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of alphabetic writing among all nations in subsequent times even down to the present age, when Europeans travelling among people of every country of the earth, and especially among unlettered and barbarous nations, are found capable of reducing oral language to writing; which is of all others the most convincing proof of the surprising advantages of alphabetic writing, and its vast benefit to
Universal learning, together with the Christian Religion, having for a long period taken its seat and establishment in Western Europe, and the Art of Printing having contributed to the general diffusion of knowledge; the moderus having moreover improved the form of their books, by the almost universal adoption of the Roman characters, which, for the simplicity of their construction, and beauty of their shape, are likely to become the universal characters for all oral languages that are now and may hereafter be reduced to writing, it seems a subject of some importance to inquire more fully into the powers of our system of characters.
The English Alphabet is a copy of the Roman, with little exception, perhaps the nearest copy of any extant; and, therefore, considering how many unlettered nations of Africa and America remain to be cultivated in the arts of civilization and humanity, and how far knowledge may be introduced among them by the aid of letters, we should spare no pains to explore these elementary principles of language.
But, Sir, there is another very great and most desirable object to be had in view, and that is the decyphering of the whole Chinese language in the Roman characters; which, although first attempted in the elements of Fourmont, it is feared has not been sufficiently persevered in by his more competent successors, for want of duly cultivating the powers of the Alphabet; and indeed of this we have some suspicion, in the difficulties the Jesuit Missionaries have experienced in their essays. The man who shall first translate into the Chinese language the Pentateuch or New Testameat in alphabetic characters, will gain immortal honours, and largely contribute to the civilization and
evangelization of that vast and populous empire. Severa writers have urged the utility of this plan for the advantage of scholars throughout Europe, in gaining a knowledge of their language and books thus prepared, exclusive of other considerations. I shall here quote from one who has expressed himself in these terins: As long as the Chinese shall in writing make use of their present characters, they can be expected to make no progress in civilization. The necessary introductory step must be the giving them an Alphabet like our own, or the substituting in the room of their language that of the Tartars: the improvement made in the latter by M. De Lengles, is calcu lated to introduce this change."
Translations of the Holy Scriptures and Church books have already been made in different languages of Asia, Africa, and America, and in the Roman characters. The English in America have translated the Scriptures into the most barbarous and uncultivated languages by the Roman characters alone: the Dutch, Germans, and other Europeau nations, have succeeded in the same manner in Asia and Africa*, and it is extremely probable that the Roman letters will ultimately prevail over more countries of the earth than the arms of Rome were ever able to conquer and hold in subjection to its powerful dominion.
YOUR having favoured me in your in
serting a specimen of an intended new Translation of the Psalms, induces me to pursue the subject.
Having formerly indulged the too presumptuous idea of being able to give a new metrical Version of the Psalms of David, though the magui
* Mr. Elliot, an Englishman, surnamed the Apostle of the American Indians, translated and published the whole Bible in the native language of the Nutak Indians, and found the English letters suffi. cient for this design.
The Dutch have long ago translated the New Testament in the Malay language and Roman characier, and some other books; and an Africa, the languages on the West and South coasts are receiving the Scriptures and other wecks, all prepared in the Reman character.
tude of the undertaking prevented its being seriously persevered in; yet there is now a reason for sending you a specimen of the manner in which it was begun. The reason is as follows: It has been suggested that an object of the highest consequence might be achieved, even the improvement of our Church Psalmody, by the following obvious means: if a selection were made of the best versions any where in existence; if an adequate portion were extracted from each, e. g. three or four stanzas, but never more than six; if such as were faulty or imperfect were cautiously retouched, and lastly, in cases where nothing sufficiently faithful or elegant seemed to offer itself (which cases would be numerous), new matter tempted to be supplied, and if possiwere at ble, with proper spirit; not, indeed, the whole of the Psalter, but a competent proportion of it, as the whole would be unnecessary, or perhaps redundant, since of some Psalms more than one portion must be admitted, and possibly two different versions of the same passage, if both have sufficient merit; then it is hoped that one great point would be attained towards the above grand object.
Another requisite of the highest importance is the introducing a sufficient variety of appropriate melodies, so as to remove the too prevailing sameness in Church-music, and to increase the effect of that enchanting part of the Divine Service. And for this department a near and dear friend of the writer, fully competent as to taste and experience, has kindly promised to apply himself to the selection of the best music, as well as to point out proper metres for its adaptation.
In furtherance, then, of so great and good a work, my request to you, Mr. Urban, is, that as there are most probably many effusions of this sort, some perhaps highly meritorious, in so excellent and long-established a
Miscellany as yours, you would be so
A short Specimen of a New Transla
Blest is the man whose wary steps
All sinful paths decline;
Thrice blest if still he makes the laws
He, like some happy tree, whose root
With fruits luxuriant grac'd,
His work still prospers in his hauds,
From the great Judgment's aweful seat
* It is proper to note that this first Psalm is merely prefatory to these divine Melodies; and what more appropriate Introduction can be conceived to a Book whose chief aim it is to inculcate virtue, and to deter from vice? And here we immediately see
what was uppermost in the mind of the Royal penitent, as it ought to be in that of every one of us, viz. that essence of all Christianity, the redemption of the sins of mankind by Jesus Christ, then only in expectation, and a matter of faith, but now most mercifully accomplished, aud become a matter of knowledge. In particular, the Royal Psalmist foreknew that this was to be effected by the Son of God, who was to be son of his own family, according to the flesh; and he foreknew also, that this Divine Person and his holy religion would be persecuted by the Powers of this world.
For God the good man deigns to know,
And bastens to befriend.
N Vol. LXXXIX. i. p. 22, in the Compendium of the History of Lincolnshire, it is stated that Sir Edward Harwood, Knight, was born at Bourne in that county. This is a mistake, which has been evidently copied from Fuller. In his "England's Worthies in Church and State,' he writes, "Sir Edward Harwood, born nigh Burn [Lincolnshire], was a valiant soldier and a pious man. His having killed a man in a quarrel, put a period to all his carnal mirth. No possible provocations could afterwards tempt him to a duel: he refused all challenges with more honour than others accepted them, it being well known that he would set his foot as far in the face of his enemy, as any man alive. He was one of the four standing Colonels in the Low Countrys, and was shot at the siege of Mastricht, 1632." This is the account of Fuller, who seems to have inaccurately transcribed the information with which he was supplied by another. A small Tract was published in 1642, and is now very scarce, entitled "The Advice of that worthy Commander Sir Edward Harwood, Colonell; written by King Charles his command, upon occasion of the French King's preparation and presented in his life-time by his owne hand to his Majestie: Hitherto being a private Manuscript, Also a rela tion of his Life and Death, &c." London, 4to, 1642. This Tract is in the Harleian Miscellany, vol. IV. p. 255; and is quoted by Hume, in his “ History of England," vol. VI. p. 178.
Sir Edward Harwood was born at Hagburne in Berkshire, about the year 1586; in which place, and at Streatley and Goring, his family have occasionally resided, and possessed property almost to the present period.
"His birth was gentile, and from a roote fit to engraft his future education and excellency; furnished he was with such learning as his age was capable of; his spirit (though sad enough) yet accompanied with much natural mettal and courage, and look't above other callings, to that which narrow-minded and effemi
nate men close not with. He soon attended the schoole of warre of those times, where quick and curious designes issued into dayly action and execution. There my Lord Veere, who could well distinguish of men, cast his eye upon him, by whose favour, exhaled by his owne worth, he was not long ascending the usuall step, whereon the warre placeth reward for its followers. They live, who know how dear hee was to that justly-lamented Prince Henry, who took such delight in him, that his closset thoughts were open to him; from whom that noble Prince got no small advantage in his military way. He was also ever precious to King James of blessed memory, so also no lesse in the esteem of our now gracious Soveraign, witnessing their royall affection toward him in severall expressions of their favours. The illustrious Princesse, the Queene of Bohemia, who, hearing of his death, cried out in a great passion, 'Oh, that uggly towne of Mastricht, that hath bereeved me of so faithfull a servant!' Also, to that mirrour of his time, the last Lord Harrington, to whom he was so endeared, that he offered to hazard estate, liberty, and life, for his good, as by divers of his letters still extant appeares. To the late Duke of Buckingham, who, after the
defeat of the Ile of Rhee, remembering
what service hee did at Cadiz voyage, in bringing of the retreat, cried out, Oh! Ned Harwood, Ned Harwood, that I had had thee here! To the last Lord Steward, to the old Earle of Southampton, to the late Earle of Bedford, to this now Earle of Essex, and to the now Earle of Leycester, who was sometime bis Colonell, to the Earle of Warwick, to the Lord Carlton, and to most of the chief nobility of this kingdome, whose letters, found among his papers, mention such real affection as is scarcely credible from men of their qua lity. Neither was hee a little deare to that highly honoured lord, the Lord Craven (who beside the late reall expression of love to his brother, and for his many great, noble, and pious workes, deserves to have his name written upon pillers of brasse), who, when he heard of his death (as was related to his brother), cast himself on his bed, and cried out, hee had lost his father!' such was his love and affection of him. Moreover, when his death was noised in the army, there was such a general lamentation for his losse, that his Excellency was faine to send special com mand to still it, least the enemy should take courage, as thinking it were for some of greater quality, And his Excellency himself, when following the hearse, was heard to say to Count Earnest, He had lost his right hand in the losse of Monsieur Harwood.' His name amongst souldiers was, in omni ore, tanquam mel suatis
est, et tanquam instrumenta musica in con-
"Hee soone ascended (in the States'
the Arminian faction, hee alone was trust
ed with a message to King James; and, upon his return, Barnevell went to his last home. In the leaguer of the Busse he had the charge of the Velloe, when Picolominy was in the bowels of the countrey with 10,000 men; in which service hee watched thirty whole nights on horseback, and never in that time came in bed, and, in conclusion, by his providence and vigilancy, discharged that great trust, and fully secured the countrey. At Cadiz voyage, which was a matter of trust and great difficulty, hee had imposed on him the charge of bringing up the reare, where the enemy setting upon many scattered troupes, bee brought them off with safety, by an honourable retreat. For want of which, at the Isle of Ree, how many brave English lost their lives, and our nation much of its honour. His valour was unstained, as all the services he was in can beare large testimony thereof. short, bee was first hurt by a granade in To be the foot at Mastrich (a sufficient warrant to have exempted him from the service for that day), yet would he not leave the prosecution of the designe, though often disswaded and advised of the great dan ger he adventured by the worthy gentleman Captaine Skippon, now SerjeantMajor General for the citie of London; but going often into the trenches to view the enemy's workes, in a scarlet coate, gave the enemy so faire a marke, that he received from the wall a sudden shot out of a small brasse piece, which struck him
was true to his principles (a rare virtue in this age). Hee was neither above nor below his calling, but very adequate and true unto it. Hee was a good man, a good souldier, a good Christian."
To this curious Tract is prefixed a short copy of verses in English, and Harwood, Equitis Aurati;” written another in Latin, "In Memoriam Coll. by his nephew, M. Draper. In 1651, on the report of King Charles 11. coming to Oxford, New College was fortified by Colonel Draper, who was then in the service of Cromwell. The longed to his family, which was sold manor of Silchester in Berkshire beSir Thomas Draper, Knt. and Bart.) in 1700, by the Lady Draper (relict of to Lord Blessington, an Irish Peer.
Sir Edward Harwood was of an antient family, which had been settled in Berkshire for many generations.
fatal Battle of Prague, in Nov. 1620, Sir Edward Harwood was at the where the Prince of Anhault, General to the King of Bohemia, was with his whole army totally defeated. other military services in which he was engaged, see "Memoires de Frederic Henri de Nassau, Prince d'Orange, Depuis 1621 jusqu'en 1646;""Histoire de la Vie et Actes memorables de Frederic Henry de Nassau, Prince d'Orange, Par. I. commelyn Amsterdamn, 1656;" "The Commentaries of Sir Francis Vere," 1657; in which he is numbered amongst the most gallant captains of the age, "whose effigies do at once both guard and adorn Kirby Hall, in honourable the Lady Vere doth stil Essex, where the truly religious and survive, kept alive thus long by special providence, that the present age might more than read and remember eight." what was true godliness in eightyT. H.
by command of the Prince of Orange, carryed to the Hague, where he was interred with as much honour as ever was any that dyed in those parts, of his qualitie. Hee
*It is incredible what large sums were advanced in a short time toward su laudable a work."-Hist. of the Church, p. 301. His brother George Harwood, a merchant of London, was appointed, about 1625, one of the twelve trustecs for the purchase of impropriations.
VER since Lady Mary Wortley Montagu's idea, that" mineral waters, which are provided by Nature, are the best, perhaps the only real remedies," has grown pretty general, English Watering-places have become receptacles to which shoals of people rush, under the fusion of a summer sun, to produce refreshing dews for inordinate perspiration; and, with the full idea that health and pleasure are inseparable from these
removes, to form the most intrepid resolutions to commit every thing that is foolish and fantastic, to injure the one and burlesque the other, It is not then extraordinary, that such places exhibit very much the extravagance of a sort of Saturnalia, or Olympic games. Taking the mass of the migrators that fill Bath, Brighton, Worthing, or Leamington, it will be found that the greater part are com posed of persons with some superfluous wealth, such variegated habits as are rather under the slow refinement of successful business, than the cultivation of mental pursuits, and some sense, which is easily crushed and concealed by that vanity which is raised from the bottom, like fogs into an hazy atmosphere, by sudden excitation of mind, and the overpowering effects of novelty. It is not our object to trace all the Cheapside importance, or the rural exaggerations of fancy with which that respectable class of persons, the Cockneys, ride away, on the Dispatch, the Comet, or the Dart, to sit under
"The shade of melancholy boughs," in a hot day, catching flies; or to iustitute races in poney carts, or boat matches in a calm offing; but on the contrary, to trace some of those inadvertencies which the humourist may observe, to affect the economy of health under this sudden revolution of habits. With all these notions which we have intimated, and a trite store of such precepts as inculcate the necessity of an immoderate consumption of country air, perpetual frolics in invigorating waves, fragrant rides over ambrosial fields, a chase after zephyrs under a vertical sun in the dog-days, a sea-breeze loaded with dust, and an imbecile lounge in a library or on a mooalight beach; and bowels to be "kept eternally open" by a free use of the local beverage (a saline spring or marine water); it is not at all extraordinary that we witness very disappointing derangements of health at Watering places. How often is the mistake at last explained in the language of choiera morbus, that unspeakable state of dilemma, that interesting state of intestine commotion, which may continue like the long and lasting afflictions of imbibing bad London
porter, till no intestines are left. Nor are we describing any thing that reflects the charm of melancholy or the dignity of grief, nor the saddened sentiment of encouraged care, but the boisterous reality of downright spasms, beyond the power of musk and asafoetida, or the aromatic properties of four draughts a day, and for which nothing can be prescribed but attention to a few simple circumstances. With invalids, the waters to which they resort are presupposed to possess all the satisfactory and hyperbolical qualities of a quack medicine, from the power of curing diseases exactly opposite, up to the unusual but attested properties (according to the celebrated Mr. Matthews) of uniting bodies which have been blown by the explosion of gunpowder mills to innumerable atoms. With such easy expectations we see Thetisses in robes of deepest blue, true heathen descendants of that goddess, dipping wounded Achilleses to render them for ever invulnerable; the wicked parting the waters to receive earthly immortality, the morose to sweeten their dispositions, the hypocondriac to recover his spirits, and the melancholy to wash off his tears, those who are penitent of filth to become clean, and the lady prone to fainting without reason, to familiarize away the propensity; some to excite cold, others warmth, and the lover, by tepid affusion, to cool the supernatural temperature of his affection.
We have been pleased with a little work of Dr. Patrick Mackenzie on Mineral Waters and Bathing; such a work familiarized will tend to give consistency to these aquatic operations. It would also supersede the habit of being implicitly misguided by those local guides of small Topographers, in which interested representations convey much about the same kind of information as the prospectus of a conjuror, e. g. Swift's Wonder of Wonders. We recollect, in the idle "crooning over" of one of these modest books in the style and talent of the celebrated Warren, having seen the valetudinary "myrtus in littore" of Virgil called in as a potential proof of superior climate, and a green area 20 feet by 10, as Walcottterrace, or as in Newington-road, misnamed "rura oppidi," or countries in