaintance of several members of that society, he was encouraged to educate the eldest of his numerous children, George, at Wykeham's foundation, Winchester; whence he succeeded to a fellowship of New-College, early in the reign of Queen Anne. George, while yet a school-boy, had produced a Greek translation of Virgil's Eclogues, in the style and dialect of Theocritus: and this translation is still preserved at Winchester, in MS. At the University, he was distinguished by his wit and learning; and equally so by a marked attachment to the Protestant succession, at a period when a zeal of that complexion could promise him weither preferment nor popularity. But, if some of his contemporaries thought his ardour in a good cause excessive, still their affection and esteem for him remained undiminished by any difference of political sentiment. In that respectable body, without a single enemy, he contracted many valuable friendships, which terminated only with the death of the parties and in 1717 he was presented by his college, to the rectory of HayfordWarren, in the diocese of Oxford. Before GENT. MAG. June, 1820.
this, his talents and principles had recommended him to the notice of many eminent persons in Church and State. Among others, Talbot, then Bishop of Oxford, intended for him the benefice of Hookter, collated him. Earl Coningsby not only Norton; to which the succeeding Bp. Potappointed him his own domestic chap
lain, but introduced him in the same capacity to the Court of George I. in whose reign he was preferred to a stall in the Cathedral Church of Worcester. This he always esteemed one of the happiest events of his life, since it laid the foundation of that close intimacy which ever after subsisted between him and the learned Dr.
Francis Hare the Dean. No sooner was
the Dean removed to St. Paul's, than he exerted all his influence to draw his friend to the capital after him: and his endeavours were soon crowned with success. Dr. Lavington in 1732, was appointed to be Canon Residentiary in that Church. In consequence of this station, he obtained successively the rectories of St. Mary (Aldermary), and St. Michael Bassishaw, and in both parishes merited the esteem of the citizens, as a minister attentive to his duty, and as an instructive and awakening preacher. He would probably never have thought of any other advancement, if the death of Dr. Stillingfleet, Dean of Worcester, in 1746, had not recalled to his memory the pleasing ideas of many years spent in that city in the prime of life. His friends, however, had higher views for him; and, on the death of Bishop Clagget, Lord Chancellor Hardwicke and the Duke of Newcastle recommended him to the King, to fill the vacancy in the see of Exeter, without his solicitation or knowledge. From this time, he resided at Exeter among his clergy; faithful to his charge; and jealous of all encroachments on the prerogatives of the Church, and much more of all "inven tions," that might perplex the simplicity of the Gospel.
"It is not therefore to be wondered at, that the reveries of a Whitfield or a Wesley, were treated by Lavington with far other feelings than those of cold indifference, of silent contempt, or of affected pity. On the 13th of Sept. 1762, he died universally lamented. His life had been devoted to God's honour and service: and with that life, his death was in perfect accordance: for the last words pronounced by his faultering tongue, were σε Δόξα TO!" The publications which appear
"He married Frances Maria, daughter of Lave of Corf-Mullen, Dorset. She had taken shelter in this kingdom from the Popish persecution in France. After a union of forty years, she survived the Bishop little more than one year. One daughter
ed under the Bishop's name, were mostly single sermons, all of them valuable, and some of them scarce and much enquired for; particularly two discourses "On the Nature and Use of a Type," against Collins's attack on the Prophecies, printed in 1724.The Enthusiasm" was published anonymously in 1747, and the two or three following years; and "The Moravians Compared and Detected," in 1753.
"In Exeter Cathedral, behind the throne, is a plain white marble tablet, on the top of which is a mitre. The epitaph is as follows:
"To the Memory of George Lavington, LL. D. who, having early distinguished himself by a conscientious and disinterested attachment to the cause of Liberty, and the Reformation, was successively advanced to Dignities in the Cathedrals of Worcester and St. Paul, and lastly, to the Episcopal Chair of this Church. Eudowed by nature with superior abilities, rich in a great variety of acquired knowledge, in the study of the Holy Scriptures consummate, he never ceased to improve his talents, nor to employ them to the noblest purposes; an instructive, animated, and convincing Preacher, a determined enemy to Idolatry and Persecution, a successful exposer of Pretence and Enthusiasm: happy in his services to the Church of Christ! Happier who could unite such extensive cares with a strict attention to his immediate charge! His absences from his Diocese were short and rare; and his presence was endeared to his Clergy, by an easy access, and a graceful hospitality, a winning conversation, and condescending deportment. Unaffected sanctity dignified his instructions, and indulgent candour sweetened his government. At length having eminently discharged his duties, of a man, a.Christian, and a Prelate, prepared by habitual meditation, to resign life without regret, to meet death without terror, he expired with the praises of God upon his lips, in his 79th year, Sept. 13th, 1762."
"The arms: Argent, a saltier gules; on a chief of the second three boars' heads Or."
The Section treating of the "general topic of abuse" of the Methodists, "that we do not preach the Gospel," is thus concluded :
"Educated under the care of a parent, whose exemplary religiousness, whose faith and unaffected piety commanded respect and conciliated esteem, administered comfort to the Believer, and overawed the Infidel, I should consider myself as indeed only remained to lament her parents,the wife of the late Rev. N. Nutcombe, of Nutcombe, in Devon, and Chancellor of the Cathedral at Exeter."
an apostate, were I such as the adversary described me.
"Often (and whenever it recurs, it is the most satisfactory moment of my life), often, in imagination, do I sit by that venerable Parent, and hear him discourse" of things above this world!" In his presence the libertine blushed; and the sceptic no longer doubted! And I am half disposed to think I was once assured, that a person, who in former years was much attached to my Father's conversation, but who has since acquired a popularity which no good man can envyI am willing to believe that licentious Wit was, in consequence of my Father's arguments, and more impressive manner, almost persuaded to be a Christian !'
The popular Wit alluded to was
"Dr. Walcot, who, after he had left Cornwall, assumed the name of Peter Pindar. He resided many years in this county-at Truro, in particular, about two miles distant from Polwhele, where he attended my father as a physician, and often conversed with him as a friend. Though even at that time inclined to seepticism, he was always on his guard when talking with my father on religious sub. jects; and I have heard him vow to God, that a good Christian was the happiest of all human beings!' Of Walcot, I could relate many very entertaining anecdotes: but non his locus.' I shall only add, that exclusive of his early satirical pieces (which chiefly consist of personal attacks on the magistrates of Truro), I possess unpublished songs and odes and epistles of Walcot (some in his own hand writing) sufficient for a little volume-certainly more poetry in quantity, than either Hammond's or Collins's. An Epistle from the unfortunate "Matilda to her brother, George III." bas some beautiful stanzas: and an Ode on Christmas-day breathes a religious-a devotional spirit-oh! how unlike Peter Pindar's!"
We copy the following article from the Appendix, conceiving that the worthy Author must, however uniotentionally, have been some way or other under a mistake. At any rate the respectable Publishers will bave an opportunity of refuting what appears to be a reflection on them.
"The Deserted Village School. A Poem. Such is the title of a Poem, which, in 1812, I submitted in MS. to the perusal of Walter Scott: and my poetical friend highly approved, and put it into Ballantyne's hands, with directions to ingly done: and some copies found their print and publish it.-This was accordway to London, and others into Cornwall. It happened, however, that two only