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the years 1817-18-19; with numerous tables, and an appendix containing various documents, illustrative of its general history, and the system and management adopted for its suppression. By WILLIAM HARTZ, M. B. physician to the King's Hospital and to the Prisons of Dublin.
Preparing for Publication.
A General History of the House of Guelph, or Royal Family of Great Britain, from the earliest period in which the name appears upon record, to the Ac cession of his Majesty King George the First to the Throne. This work has been compiled from authentic and official documents, preserved in the Archives, and in the Royal Libraries of Hanover and Brunswick, and to which access was procured by the liberality and powerful influence of his Royal Highness the Duke of Clarence, during his late residence in Germany.
The Second Part of Mr. Cotman's Antiquities of Normandy.
Notes on Rio de Janeiro, and the Southern parts of Brazil, taken during ten years residence in various parts of that country; describing its Agriculture, Commerce, and Mines, with anecdotes illustrative of the character, manners, and customs of the inhabitants.
A Greek and English Lexicon, founded on the Greek and German Dictionary of Schneider. By the Rev. J. R. FISHLAKE, A. M. Fellow of Wadham College, Oxford.
The Literary and Political Life of Au
The Pacha of Egypt has sent several youths to Milan to study the Sciences and Arts of Europe, under the direction of Sig. Morosi. These young Egyptians are charged with the duty of translating the Gazette of Milan into Arabic. By this means the Pacha will have the news of Europe, as well political as literary, &c. transmitted to him, with all speed and convenience: if he would also reprint this intelligence at Cairo for the information of the Egyptian people, there is no saying how soon Egypt might regain its former eminence for letters, arts, and li beral studies, as well for commerce, wealth, and abundance.
ANTIQUARIAN AND PHILOSOPHICAL RESEARCHES.
A discovery was recently made in the environs of the Cape of Good Hope, which is highly interesting to History. While digging a cave, the workmen found the bull of an ancient vessel constructed of cedar, which is believed to be the remains of a Phoenician galley. If this appropriation be just, there is no longer room to doubt that the bold navigators of Tyre bad reached the South point of Africa: and if they actually gained that point, we may also infer that they navigated also the Eastern Ocean.
Whilst cutting through the corner of a field, called in Welsh Dol Trebeddw, in the line of road making between Lima and Cernioge, the worknien discovered upwards of forty graves, about two yards in length, most of them cased with rough stones, and all lying in the compass of 20
yards by 10. Bones were found in many of them, but not the least vestige of any coffins. On the under side of the stone which covered one of the most perfect of the graves was the following inscription, in rude Roman capitals, the letters in several instances joined together:BRO Ho NASLI IAT HIC LACIT
ET VXOREM CAVNE This stone is preserved for the inspection of the curious, and may be seen, together with some of the bones, at Pen
trefolias. The oldest inhabitants have not the least recollection of hearing any thing concerning these graves, but it is very probable, that at a remote period this place was the scence of some of those contests which were continually taking place prior to the subjugation of Wales, and that the township of Trebeddw took its name from the circumstance, Dol Trebeddw signifying the Field of the Graves,
ARTS AND SCIENCES.
CAPT. MARRYAT'S LIFE BOAT.
The following Letter, addressed by Capt. Marryat R. N. to Jonathan Barber, Esq. Registrar and Secretary of the Royal Humane Society, containing a description of his newly-invented Life Boat, is extracted from the Annual Report of the Society (see p. 463), which shall shortly be more fully noticed.
"In submitting to the consideration of the Royal Humane Society the accompanying model of a Life- Boat, I am aware that many have already been invented possessing great merit; but none that ! have hitherto seen, has appeared to me to combine all the necessary qualifications of a Life-Boat. I shall, therefore, take the liberty to offer to the Society my ideas upou this subject, leaving them to judge whether they are correct; and if so, how far I have succeeded in combining them to the one I have the honour to present. The necessary qualifications of a LifeBoat are as follow:
"Not to be so liable to upset as other boats, as they are never called into use until it is too dangerous to venture out in other boats.
"To be of sufficient buoyancy to support any number of men that may crowd into her, as without this quality, in the panic attending shipwreck, not only the crew of the vessel, but those who have ventured their lives to save them, may perish together. In case of being swamped, to be able to discharge the water, and rise again by her specific lightness. These are the most requisite qualifications of a Life-Boat; but there are others to be considered, which are as follow:-She must be capable of stowing many men, without impeding the rowers. There must be no weight on the bow or stern of a Life-Boat, as it will check her in her attempts to rise over the waves, weaken her considerably, and cause her to ship a great deal of water. The form of a LifeBoat should be that of a Whale-Boat, stem and stern alike; her bottom should be almost flat, which would cause her buoyant principle to be more immediately brought into action. Her keel should be deep, to give her a good gripe in the water; and as Life-Boats have always to contend against the winds and sea, there should be as little dead wood as possible; for the wind, holding against it, would greatly impede the exertions of the rowers in a heavy gale.
"The internal construction of a LifeBoat, should be such as to combine buoyancy with security; although air, by its
constructed, in which air has been the only buoyant agent made use of: to re medy the acknowledged danger of its escaping, the boat has been partitioned into several air-tight divisions, with the idea that the air in one division might escape from an accident happening to the boat, without affecting the other partitions. This is not altogether true, as when the partitioning would prove of the greatest service at the sides of the boat it would be unavailing; as any blow that struck either side of the boat with sufficient force as to stove in one partition, would so shake the whole length of the plank on that side, that the water would find its way into all; the boat would then be perfectly useless, and she would lay on her side.
"The partitions that can be useful in a boat are only six; as the one side of the bow and stern of a boat, as well as either side, may be stove in, without the rest receiving injury.
"To give proper security to a Life-Boat two agents must be employed, air and cork; the quantity of cork should be suf ficient by its buoyancy to support the whole weight of the crew of the Life Boat, iron work, &c. contained in her, provided all her air-vessels were stove in; and it should be so placed, that under any cir. cumstances the boat would sufficiently preserve her equilibrium, as to enable the men to reach the shore.
"The model of the boat I have the honour to present, is on a scale of 30 feet long, 8 feet wide, and 3 feet deep. The form, as will be perceived (see the Engraving in preceding page), is nearly flat, keel deep, bow and steru alike. To give her the first qualification, the men are placed close to the side of the boat; by so doing they are removed as far as possible from the centre of motion, and, acting upon the farthest end of the fulcrum, reciprocally combine to restore the equilibrium that the boat may lose from the violence of the sea. The oars are pulled upon an iron outrigger, which (although it may add a little to the weight of the boat) gives the men more power, and enables them to row with ease: supposing that if the boat was crowded with men, the bow and stern are both covered in 5 feet in two air-tight partitions, upon which no person can be placed, so as to check her in rising over the waves: and the centre of the boat, where the men are to be stowed, is so secure, that it is impossible they could be washed out, unless the boat is upset. The interior construction of the boat is as follows:-The centre is 19 feet long, 4 feet broad; at the bottom of this centre part of the boat is one solid foot of cork extending over the whole; this is pierced and grated over, to allow free passage for any water she might ship.
This cork is capable of supporting a weight of 3550 lb. being 836 lb. more than the whole weight of meu and iron work in the boat; and as it spreads over a surface of 4 feet at the bottom of the boat, should the air-tight partition of one of the sides be stove in, it would sufficiently support the equilibrium of the boat, as to enable the men to use their oars and reach the shore. The rest of the boat is composed of six air-tight divisions; the bow and stern are divided longitudinally, which not only gives the advantage of increasing the number of partitions, and also adds considerably to the strength of the boat. The side air parti tions contain the seats of the rowers, who are fixed on them with leather aprons round their waist, that no water may euter. This boat is capable of support ing the weight of 128 men, independent of her iron work, which is about double the number that could crowd into her, and should she be swamped by a sea, her spe cific lightness is such, that the water would immediately discharge itself through the holes at the bottom, and she would rise without any assistance to her former draught of water."
An invention has recently been perfected for turning the leaves of music by the foot, instead of the hand. The machine consists of five distinct movements, first turns the leaf, the second turns it back when a da capo is required; the third secures the second leaf while the first is turning; the fourth shifts the second lever into the place of the first; and the fifth action is its return of itself to take the second leaf over. It is fixed inside the
piano-forte, and is not seen unless used,
Baron de Zach announces, that Capt. Schumaker (brother of the Astronomer Royal, Copenhagen) has invented a Roc ket superior to Congreve's, both in force and in the precision with which they are thrown. A new corps has been formed to use these missiles. They ascend to an immense height, and then exhibit a globe of fire, which may be seen at a distance of seventy miles.
Among the discoveries of Chemistry in the present day, may be reckoned the process of converting into sugar, even linen rags. M. Henri Barconnot, speaking of the crystallizable sugar be obtained, says, "I was led accidentally to this result by treating a solution of the acid mucilagenous mass, produced by the ac tion of sulphuric acid on linen, with the oxide of lead, subjected to a long continued heat of 1000 centigrade; but after
having passed through the liquor a current of sulphurated hydrogen gas, to precipitate the lead contained in solution, and after evaporating it, I was agreeably surprised to see that the whole of the gummy matter was entirely converted into an acid sugary mass. I digested this mass with concentrated alcohol, by which the vegeto-sulphuric acid was dissolved; the sugary matter remained a little coloured, and of a very fresh flavour. Twenty-four grammes (370. 6 gr.) of old cloth well dried, were reduced into mucilage by 34 grammes (525 gr.) of sulphuric acid, observing the precautions before indicated; the acid mixture dissolved in a certain quantity of water, precipitated the ligneous matter a little altered; when dried it weighed 3.6 grammes (55.5 gr.) This, when evaporated, yielded 23.3 grammes (359.8 gr.) of sugary matter of the consistence of syrup; at the end of twentyfour hours it began to crystallize, and some days after, the whole was condensed into a single mass of crystallized sugar, which was pressed strongly between several folds of old cloth; crystallized a second time, this sugar was passably pure; but treated with animal charcoal, it be came of a shining whiteness. The crys. tals were in spherical groupes, which appear to be formed by the union of small diverging and unequal plates. They are fusible at the temperature of boiling wa ter. The sugar is of a fresh and agreeable flavour, producing in the mouth a slight sensation of acidness.
Mr. Brande has recently found that the illuminating powers of olefiant oil, and coal gases are as the numbers 3, 2, and 1; and that their heating powers are nearly in the same ratio.
ROYAL DISPENSARY FOR DISEASES OF
Since the establishment of this useful Institution, upwards of 2150 patients have been admitted, the greater number of whom have been cured or relieved.-At a late Meeting of the Governors, a vote of thanks was unanimously voted to Mr. CURTIS, the Surgeon to the Institution.
NEW PLOUGH. A plough has lately been invented by the Rev. Dr. Cartwright, which works merely by human power. With two men to keep it in motion, and with a third to regulate its course, it performs its office with as much precision and dispatch as could be done by any common pair of horses and a plough-holder. The utility of the invention will not, it is presumed, be confined to this object only; it being equally applicable to every pur pose for which horses can be employed, except conveying a burden on the back.
DUPLEX TYPOGRAPH.-An ingenious mechanical invention has lately been com.
pleted, which opens a new and inexhaustible source of information to those who are afflicted by the privation of sight. It is called a Dupplex Typograph, and enables the blind to receive and communicate ideas by means of letters, upon principle adapted to the sense of feeling.— The apparatus is compact and portable, and the system so simple and intelligible, that it may be acquired by the blind in a very short space of time, and its appli cation is instantly comprehended by others.
COLOURED ARTIFICIAL STONES.
A very curious and apparently excellent Memoir upon the subject of artificial stones, and the best manner of manufacturing them, has lately appeared in Paris, in the Report of the "Society for the Encouragement of National Industry." It is written by M. Doualt-Wieland, a jeweller, in Paris. The Memoir gives an account of numerous experiments made by him, particularly as to the composition of what is technically called " Strass," and which forms the basis and body of all artificial stones.
Strass is composed of silex, potass, borax, oxid of lead, and arsenic. The silex may be in the form of rock crystal, saud, or flint. Rock crystal affords a glass, or strass, of the whitest colour; flint always contains a very small portion of iron, which tinges the glass yellow; and the sand, the purest sort of which must be selected, must then be washed in muriatic acid and afterwards in water, before it is fit for In order to pulverize and sift the rock crystal and flint, they must first be heated to redness, and then plunged into cold water. The potass must be free from every other salt; it should be the caustic potass, purified by alcohol. The crystalised boracic acid, extracted from the borax of Tuscany, is the most preferable. If the oxid of lead contains a particle of tin, the strass or glass becomes cloudy or milky. Minium is preferable to the purest litharge. Ceruss may also be used. Arsenic must be pure. Some persons do not use it at all, and M. Lançon says, it is very injurious to the
The choice of crucibles is very important. Those of Hesse are better even than porcelain ones. The first sometimes colour the matter, from containing a small portion of iron; but the hard porcelain ones, although pure, are very apt to crack, and are also a little porous. An earthen furnace is the best to use, and the crucibles remain about 24 hours in the fire. more gently the fusion takes place, and the longer time employed, the purer and harder will be the strass. The best fuel is dry wood.
For the Anniversary of the LITERARY FUND, At Freemasons' Hall, May 4, 1820.
Has power to aid, or undermine the Laws;
Man, like the UPAS, then, with poison'd
Root out the Poison from that free Par. terre,
Which Infidelity had planted there; And to preserve the sweeter flowers from blight,
Pluck from the Violet's Bed the Aconite! But when Blasphemers mock the SA CRED PAGE,
And fell Assasins demonize the Age; When the Press advocates the worst of Men,
Spreading the dire Contagion of the Pen, The REAL PATRIOT sees, with heartfelt pain, [bane!
That Freedom's Gis may be made its And grieves when Statesmen are com. pell'd to bind, [THE MIND: With some restraint, that CHARTER OF
Being the 24th Anniversary Poem written by Mr. Fitz Gerald for this Society.
To shew the Gossamer of Rank and Power!
Sunk in the Grave-our Sorrow! and our
When WINDSOR's Towers attract a Father's Eyes, [VIRTUOUS lies!' He'll say, My Son, there George the Then with a Parent's anxious wish to im
A Moral Lesson, that may touch the Heart, To the THIRD GEORGE's Reign he'll turn the Page, [an Age, And add-read there-for more than half It stands recorded by the Historian's Pen, Our OLDEST MONARCH was the best of
Ever Benevolent, Humane, and Just,
The more than TITUS-for the World say,
Our SOVEREIGN stood, with firm undaunted
Our MONARCH's Heroes conquer'd but to
Compell'd the DESPOT, in his Pride, to
Heaven too decreed his Patriarchal Reign, Though dimm'd by Visions, should not end in pain:
When blasted Hope had check'd a Nation's Pride, [MONT died! And ENGLAND'S BLIGHTED ROSE at CLAREThe PEASANT's sorrow, and the PRINCE'S woe, [to know; The unconscious Monarch was not doom'd
*The late Duke of Kent had promised to attend the present Anniversary.