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1820.] Ancient Anecdotes.-Importance of Classical Literature. 519

cepted a bribe from king Antiochus, as the price of his agency in obtain ing for him more favorable terms of peace than be otherwise could have expected after his defeat. On the day appointed for the trial, Scipio repaired to the Forum, escorted by a prodigious multitude of his fellow citizens of all ranks: and, having mounted the Rostra, he placed on bis head a triumphal crown, and thus addressed the assembly: "Romans! on this day I formerly compelled proud Carthage to receive your laws: it is therefore meet that you should accompany me to the Capitol, and unite with me in thanks giving to the Gods." Accordingly, he descended from the Rostra, and proceeded to the Capitol, accompanied by the whole assembly, with the exception of his accuser, who was thus left alone in the Forum, and thenceforward desisted from all further proceedings against Scipio. Lib. 3, 7, 1.

(To be continued.)

June 15.

Mr. URBAN, quite agree with "J. H. S." (p. 394,) on the importance of Classical Literature; and think, with the intelligent Author of the "Life of Lorenzo de Medicis," that "Literature itself has flourished or declined in proportion as the writers of antiquity have been esteemed or neglect ed." I also agree with your learned Correspondent in the reasons he offers for the German Nation enjoying so much more generally and fully a knowledge of the Dead Languages than the English. I have particu larly seen and lamented the want of good elementary works in our own tongue, which has certainly been one cause of our confined knowledge of the Classicks: but, although I feel equal esteem and respect for those gentlemen who have come forward to assist by their able works in supplying this deficiency, and think too much praise cannot be given to Dr. Valpy, Dr. Carey, Mr. Webb, and others, who, with talents equal to greater works, have directed them to this purpose; still I think I can discern another cause for the lukewarmness in the support of Learning so evident in this country, and at the same time another reason for the superior number of Continental Scho

lars. In Germany, Learning is the passport to fame and consequence: by no surer method can a nian obtain the notice of his Sovereign and the Nobles of his country, than by excelling in a knowledge of Antient Literature; he is patronized by them, and treated by all ranks with deference and respect; his works are studied and properly appreciated, and by this encouragement his genius is stimulated and his perseverance secured. In short, Learning is in Germany what Riches are in England; and this I imagine to be the grand and principal cause of that nation producing more learned men than our own.

Let the English Scholar enjoy the same advantages, let Royal favour distinguish him, let a profound knowledge of Classic Lore be applauded and substantially rewarded, let ignorance of antient writers be considered disgraceful; and I will venture unhesitatingly to say, Germany shall no longer exceed us in the number or excellence of her scholars. England shall be foremost in this, as in every other branch of knowledge: the plant of Genius is in our own soil, and only requires the sunshine of favour, with the attention of skilful and friendly hands, to flourish and bear fruit alike honourable to those who produce, as to those who purture it; and the in

fluence of which will be most extensively and advantageously felt on the taste and literature of the country. Yours, &c. AMATOR PATRIE.


April 7.

N the 25th Number of the Quar

terly Review (article Park's Travels) the hypothesis there laid down as almost indisputable is, the noncontinguity of the two Niles of Africa, or (according to the European phraseology of the day) of the Niger and the Nile.

This hypothesis, founded on the theory of Major Rennel, carries with it no evidence whatever, but the speculative geography of that learned geologist. The identity or connec tion of the two Niles, and the consequent water communication between

Cairo and Timbuctoo, receives (supposing the Quarterly Re

* Vide Jackson's account of Marocco, &c. chapter 13th.

view to be correct) as our intelligence respecting Africa increases, additional confirmation; and even the Quarterly Reviewer, who denominated the opinion recorded by me, the gossiping stories of Negroes, (see Quarterly Review, No. 25, p. 140.) now favours this opinion!

The Quarterly Reviewer appreciates Buckhardt's information on this subject, and depreciates mine, although both are derived from the same sources of intelligence, and confirm one another; the Reviewer says, Mr. Buckhardt has revived a question of older date, viz. that the Niger of Sudan, and the Nile of Egypt, are one and the same river: this general testimony to a physical fact can be shaken only by direct proof to the contrary.

This is all very well. I do not object to the Quarterly Reviewer giving up an opinion which he finds no longer tenable; but when I see in the same Review (No. 44, p. 481) the following words, "We give no credit whatever to the report received by Mr. Jackson of a person (several Negroes it should be) having performed a voyage by water from Timbuctoo to Cairo;" I cannot but observe with astonishment, that the Reviewer believes Buckhardt's report that they are the same river, when at the same time he does not believe mine.

Is there not an inconsistency here, somewhat incomparable with the impartiality which ought to regulate the works of Criticism. I will not for a moment suppose it to have proceeded from a spirit of animosity, which I feel myself unconscious of deserving. But the Reviewer further says, the objection to the identity of the Niger and the Nile, is grounded on the incongruity of their periodical inundations, or on the rise and fall of the former river not corresponding with that of the latter. I do not compre. hend whence the Quarterly Reviewer has derived this information; I have always understood the direct contrary, which I have declared in the last editions of my account of Marocco, p. 304, and which has been coufirmed by a most intelligent African traveller, Aly Bey (for which, see his Travels, p. 220).

I may be allowed to observe, that

although the Quarterly Reviewer has changed his opinion on this matter, I have invariably maintained mine, founded as it is on the concurrent testimony of the best informed and most intelligent native African travellers; and I still assert, on the same foundation, the identity of the two Niles, and their contiguity of waters.

I have further to remark, what will most probably, ere long, prove correct, viz. that the + Bahar Abiad, that is to say, the river that passes through the country of Negroes, between Senaar and Douga, is an erroneous appellation, originating in the general ignorance among European travellers of the African Arabic, and that the proper name of this river is Bahar Abeed, which is another term for the river called the Nile el Abeed, which passes South of Timbuctoo towards the East (called by Europeans the Niger).

It therefore appears to me, and I really think it must appear to every unbiassed investigator of African Geography, that every iota of African discovery, made successively by Hornemann, Buckhardt, and others, tends to confirm my water communication between Timbuctoo and Cairo, and the theorists and speculators in African Geography, who have heaped hypothe sis upon hypothesis, error upon error, who have raised splendid fabrics upon pillars of ice, will, ere long, close their book, and be compelled by the force of truth and experience, to admit the fact stated about twelve years ago by me in my Account of Marocco, &c. viz. that the Nile of Sudan, and the Nile of Egypt, are identified by a continuity of waters, and that a water-communication is provided by these two great rivers from Timbuctoo to Cairo; and moreover, that the general African opinion, that the Nile, El Abeed (Niger) discharges itself in the salt sea (El Babar Mâleh) signifies neither more nor less, than that it discharges itself at the Delta in Egypt into the Mediterranean Sea. JAMES GREY JACKSON.

+ Bahar Abiad signifies White River, Bahar Abeed signifies River of Negroes.

See my Letter in Monthly Magazine on this subject for March 1817, p.




A Selection of Popular National Airs, with Symphonies and Accompaniments, by Sir J. Stevenson, Mus. Doc. The Words by Thomas Moore, Esq. No. 1.

pp. 58.


HIS is certainly one of the most pleasing collections of the kind we ever recollect to have met with. We have, however, less to do with the masic itself, than the delightful poetry which accompanies it, and which comprizes, according to our ideas of beauty, some of the most highly polished specimens of the art of Songwriting we know of in the English language. Like another splendid genius-the author of Waverley, Mr. Moore, after having devoted his attention to his own country, and wrought for the wild melodies of Ireland that interest which the Novellist has so successfuly laboured to induce for the romantic legends of Scotland, now seeks a wider range for his excursive Muse, and, leaving the "Green Isle" to bask in the halo of the bright recollections which his poetry has poured around it, he seems disposed to let the Muse of other lands be equally profited by his talents; and we are accordingly presented with two "Numbers of Popular National Airs" in the style of the Irish Melodies, although something less expensive, and in a more portable form.

"Un sonnet sans defaut vaut seul un long poeme," says Boileau; and, understanding this to refer to Songs as well as Sonnets, we most cordially concur with the French Critic in the justice of his remark. As this style of composition is more pleasing than any other when skilfully managed, so it is also more difficult of attainment. Shenstone frittered away the few talents he possessed in futile attempts to produce a song; and succeeded, says Horace Walpole, no better than Pope did with his Cecilian ode. This is by no means surprising; for, with the exception of some of the Lyric Poets of Queen Elizabeth's age, Drummond, Carew, Herrick, Habington, &c. and subsequently Prior, few of our English Poets seem to have known any thing about the poGENT, MAG. June, 1820.

sitive requisites for arriving at perfection in this class of writing. Many casual gems of infinite beauty have, from various quarters, been handed down to us: but it seems to have been reserved for Mr. Moore, entirely to restore its character; for it may be affirmed of his songs, and they form the most considerable portion of his works, that they possess the wit and felicity of expression peculiar to Cowley, divested of its pedantry and affectation; the harmony of Waller's numbers, without their dullness and monotony; the vivacity of Prior, without his occasional coarseness and vulgarity; and the Greekness, if we may so term it, of Carew and Herrick, without their ruggedness and obscurity.

A short advertisement is prefixed to the first number of this Collection, explanatory of its views; and as Mr. Moore is extremely happy in these matters, we cannot do better than to adopt the words of the Poet himself in illustration of the plan of this work.

"It is Cicero, I believe, who says, Natura ad modos ducimur; and the abundance of wild indigenous airs which almost every country, except England, possesses, sufficiently proves the truth of this assertion. The lovers of this simple but interesting kind of music are here presented with the first Number of a Col. lection, which I trust their contributions will enable us to continue. A pretty air without words resembles one of those half creatures of Plato, which are described as wandering in search of the remainder of themselves through the world. To supply this other half, by uniting with congenial words the many fugitive melodies which have hitherto had none, or only such as are unintelligible to the generality of their hearers, is the object and ambi tion of the present work. Neither is it our intention to confine ourselves to what are strictly called National Melodies; but wherever we meet with any wandering and beautiful air to which poetry has not yet assigned a worthy home, we shall venture to claim it as an estray swan, and enrich our humble Hippocrene with its song. It is not, indeed, without strong hopes of success, that I present this first number of our Miscellany to the publick. As the musick is not my own, and the

words are little more than unpretending interpreters of the sentiment of such air, it will not perhaps be thought presumption in me to say, that I consider it one of the simplest and prettiest collections of songs to which I have ever set my name."

The First Number contains eleven songs, four of which are harmonized as duets, &c.

There is much sprightliness in the following stanzas, which are prefixed to what is here termed a Spanish air, but which seems, however, to be little more than a variation of the Hungarian Melodies, p. 16. "A temple to Friendship,' said Laura, [divine!' I'll build in this garden, the thought is Her temple was built, and she only now [shrine.

⚫ enchanted,


Au image of Friendship to place on the She flew to a sculptor who set down before her,


A Friendship, the fairest his art could But so cold and so duli that the youthful adorer [she meant.

Saw plainly this was not the Friendship "Oh never!' she cried, could I think of enshrining [dim; An image whose looks are so joyless and But yon little God upon roses reclining, We'll make, if you please Sir, a Friendship of him.'

So the bargain was struck, with the little
God laden
She joyfully flew to her shrine in the
Farewell,' said the sculptor,' you're not

the first maiden [away Love!" Who came but for Friendship, and took

The thought is borrowed from a song by Le Prieur, called, "La Statue de L'Amitié”— "The Evening Bells" has been quoted in several of the daily journals; and we therefore pass it over, and proceed to some very characteristic words adapted to a simple and extremely beautiful Venetian air.

"Oh come to me when day-light sets,

Sweet, then come to me;
When smoothly go our gondolets

O'er the moonlight sea.
When mirth's awake, and love begins
Beneath that glancing ray,
With sound of lutes and mandolins,
To steal young hearts away.

O then's the hour for those who love,
Sweet, like thee and me;
When all's so calm below, above,

The heaven and o'er the sea;
When maidens sing sweet barcarolles,
And echo rings again,

So sweet that all with ears and souls
Should love and listen then."

Barcarolles are, according to Rousseau (Dictionnaire de Musique), the songs chanted by the Venetian Gondoliers.

There is much pathos in the following stanzas; the air to which they are attached is Scotch. "Oft in the stilly night,

Ere slumber's chain has bound me, Fond memory brings the light,

Of other days around me. The smiles, the tears of boyhood's years, The words of love then spoken, The eyes that shin'd, now dimm'd and gone,

The cheerful bearts now broken!

When I remember all,

The friends so linked together, I've seen around me fall,

Like leaves in wintry weather; Feel like one who treads alone

Some banquet hall deserted, Whose lights are fled, whose garlauds dead,

And all but he departed."

done. The song with which we con clude is adapted to a Hungarian air, very similar to, if not the same as, the one entitled," A Spanish Air,” p. 1. "So warmly we met, and so fondly we parted, [not tell;

One more citation, and we have

That which was the sweeter even I could That first look of welcome her sunny eyes darted, [farewell,

Or that tear of passion which bless'd our To meet was a heaven, and to part thus another, [in bliss; Our joy and our sorrow seem'd rivals Oh Cupid's two eyes are not liker each other [to this.

In smiles and in tears, than that moment The first was like day-break, new, sudden, delicious, [up yet;

The dawn of a pleasure scarce kindled The last was that farewell of daylight more precious, [set.

More glowing and deep as 'tis nearer its Our meeting, tho' happy, was ting'd by a [remain;


To think that such happiness could not While our parting tho' sad gave a hope that tomorrow [ing again." Would bring back the blest hour of meet.

The accompaniments and sympho nies to the first Number are by Sir John Stevenson; those in the second (of which we shall speak in our next) are by Mr. Bishop. We must confess that, on the whole, we rather prefer the latter; they are, however, all in a very good style, if not particularly rich, perhaps the better adapted to


the simplicity of the airs. It is but common justice to Mr. Power to observe, that the work is got up in that handsome and liberal manner which characterizes most of the sheets which issue from his shop.

112. Mills's History of the Crusades.

(Continued from p. 440.)

WE should grossly deviate from our duty to the publick, if, respect ing Mr. Mills, as we most sincerely do, in the form of an elegant narrator, we permitted him to become an authority for the unwarrantable dogma, that the Crusades had no operation upon the civilization of Europe. We care not for the opinions of Mr. Berrington*, or of any man not of the extensive reading of our illustrious scholars, our national ornaments, who have maintained the contrary. Our fortresses are not to be surrendered because a school-boy lets off a squib. We are, by ostensible profession, in this periodical work, the protectors of Archæological science, and we know, that it is intimately connected with Philosophy and the Arts. We know that the first Historians and Antiquaries of the kingdom here support us; and though, upon questions of principle, we may reprobate dangerous ideas, we know that we have no illiberal intentions. But the fact is, that Mr. Mills has voluntarily limited himself to the incident part of the subject, and there he has produced a valuable and good narrative; a useful compendium of all the historical information (properly so called) upon the subject. But we cannot let the matter rest in so unsatisfactory a form. It would be a poor and meagre Life of a Philosopher which was composed of his bodily actions only: for they can consist of no other than the eating, drinking, and sleeping of a common man.

In the first place, the Crusades introduced an important change in our National Architecture. Here we shall quote a dignified living character, who, though a perfect scholar (from simply writing as a gentleman, not a professed author, has never invited notice), is yet in his excellence of manner and skill, to be classed with the first of those who have ascer tained the indubitable origin of that

See Vol. ii. p. 357.

exquisite style of architecture, denominated Gothic. If a man travels through a village consisting entirely of good houses, he presumes that the mass of the inhabitants is composed of genteel people; if there be only a palace among cottages, or cottages only, his inferences are equally easy. But there must be a refinement, or theoretic idea, antecedent to a relish of fine taste; and this taste in building was derived from the Crusades, probably by means of models and wooden moulds, the usual method of instructing the mason.

"The Crusades (says Mr. Haggit) form dency to account for the introduction of an event, which had a very powerful tenany change in the customs, manners, or arts, which may have arisen in Europe during that period: in point of fact, every history bears testimony that such changes did take place in those particulars, and in others of still more importance, in consequence of the Crusades. If then, upon enquiry, there be sufficient ground to determine, that the principal features of the pointed stile existed in the East, previous to the arrival of its European visitors, and did not exist at home, but was speedily introduced afterwards among all those nations who had borne a share in the Crusades, surely the probability is strong, that this mode of archi

tecture was one of the consequences resulting from those memorable expeditions. The Saracens were a comparatively polished and magnificent people; their mosques and public buildings of every description were numerous and splendid; and, at the period of the Crusades, with the excepcities of the Eastern world were of their tion of Constantinople alone, the finest construction." (Haggit's Letters on Gothic Architecture, p. 77.)

Now when we see the virandas of Hyde Park houses, and know that it is a fashion which prevails in India; when we see the Doric columns of Antient Greece forming the porticos of numerous public buildings; when we see St. Paul's Cathedral manifestly assimilating the style of St. Peter's at Rome; when we see the Madras education in daily use; when nankins and muslins are imitated in England, how can it reasonably be said, that foreign intercourse for two centuries produces no change in arts, habits, and manners? We know, that fo reign fashions are perpetually introduced by foreign intercourse; but of course such information does not oc


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