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necting them by some common principle of agreement into elements. But all this method of science is resorted to only when inen have lost their way-they must discover every thing analytically. Whereas in the historical connection, they are taught every thing beginning from elements, that is, synthetically.

The origin of evil confining our yview to this world, and we have not faculties to go above or beyond it, without the aid of revelation-is the losing this historical connection, the wandering out of our way, or rather some one super-eminent spirit or su perior nature from pride and insubordination, breaking out into Atheism: setting up his own insulated, and selfbalanced system: and tempting others to form a sect or party in his support, quarrelling with God and the historical order of things. The golden chain is broken, for which is substituted another chain or slavery. For in the due subordination of our duty to God, and man, in the submission to LAWFUL authority, consists the only true and perfect freedom.

When once SELF becomes a sepa rated and an insulated being, that very instant it becomes exposed to every temptation, whether from human, or from invisible agency. It is in a desart or wilderness: and, immediately, temptation to a being (so cut off from the centre of order), attracts it by apparent good, like, but opposite to, the real good of God and man, and thus mediately and immediately of self-or the whole.

Hence, by the puzzle of metaphysics, the sophistical systems: for instance, that all benevolence is ultimately founded on selfishness; i. e. that we are virtuous, because we see it to be our interest-and in truth, find it conducive to our best interests to be so: and, because we find more real pleasure in that course than in any other. But it is a solecism to call this (a happiness, resulting from self-love reduced to its due proportion, relation being had to God and mau-to call this) selfishness. Selfishness is the exclusion of those two relations. YORICK.

(To be continued.)

Mr. URBAN, June 5. Sa tribute of justice, however late, allow me to request a place

in your Magazine for a few observations on the memory of the late Dean of Christ Church.

I have always understood that the examinations at the conclusion of each Term, called "Collections," were the happy suggestion of Dr. Markham, who, as I have been informed, laid the foundation of that discipline which his successors so ably maintained. Dr. Bagot did wonders, consider. ing the disadvantages he had to struggle with, in an infirm habit of body and a very nervous temperament; but the perfection of the discipline for which Christ Church has been so famed, though it did not originate with, yet certainly attained its acme, under the vigilant superintend ance of Dr. Cyril Jackson, who, by the superiority of his various talents, the elevation of his mind, the assi duous and total devotion of his time and labour to it, contributed to the completion of that arduous work—a work, however, which some have invidiously insinuated was no cost to him, since, by the congeniality of his pursuits, and the interest he felt for the place, it appeared to be his delight!

But the secret and the success of his government of Christ Church lay in that happy application of occurring circumstances, and the judiciously adapting of all the various means of elementary discipline, which either the situation presented, or his own genius suggested, to the great object which he kept constantly in view. Whatever his authority and influence, his knowledge of human nature, his solid and penetrating judg ment, his well-digested system of restraint and encouragement, his va rious and extensive learning, and, above all, his accurate insight into character; whatever occasions of im provement these might offer, were instantly discerned, and as earnestly seized by him as prominent opportu nities of useful or beneficent interference. None of these were lost, or neglected; and it was in the discreet and rigorous improvements of seasonable incidents and judicious obser vation, that he as much surpassed his able predecessors as they night do any ordinary men. The effect was answerable; for no man, probably, as Governor of a College, ever did so much good in such a variety of in


stances, and to so many individuals of such different dispositions, temper, and prospects in life, by a happy combination of talent, judgment, and assiduity, Dr. Jackson matured the understandings, cherished the virtues, corrected and improved the moral and religious habits, formed the taste, fixed or regulated the genius and the studies, and in every possible way aided the prospects and the interests, of a whole rising generation entrusted to his care.

These remarks will not be thought over-drawn by persons who had the happiness of knowing Dr. Cyril Jack son well. Some of our ablest Scholars and most experienced men have not hesitated to place him in the same level with Drs. Barrow and Bentley, who in their day were the glory of Trinity College, Cambridge; but, by his attainments on the extended field of natural and experimental philosophy, he was allowed to have been superior even to those justly-celebrated Scholars. ALUMNUS.

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N p. 371, you have given a MeDivine, Philosopher, and Scholar, Dr. Isaac Milner. Before the death of his brother, the Rev. Joseph Milner, author of the "History of the Christian Church," for whom he entertained a high regard, Hull was the most favourite place of his residence. His lodgings there were a complete workshop, filled with all kinds of carpenters' and turners' instruments. There he was accustomed to relax his mind daily from the fatigues of study, by some manual labour. His lathe and appendages for turning were tremely nice, and cost him no less than 140 guineas. He had also a very curious machine, partly of his own invention, which formed and polished at the same time, with the utmost possible exactness, watch-wheels of every description.


A celebrated Moralist of the present day maintains, that manual labour is one great source of happiness. It is evident that we cannot bear without injury, for any long time, intense and uninterrupted thought; it is equally clear that, when the mind, without any object of pursuit, is left to its own spontaneous sensibilities, GENT. MAG. June, 1820.

it turns either to the future or the past; and, as we are either, melancholy or gay, so is too often the prospect before us.

This state, therefore, of sensibility, exercising the mind, not according to the real existence of things, but to their accidental impression, is seldom profitable; besides this, it can be no relief to a mind already wearied with deep thinking. Something is wanted for this purpose, which gently exercises the mental powers on some corporeal movement. Manual labour, requiring just dexterity enough to abstract the mind from its accustomed operations, seems best to answer this end. Let it not, therefore, be a matter of surprize or ridicule, that a man of enlarged understanding, as in the present instance, should stoop for amusement to the drudgery of me chanical employment.

Yours, &c.


(Continued from p. 417.)

Rue de Mont-Thabor, Paris,
Aug. 3, 181.

UR Inn at St. Dennis, the Grand›
was and showy, but

the accommodations wretched. The meat was not eatable, and the breadsour. The night was so excessively hot (at four in the morning, thermometer 72), that I was obliged to sleep with the windows wide open; and there was a continual roll of carts and waggons, and cracking of whips, the whole night. St. Dennis is a large dirty town, with about 5000 inhabi ants.

The Church of St. Dennis is the King's Chapel Royal. The West front has three old Saxon arches. One of the West towers has a spire. There' is no middle tower. The vauits under the Choir of the Church were the burial-place of the Kings of France for about 1000 years; but at the Revolution, in September 1792, the mob of Paris broke open the tombs of the Kings, burnt the coffins of lead and wood, and scattered the Royal bones about the churchyard; where they remained, unburied and unpitied, tril the restoration of Louis. There were, however, a few of the tombs which escaped their attacks. The Church was also ransacked, and the organ destroyed, as well as the altars and ba


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pels. Buonaparte, though he did not choose to pay any respect to the remains of the Royal Family, yet was ambitious of being buried in the same place from which their bones had been removed. He accordingly prepared a vault for himself and his dy nasty; the entrance to which was to be by two immense massy bronze doors, with three locks and keys; the keys to be kept by three of his favourite Generals; thus to secure himself as much as possible from any indignity to his Royal bones. The Sacristan (a Swiss) who shows the Church pointed out the bronze doors, and gave the account. Louis XVIII. has been employed in repairing the Chapel, and restoring things as far as possible; 100,000 francs per annum (between 4 and 5000 pounds sterling) have been appropriated for this purpose ever since the Restoration. The whole interior of the Church, which is much in the style of Amiens, and nearly as handsome, has been thoroughly cleaned, and the windows put in perfect order. It is now useable for service, and Priests were at Mass; but the workmen's hammers were sounding in all directions. They are renewing all the ornamental parts of the pillars. The vaults below, which are in the Saxon style, are very light and cheerful, having several windows to the open air. They are also lofty and extensive. All the scattered bones have been carefully collected, and placed in a distant part of the vaults, which is walled up; and there is a large plate in front of it, on which, in letters of gold, are inscribed the names of at least 50 or 60 Kings, Queens, Dauphins, and Princes, to whom the bones belonged-with a statement of the fact of their having been disinterred in September 1792, and re-buried in 1817. The remains of Louis XVI. and Antoniette, which had been privately interred, were removed with great pomp to the church of St. Dennis, and are placed in a distinct vault. The stone coffius of King Pepin, Louis VIII. and two or three others of the old Kings, have been found-though without any bones: they are identified, and are to be preserved. About twelve or fourteen old tombs of Kings remain entire. Statues of these Kings, as large as life, something in the style of those in York Minster, but recumbent on the monuments, are also perfect, and

have been cleaned. The black coffin of the Prince of Condé, who died about three months ago, is in a distinct vault, but is shown through a grated door; and a new vault is made for the Royal Family. When the repairs are finished, it will be a most elegant building. It will, of course, have an organ. The sacristy or ves try is a handsome room, and is adorned with paintings, representing the Coronations of several Kings, and other historical subjects. The great bell in the key of G has a remarkably rich tone. Near the West end is the monument of King Dagobert*, the founder of the Church. It is adorned with imagery in three compartments, representing a legendary story. In the first, he dies; and the Devils, enraged at his having built a Church, seize him, and put him in a boat to carry him to sea. But in the second, the Priests come to his assistance, throw the Devils overboard, and rescue the King; and thirdly, Angels carry him to Heaven.

In our road to Paris we passed near the heights of Montmartre, for the possession of which a battle was fought in 1814. They are only a mile from the town, and are at least as high as Craike Hill. Paris stands nearly on a level. It extends in every direction three or four miles; and, on the whole, occupies much more ground, in proportion to its population, than London. The thinness of the popu lation, and the want of bustle and business, are very striking; and in winter, when few foreigners are here, they must be more so. The clearness of the atmosphere gives it the appearance of a country town. I have no doubt that one's linen will keep clean twice as long here as in York, and seven times as long as in London. There is much dust, but it is quite white, and does not soil the clothes.

After I had written my Letter on Friday, we walked to the Thuilleries. The Palace itself, in which the King resides, is a long range of buildings, very magnificent, extending about 400 yards, and fronting the West. Immediately in front are the gardens, with fountains, avenues, large orange trees, fish-ponds, several antique sta tues, &c. Though the publick have free admission, nothing is touched:

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not a statue loses a finger, a pond a fish, or a border a flower. How different a people these from the mischievous John Bull, who, in a single fortnight, would totally ruin such a place as this, if it were as near as St. James's or Kensington are to London! To the Tuillerie Gardens succeed the Champs Elisées, which extend for about a mile Westward; between the two is the Place Louis XV. a very handsome modern building. Behind the Palace of the Thuilleries, viz. toward the East, are two wings, one of which is unfinished, the other is the Gallery of the Louvre; it runs parallel to the River, and is about 16 or 1700 feet long; at the extremity of it is the square called the Old Louvre. The whole range of buildings, running backward from the Palace, cannot be less than 700 yards. The back front or East front of the Thuilleries forms a parade for the Military; and is terminated by Buonaparte's triumphal arch, a clumsy piece of business-on which the Venetian horses were placed, which the Austrians removed, and restored to Venice. We went to the gallery of the Louvre. On showing our passports, we were admitted without fee or reward. Foreigners have daily admission. The French only on certain days. The company there were mostly English; they may be known by their countenances, but there is little difference in their dress from the French. The French women have now got bonnets with low crowns, but an immense circle round the face. All the English women have French bonnets, but they have a snugger style of dressing than the French. The men wear hats with much narrower flaps than ours; and they have a much greater quantity of hair, which is porcupined and disordered; -the Englishmen are snugly cropped. We spent an hour and a half in the gallery of antique statues, and vases; it is on the ground floor, and as the floor and walls are of marble, the gallery was pleasantly cool. It is a wonderfully grand collection, consisting of between 3 and 400 of the first pieces of sculpture in the world. Several of the plundered statues were not reclaimed; and France was possessed of a very noble collection be fore the spoils of Buonaparte were brought to it. The Seine is the finest

tideless river I have ever seen, being about 200 yards wide, but very shallow, and here navigable only for barges. It is of a bluish colour, and runs rather rapidly. There are several bridges over it, but none that I have yet seen are remarkable for their beauty. The river, however, greatly exceeded my previous notion of it. At our Hotel only breakfasts are prepared, but dinuers, &c. may be procured from a Restaurateur. It is within two minutes walk of the Tuillerie Gardens, and is near the Place Vendome, the handsomest square in Paris. In the centre of this square is a very noble column of bronze, erected by Buonaparte, and said to be made of the cannon taken at Austerlitz: the column is surrounded with emblematical representations of his victories, all carved in brass. At the top of this column was a large statue of Buonaparte, but there is now the white flag. When Buonaparte was told of the change, he said, the French had better have sel up a weathercock, as an emblem of their own fickleness. The Hos pital for Invalid Soldiers, built by Louis XIV. has a splendid dome, which Buonaparte gilded to please the people. The Palais Royal is a large pile of buildings, occupying four unequal sides of a square, with piazzas, and very splendid shops of every description, coffee-houses, &c. In the centre is a large fountain, and avenues of trees. It is in these shops that the English spend their money. Those of the watch-makers, jewellers, and milliners, are extremely splendid. We dined at the Café de Chartres, where the water in the decanter brought to table was a lump of ice, and the wine was served in coolers of ice. The French, in general, take their coffee and refreshments in the square, for which purpose there are several hundreds of chairs, and numerous groupes are sitting the whole evening. The greatest quietness and order prevails. Ladies as well as gentlemen dine in the coffee-houses.

In the evening we went to the MilleColonnes Coffee-house: the celebrated lady, Madame Romaine, was not present, and her throne was filled by another. It was formerly the throne of Jerome, the King of Westphalia. No dinners or wines are served here; but ices, coffee, punch, and liquors,


are served in the greatest perfection. Several English Tadies were here taking ices and lemonades. The name of Mille-Colonnes is derived from the infinite multiplification of the pillars, by means of mirrors in all directions. On Thursday the thermometer at the Royal Observatory was 88 (mine at Chantilly 88); Friday, at the Observalory, 844.

Saturday. This morning before breakfast I walked to the Cathedral of Notre Dame. It is situated in the oldest part of Paris, about two miles from our Hotel, and on an island, South of the main stream of the Seine, nearly due East from the Thuilleries. In the neighbourhood of Notre Dame the houses are six stories high, the streets narrower than Spurriergate in York, and the population very thick. Notre Dame is a venerable old building, between Saxon and Gothie; the West front is very black, but from what cause does not appear. There are two low stumpy towers. In the interior of the Church they have decorated the Saxon pillars with Corinthian ornaments. The congregation consisted chiefly of children belonging to schools (boys and girls), who seemed to conduct themselves on the National system. As I returned to breakfast, the troops of horse and foot, in blue, were parading at the back part of the Thuilleries. The guards about the King's person and palace are Swiss, as before the Revolution. They wear scarlet, turned up with black. After breakfast, we proceeded to the paintings at the Louvre. They occupy the whole length of the first floor of the gallery, which runs from East to West, more than 1600 feel, in one unbroken line; forming a most beautiful, elegant vista. The floor is inlaid with oak, and the roof very splendid. The number of paint ings is about 1100, viz. 200 French, which occupy the East end, at which you enter the gallery; 500 Dutch and Flemish, the centre; and 400 Italian, the West end. I was there about three hours, and could only take a very cursory view. There is too much to be seen at once. The French paintings are very poor. Those by Rubens, Vandyke, Guido, and Carracci, were the most striking; but there would be no end of entering into particulars. Servants in the Royal livery (blue and silver) are in

attendance, to see that no jujury is done. There were not more than 30 or 40 persons there, chiefly English ladies.-The Archbishop of Paris has just issued an ordinance, directing rain to be prayed for, for nine days. The barometer is falling. X.


(To be continued.)

June 5.

Mr. URBAN, CONSCIENTIOUSLY approve of the remarks contained in your last Review of a book entitled "My Opinions since the Peace," (p. 425), concerning the substitution of pota toes for wheat. The Prime Minister, if his speech be correctly stated in the newspapers, observed that great injury had been done to the country, by breaking up wastes, and forcing poor lands, at great loss of capital, into the cultivation of wheat. It is evideut, from the modes of living among the superior classes, that bread is not consumed in large quantities; and wet seasons, which are most injurious to wheat crops, are generally favourable to potatoes; and under a proper attention to the cultivation of that rool, we need not depend upon importation, or fear revolution. The busbaudry alluded to cleans land, and is more profitable than wheat, but of greater expence and trouble in the process; still, however, as your Reviewer incontrovertibly observes,cornbills created a tax, of which the whole pressure as to severity lies upon the poor, and persons with large families; and, under the circumstance of plenty of meat and potatoes, there exists no absolute necessity of imposing such a heavy stress upon the growth of wheat. Mr. Coke of Norfolk has ascribed sinister motives to many of the Petitioners; nor is there any reasou to think that the Philanthropist is in error, who, from consideration for the poor, does not deem the growth of wheat a sine quả non, essential to the support of our Constitution. POTATOESIUS.

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having one day asked his father Ali if he loved him, and received for answer, that he loved him tenderly, he then demanded of his father if he loved God? to which he also answered in the affirmative; upon which Hosein

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